This reappraisal has so far considered the person, attention and instruction factors that may impact on the educational accomplishment and has been able to place the followers: – ( see Diagram 2 ) .
Diagram 2: Factors that are linked to the cause of low academic accomplishment
There is grounds that these some of these factors ( low outlooks, instability, and deficiency of individualized support ) can be present anterior to come ining attention and during attention. From this grounds it is now possible to look into the counsel and policy produced to better the educational experience of looked-after kids and if these meet the demands of this specific group and turn to the demands that have antecedently been identified as a barrier within the attention system.
It has been widely reported by the Government over the last decennary that there is a galvanizing the attainment spread between looked-after kids and their non-looked after opposite numbers. The statistics produced yearly by DfES provide an penetration into the Educational consequences of Looked-after kids and supply grounds for the widening spread between them and their equals. However, it is of import to recognize the restrictions of describing statistics in this this manner. The statistics represent a catch shooting in clip and make little to turn to the single fortunes of the kids. They report the figure of Looked-after kids who are eligible for the tests but fail to turn to the issue with respect to the figure of looked-after kids for good excluded from instruction and those who may non be sitting their tests. There is besides no comparing between the educational attainment of these kids prior their attention experience and hence supply no grounds that the attention system impeded educational results. It may be that come ining the attention system did in fact better their educational accomplishment but the harm from their old experiences had already caused educational troubles.
Bettering the lives of kids in attention is a precedence for the alliance Government as it is recognised that presently and historically, the results of this group of kids are hapless ( Education Committee, 2011 ) . The current Government argue that the ground betterments were non made under the old Labour Government is that kids in attention were non a precedence ( Education Committee, 2011 ) . It could be argued that this does non look to hold been the instance, and over the last 10 old ages, under the Labour Government ; there have legion policy enterprises and publications in relation to Looked after Children admiting that their results were disadvantaged compared to their equals. The Care Matters: Time for Change ( 2007 ) publication aimed to better the experience of immature people in attention and bridge the spread between them and their equals. This went on to inform the Children and immature individual ‘s Act ( 2008 ) which is specific statute law with respect to the services and duty of local governments for kids in attention. This evidences that the results of Looked after Children have been a concern for a figure of old ages and that it has been recognised that alterations are needed to serve proviso to turn to this.
The authorities policy appears to hold attempted to follow research findings in relation to jobs identified, within the attention system, specifically those from the Social Exclusion Report ( 2003 ) . Over the last decennary and there have been noticeable alterations to better the services and processs. However, despite these alterations and little betterment in attainment results at that place remains the spread in educational accomplishment, as while the figure of looked after kids accomplishing GCSE ‘s has improved, the attainment of their non-looked after equals has increased at a greater rate. This leads to the inquiry that when bettering the attention system, have the alterations been focused on the right countries or has at that place been an inadvertence which impedes the system ‘s opportunities to back up kids in the right countries.
Promoting the Educational Achievement of Looked-After Children – Statutory Guidance
The current Statutory Guidance for Local Authorities, Promoting the Educational Achievement of Looked after Children ( Department for kids, schools and households, 2010 ) identifies the local authorization ‘s answerability for raising criterions and bettering the educational attainment for looked after kids. The papers was introduced meet the specific responsibility placed by the amended Children Act ( 2004 ) . Its purpose is to better the educational experience of the looked-after population and guarantee that it is a precedence for workers.
Giving consideration to research findings of the societal exclusion study ( 2003 ) into relation as to country ‘s that impact on the instruction of looked-after kids the counsel focuses on the undermentioned cardinal countries: –
-Supporting educational accomplishment and aspirations
-Securing appropriate instruction
-Personal Education Plans and support within instruction
-Training, development and support for carers and local authorization staff.
There are all countries that have been identified in old research to better the educational experiences and results of immature people.
Following research in relation to educational stableness and educational results there is acknowledgment within the counsel that for a kid to accomplish that stableness in footings of arrangement and school is an built-in portion in their life and that workers should ;
“ Focus unrelentingly on contracting the spread in educational accomplishment between looked after kids and their equals by bettering the stableness of their lives ” ( DCSF, 2010 )
It is promoting that the focal point of the Guidance follows research grounds in relation to the weaknesss of the attention system ; nevertheless there is concern that there are staying countries that continue to be neglected.
