. daily life needs of residents in a

.
In France, the decile ratio D9/D1 in the 230 largest metropolitan areas
increased from 6.6 to 7.1 between 2007 and 2011 (Floch, 2014). What may explain
this increasing income disparity in cities? One key explanation may be the
rising importance of amenities (Glaeser et al., 2010).

In
the growing service sector there is still the most problematic challenge of how
to deal with service quality. Quality is one of the most expected aspects by
customers of almost all service products (Urban, 2009). Before quality can be
managed it must be defined (Rondeau, et al., 2006). Coming up with a precise
definition of the quality of services is complicated because quality can be
understood and evaluated both objectively and subjectively. Quality is
objective when it is related to external tangible features which can be
measured factually. Subjective quality is rated when a customer’s imagination,
personal experiences, emotions, expectations and attitudes are taken into account,
whereas, the most common reason for dissatisfaction is the difference between
an objective and the subjective evaluation of quality (Bagdoniene &
Hopeniene, 2010).

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Mulligan
and Carruthers identify that “amenities are key to understanding quality of
life because they are precisely what make some places attractive for living and
working, especially relative to other places that do not have them and/or are
burdened with their opposites, disamenities”. Urban amenities are understood in
this research to mean specific urban facilities that contribute to the urban living
experience of residents; they are linked to the daily life needs of residents
in a neighbourhood. Some examples given by Randall include: “grocers,
convenience stores, access to public transit, schools and professional services
doctor or dentist”.

Gottlieb
confirms that “residential amenities may be defined as place-specific goods or
services that enter the utility functions of residents directly”. Both (Mathur
et al., 2015) refers to urban amenities as “quality of life factors” and Howie
et al., confirm that “urban amenities are generally accepted as being important
to a household’s sense of place”. There are both Buildings 2015, 5 87 public
sector amenities provided by councils, such as parks, public squares and
recreational facilities, as well as private sector amenities such as cafés,
restaurants, retail and other goods or service providers. There are two main
reasons given in the literature as to why focusing on the role of urban and
rural amenities in the delivery of urban intensification is important. Firstly,
in an economic sense, it is argued that a diversity of urban amenities attract
economic activity to a city in terms of firms and labor wanting to be located
in a place of high amenity value. In other words, “the provision of amenities
generates urban advantages that perpetuate the concentration of economic
activity and population in, and in closer proximity to, them. (Mathur &
Stein 2015) also confirm that “the emerging literature on amenities seems to
indicate that one of the most effective ways to attract knowledge workers in
the regions and promote economic development is the creation of amenities”

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