Following the important grounds of the impact of old experience as a barrier to education the counsel as a whole neglects the added troubles a kid in attention may confront due to their old experiences and the theory behind this. Whilst reexamining this papers it is evident how small focal point was given in relation to the mental and emotional wellbeing of the kid being a barrier to instruction. Within the papers, although there is brief acknowledgement to multi-agency engagement including mental wellness services, there is no connexion between the mental wellness of the kid and how that may be an obstruction to advancing the kid ‘s instruction. The recognition of the hard life experience of looked-after kids was brief and mentioned one time within the papers in relation to appraisal of particular educational demand ;
“ aˆ¦many of whom will hold had hard and unstable place and school lives before coming into attention ” . ( DCSF 2010 ) .
There is extra statutory counsel in relation to bettering behavior and attending ( DfES, 2008 ) . However, this is non specifically linked to the experiences of looked-after kids and once more disregards to associate any theorised deductions to derive an apprehension of behavior but discusses outlooks of the kid instead than support. This deficiency of theoretical footing makes it hard to construe the papers in footings of using theory to pattern as it appears to concentrate the precedence on meeting specific outlooks instead than giving intercession in an individualized mode to the kid. From the grounds already outlined in this thesis, it is refering that the important impact of ill-treatment with respect to behaviour and experiences in instruction is non addressed in a more focussed mode.
A important focal point of the counsel in in relation to arrangement and school stableness. However, this is done so in a procedural manner, promoting workers to happen the right arrangement for the kid but does non recognize the grounds why arrangements fail. It is evidenced that kids who are moved placement and schools within their clip in the attention system are at a greater hazard of hapless educational accomplishment. What it fails to recognize is that a high figure of arrangements fail due to the behavior of the kid intending that they are no longer able to stay. Therefore, in footings of guaranting that arrangements are stable, the root cause of the behavior needs to be addressed to enable the arrangement to pull off the behavior
Sinclair et Al ( 2006 ) conducted interviews with a cohort of 342 carers and found it was the impact of emotional maltreatment that was most associated with placement dislocation due to the behavior of the kid caused by their old experiences. It is hypothesised that if these issues were addressed it would non merely have a positive impact in relation to arrangement but will so hold a positive consequence of the instruction of looked-after kids as non merely would their arrangement be stable but the cause of their behavioral troubles will hold been addressed. This besides highlights the importance of arrangement suitableness, as a kid come ining attention with high demands should be assessed as necessitating specialised arrangement – this ensures that the carers have the degree of developing appropriate to run into the demands of the kid. Specialist arrangements besides guarantee that the carers are prepared for hard behaviors and hence less likely to stop the arrangement.
Childs who enter the attention system do so at an frequently traumatic period in their lives where injury is likely to hold important impact. The intent of the attention system is to protect and maintain them safe from environments that have antecedently being harmful. However, despite this, it is recognised that frequently the attention system can travel on to intensify the harm that has already been done by non turn toing the impact of their old experiences ( REF ) .
From the statistics released it ca n’t be argued kids go forthing attention hold reduced life opportunities. Educational attainment is low whereas links to criminal behavior and substance maltreatment is high ( House of Commons, 2012 ) . The proportion of attention departers non in instruction, employment or preparation has increased from 32 per cent in 2010 to 33 per cent in 2011. There is overpowering grounds that the results for looked after kids as a whole are hapless ( REF ) . This is a concern non merely at the point of go forthing attention but besides in footings of their hereafter chances and hazard of the continuance of hapless results for their ain household. The purpose of this thesis was to place the contributing factors that impact the instruction of looked-after kids to enable specific focal point to be linked to intercession and better results.
It is recognised that there are important single, attention and educational factors that can lend to barriers within the instruction of looked-after kids, nevertheless, it is besides recognised that the educational results of the population as a whole can be affected by a similar figure of factors. It has been identified that hazard factors that are normally linked to underachievement of kids in the attention system include countries such as want, low parental expectation/education and life experiences. In footings of these hazard factors it is recognised that these are factors that are experienced by the kid prior to come ining the attention system and hence the disadvantage with respect to educational accomplishment may already be evident. When researching the experiences of looked after kids there is grounds that this group are placed at higher hazard due to the impact of their fortunes before attention. The concern for educational accomplishment is highlighted by authorities statistics which fail to stand for the kid ‘s ability at the start of intercession.
In the debut it is stated that the two stances in footings of educational accomplishment focal point on the old life experiences or the attention system being at mistake may be excessively simplistic. It appears that this is still the instance but from the information reviewed it is apparent that the old experiences of the kids in attention significantly impacts of the kid ‘s ability to accomplish academically and this is further compounded by the systems inability to cover with kids who have suffered important injury. Therefore, when the focal point of the educational underachievement is based on the attention system in isolation, it neglects the root cause of the barriers looked-after kids face.
There are historical issue in relation to the outlook of looked-after kids from the local authorization and instruction system that appear to hold been addressed in counsel and policy. There is now greater focal point on guaranting kids in the looked-after system are supported to make their full educational potency. However, despite these alterations there is still a important spread. Area ‘s that have been addressed in counsel follow a figure of research recommendations such as take downing arrangement moves, lower school moves, increasing carers duty in footings of encouraging and back uping the kid with instruction.
When sing the old experiences of looked after kids, while non generalizing the population, acknowledgment must be given to the figure who are brought into attention in the class of neglect/abuse. When reexamining the impact of this sort of ill-treatment upon a kid there is overpowering grounds that this is important and long enduring the longer a kid has been exposed to it.
Attachment theory besides provides grounds that helps explicate the troubles that kids who have experienced helter-skelter lives face, non merely within the instruction puting but besides in footings of coming to footings with their ain emotions. There is grounds that kids who have experienced disorganised fond regard struggled to command their ain emotions and behavior as they have non been able to larn and develop this in their place environment. In this regard it is hard to hold the outlook that a kid will happen educational environments easy.
The apprehension of the grounds behind troubles must non be used to dismiss a kid ‘s ability and this does non intend that a kid should be expected to neglect, but that an increased apprehension is needed by all who work with them to back up them. When working with kids and immature people in the attention system it is critical to retrieve that they are their ain expert and should be given the chance to discourse their strength and things that they are good with. It is besides of import that they are able to portion their ain positions about their educational experiences so this can be incorporated into any support ( Flectcher-Campbell, 1997 ) .
Within pattern, consideration must be given when working with kids who have suffered ill-treatment and the importance that workers are able to portion this apprehension of their experiences, troubles and grounds to be communicated in an age appropriate mode. This allows an account to be given to the kid to understand their ain behavior as they may fight to grok why they behave the manner they do. Leting this empowers the kid to try to take control. In my ain experience of working with immature people who have displayed sexually harmful behavior, attending demands to be given to the experiences a kid has had to derive an apprehension of their current behavior. Deriving an apprehension of why a kid behaves the manner they do encourages allow support. Supplying this information to the service user besides empowers them be fiting them with an account of their ain behavior and encouraging engagement as the expert on their ain life experiences. This does non intend that premises should be made but by garnering information and holding cognition of how old experiences may hold impacted on each person ensures that intercession is based on informed determinations.
From the information gathered it is apparent that there are a figure of hazard factors that are encountered by looked after kids which will travel on to hold a damaging consequence on their educational results. It is besides recognised that a kid who has been in attention over a longer term is more likely to make better educationally than those who are at that place for a short continuance ( Harker et al, 2003 ) . This leads to consideration about the length of clip kids and immature people are exposed to traumatic environments. It is stated that XXXX sum of kids enter attention after their thirteenth birthday, hence consideration must be given to the longer term impacts of their exposure to helter-skelter environment over a significant period of their lives. The reply is non every bit unidimensional as simply taking them from that environment.
Through reexamining literature and research it is evident that old experiences ha1ve a important impact on instruction. The undermentioned factors have been identified as holding important impact: –
Experience of ill-treatment
Lack of an attachment figure
Lack of educational support/role theoretical account
( Diagram 3: The chief factors identified to increase the hapless educational results of looked-after kids )
This theoretical account takes into consideration the hazard factors that appear important with respect to the educational accomplishment of looked-after kids both prior to and during the attention experience.
The grounds indicates that the impact of ill-treatment can non merely impact on a kid ‘s behavior, but there is besides grounds that it can impact the intelligence degree of the kid. Maltreatment and fond regard are besides significantly linked to each other in relation to the parent ‘s ability to supply attention to the kid which increases the likeliness that kids within the attention system have besides formed disorganized fond regard. It is accepted that when the parent is unresponsive to the kid ‘s demands or is the beginning of panic that a kid will endure from disorganized fond regard – This type of fond regard puts the kid at hazard of enduring from troubles modulating their ain emotions and exposing attending seeking behavior.
It is recognised that kids who have been in attention from a younger age and over a longer period achieve better academically than those who have been in attention over a shorter period ( Harker et al, 2003 ) . This indicates that the longer a kid is exposed to a dysfunctional environment the greater impact and longer term consequence would be expected. When taking into consideration that the age of kids come ining attention in 2011 were This can non merely remedied by taking the kid from the place and supplying a stable environment within attention.
Previous research has identified the mistake of the attention system as the chief factors that influence the instruction of the kids such as low outlooks, arrangement stableness and moving schools. Where I do non differ that these are important factors in relation to the kid I recognise that these have been addressed in policy and pattern. I besides acknowledge that despite the acknowledgment of the impact of these factors, there still appears to be small betterment. This provides support for the proposed theoretical account identified in this thesis as it is evident that there are factors that are non being addressed sufficiently in counsel and it is going progressively of import that this is recognised. In support of the current system there is grounds of betterments with respect to the educational support in different attention scenes, an betterment in multi-agency working and raised consciousness with respect to publicity of instruction from all workers involved with the kid ( REF ) . Proving this support ensures that the outlooks and aspirations of the kid are non merely supported but actively encouraged by all.
The current weakness with respect to the current counsel in relation to the instruction attainment of looked-after kids is that although it is is clear in that when a kid is looked-after there is the focal point of supplying a stable environment, this is non the lone factor that needs to be taken into consideration as there are other elements of the kid ‘s life that are non as noticeable but will may travel on to hold a long permanent impact. When reexamining the counsel available for the publicity of instruction with respect to looked-after kids it appeared at best vague in relation to recognizing the impact of their old experiences with a complete deficiency of theoretical cognition within its attack. The trouble for a societal worker is this type of counsel goes on to de-skill them from their original preparation and removes them dramatically from the forepart line support that they should be supplying ( REFS ) .
It is hoped that with the findings of the Munro Report ( 2011 ) that societal workers will be freed up from the outlooks of paper work and liberate up to pass more clip with service users. In relation to the findings of this reappraisal, it is promoting that when this happens, workers will no longer experience constrained by bureaucratism, enabling them to supply appraisal better focused to the alternate demands of the kid.
Consideration must besides be given to kids who are exposed to put on the line factors but where no services are involved. Despite the statistical results in relation to the educational attainment of kids, the bulk of research identified that regardless of the weaknesss of the attention system kids and immature people had a more positive experience had they remained in the attention of their parents Centre for Excellence and Outcomes in Children and Young People ‘s Services ( 2009 ) . It is promoting that society as a whole appears to be taking more duty in footings of coverage concerns and safeguarding kids ( NSPCC, 2012 ) . This means that intercession can be targeted to those most in demand as the earlier services are involved, the increased opportunity of success and less opportunity of longer term impacts.
Research aims: Summary of findings and decisions
The purpose of this reappraisal was to place the contributing factors that are barriers to the educational accomplishment of looked after kids. The importance of educational accomplishment is linked to further successful life results and it is recognised that where looked-after kids continue to underperform academically, this places them at increased hazard of other damaging life results. It is recognised that when a kid experiences a good criterion of attention they are more likely to seek farther instruction and go on larning throughout their life ( Sargent et al, 1997 ) . However, academic accomplishment and educational experience is besides linked to more than consequences. Jackson et Al ( 2006 ) emphasised the importance of instruction, non merely straight in footings of academic accomplishment but besides wellbeing. In a survey conducted by the Centre for Research ( 2005 ) there was grounds of the positive behavior, accomplishments and personal attributes a successful instruction provides. Although the literature reviewed was non thorough, it covered the identified issues that have been antecedently been associated with instruction and looked after kids.
With respect to the findings it is evident that the old experiences and fortunes of the kid come ining attention significantly impact on the kid. This is identified non merely in footings of development but besides behavioral troubles linked with the injury they have suffered or witnessed. The result of such environments and subsequent behavior can do it hard for kids to set to the outlook of the instruction system. There is besides grounds that sing ill-treatment can impact on the intelligence degree of the kid. Where this is the instance, it is of import to recognize that extra support may be required. Due to the high degrees of looked-after kids that are identified to hold a Particular Educational Need it appears more than coincidental. The cause of this consequence needs to be investigated farther to guarantee that they support provided is appropriate. However, when a kid has been exposed to an environment that has been damaging to their development over a long period of clip there is a hazard that the longer term harm may be hard to decide. This places the importance of early intercession in instances of ill-treatment to guarantee that the kid ‘s exposure is minimum.
The grounds in footings of the impact of disorganized fond regard and instruction groundss why kids who have experienced hapless parenting may travel on to fight in the instruction puting. As with the impact of ill-treatment, if a kid has been exposed to hapless caregiving over a long period of clip from a immature age it would be apprehensible why a kid may happen it hard to be able to get by with educational outlooks. As fond regard and ill-treatment have been strongly linked to barriers in instruction from reading ability and IQ to behavioural troubles and troubles organizing peer relationships it is of import that a kid is efficaciously assessed when come ining attention to guarantee that appropriate support if identified. It is arguable that although outlooks for looked after kids should be on par with the general population, consideration must be given to the challenges that they face and appropriate support identified.
It appears hard to decide the attainment spread until policy and counsel earnestly addresses the impact of ill-treatment, fond regard and societal factors that have influenced the kid ‘s life prior to come ining the attention system.
It is apparent that old findings in relation to the weaknesss of the attention system have been relevant. Subsequent alterations to statute law, policy and guidelines have been introduced to turn to issues, nevertheless, there remains a failing in footings of turn toing the emotional demands of the kids and their subsequent behavior.
In relation to the statistics produced in relation to the instruction of looked-after kids, it is clear that these do non demo whether attention impedes or improves the instruction as they focus strictly on results. To give a clearer image it would be necessary to enter educational ability when come ining attention and monitoring results throughout. This would place if the attention system was run intoing the demands to the kids while besides giving separate acknowledgment to the troubles that this group of kids face.
Placement stableness has been linked to educational attainment. It is recognised that this is a intensifying factor, nevertheless, the ground why arrangements fail demands to be acknowledged. It is recognised that carers can fight with kids with behavioral troubles which can take to placement dislocations. To back up the kid in arrangement this besides means that extra support and instruction should be provided to the carers.
Further research in this country would profit the processs and patterns of local governments and enable an addition in grounds based pattern. It is recognised that there are troubles in carry oning research within a group of immature people where there are characteristics of mobility in and out of attention, clip out of instruction and traveling off from contact with the local authorization following their going from attention.
When transporting on the literature reappraisal I have been cognizant of my ain prejudice in footings of expected consequences. What has surprised me is that before transporting out an extended reappraisal of literature I had assumed that it was the weaknesss of the attention system that were the primary factor in the underachievement of looked-after kids. What I have discovered is that, although the attention system has betterments to do, they are encouragingly traveling in the right way and alterations made so far have led to a better attention experience for kids and immature people.
The designation of the impact of ill-treatment and disorganized fond regard on instruction has broadened my ain personal cognition in relation to giving consideration to each single circumstance to place countries of hazard and intercession. The long lasting and scope of impacts should non be disregarded. This is something that I will reassign to pattern and recognise throughout my calling while recognizing the work that I have carried out for this thesis is simply the tip of the iceberg and requires continued professional development.
I recognise that the literature used for the intents of this thesis was non thorough with respect to the subject but related specifically to the hunt standard and research inquiry. Further research may enable farther penetration to be gained in relation to specific intercession that would outdo support the emotional and behaviour demands of looked-after kids based on their old experiences.