Data And Descriptive Statistics Children And Young People Essay

This paper is aimed at supplying an appraisal of the cogency of the impression that school attending and child labors are substitutable for each other. The paper specifically aims at analyzing whether an betterment in the entree to school represented by the cost and distance to school are effectual policy tools to utilize to heighten school attending and combat kid labor. The relationship between kid labor and school attending is different for male childs and misss, may depend on the continuance of work every bit good as on the type of work that is either within or outside the family.

The information is from a family study drawn from rural Pakistan and has information on the continuance and incidence of child labor on kids between 10 and 14 old ages old every bit good as information on school attending. The limitation of the informations to kids between the ages of 10 and 14 old ages is in line with the ILO ‘s definition of kid labor in the Pakistani context. The information set besides has information on community, family and single variables. Besides included is information on factors of direct and indirect cost ( distance ) of schooling.

The mean hebdomadal hours kids spend in different work activities is presented in Table 1. From the informations, on norm, kids spend about 16 hours working. While misss spend about 23 hours working a hebdomad, boys spend merely a sum of 9 hours working per hebdomad. This big difference can be attributed to the parts misss make by assisting with family jobs. In most rural parts of developing states, work forces and male childs normally do non lend to household jobs. On the other manus, pieces

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Table 2 below shows the full descriptive statistics of the independent variables in the information set. Cost of schooling is measured by three variables viz. direct cost of primary school instruction, distance to closest primary school and distance to closest in-between school. The norm for direct cost of schooling is about Rs. 126 per twelvemonth. Distances to the closest center and secondary school are the other steps of cost of instruction. Their consequence on labor supply is nevertheless unsure. The premise is that a high transit cost associated with schools that are farther from the community may impact on school attending by cut downing school. The logic therefore is that while there is a negative relationship between distance of community from the closest center and secondary school, the relationship will be positive with child labors. Table 1 shows that averagely, a kid must go 4.5 kilometers to a secondary school and 6 kilometers to a in-between school. Closeness of community to school on the other manus will do it child labour easier on kids. This therefore implies a positive relationship between kid labor and distance from school.

The statistics conditional on kid work position suggest a positive relationship between labour supply and direct primary schooling costs ( Table XXXX ) .

Table 1: Average Weekly Hours of Work by 10-14 Year Old Children

Hours of Work

Entire

Male

Female

Entire Number of Hours

15.75 ( 24.47 )

8.67 ( 18.98 )

23.36 ( 27.26 )

Hours per hebdomad worked in family

13.50 ( 22.50 )

6.29 ( 15.14 )

21.27 ( 25.61 )

Hours per hebdomad worked out of family

20.25 ( 10.18 )

2.39 ( 11.32 )

2.11 ( 8.78 )

The statistics in Table 4 suggest there is a positive relation between labour supply and distance to school. On norm, a non-working kid must go about 4 kilometers to a in-between school while one engaged in extra-household labor must go about 9 kilometers.

Table 2: Descriptive Statisticss of Full Sample

Average hours worked per hebdomad

Variable

Nitrogen

Mean

Std. Dev.

Child Properties

Male = 1

2199

0.518

0.500

Age in old ages

2199

11.851

1.420

Ever Attended School = 1

2197

0.605

0.489

Educational Properties

Distance to closest secondary school

2199

4.479

7.257

Annual cost of Primary school instruction

2127

125.612

168.244

Distance to closest in-between school

2156

6.028

11.066

Proportion of local primary school with electricity

2154

0.372

0.37

Proportion of local primary school with H2O

2154

0.542

0.394

Proportion of local primary school with brick wall

2154

0.838

0.273

Family Features

Highest instruction degree of Male Adults

2106

4.227

4.74

Highest instruction degree of Female Adults

2173

0.657

2.204

Entire family Landholding

2199

2.892

10.207

Family size

2199

9.865

4.599

Number of male members aged 0-4

2199

0.635

0.858

Number of female members aged 0-4

2199

0.703

1.004

Number male members aged 5-9

2199

0.94

1.01

Number female members aged in 5-9

2199

0.906

0.999

Community and Regional Attributes

Cluster mean day-to-day male hebdomadal pay ( Rupees )

2199

39.969

11.722

Distance of community from Tehsil capital ( kilometer )

2199

21.531

15.808

Entree to canal irrigation

2199

0.609

0.488

Visited by agric extension worker in the past 6 months

2199

0.547

0.498

Entree to paved route

2186

0.684

0.465

Community variables are besides likely to hold an consequence on family determinations. Some of these variables include entree to agricultural extension officers and irrigation canals, propinquity to school and small town handiness, can significantly impact agricultural productiveness. These factors may impact the demand for child labor. Employment chances are besides concentrated in more thickly settled countries and as such, the grade of farness of a community can hold an impact on the demand for child labor.

Figure 1: Frequency Distribution of Children by Gender and Age

The sample is equally distributed between the 2 gender groups, 52 per cent male and 48 per cent female. The mean age for the sample is 11.85 old ages. The largest age group is the 12 year-olds ( 26.5 per cent ) , followed by the 10 year-olds ( 25.5 per cent the ) 14 year-olds ( 18 per cent ) , 11 year-olds ( 15.1 per cent ) and the 13 year-olds ( 15 per cent ) .

The sample is by and large from big family size. The mean household size is 9.9. Large household sizes can cut down the force per unit area on to work on single kids marginally and as a consequence, kids from larger families are more likely to go to school compared to kids from smaller families. The degree of instruction tends to be higher among the male grownups compared to the female grownups. While he males have on mean 4.23 old ages of instruction, the female grownups merely have 0.66 old ages of instruction.

Table 3 indicates that compared to kids who do non work, kids who work outside of the families come from households that have lower landholdings and less educated grownups. It can be concluded from the informations so that in entire Pakistan, kids who are engaged in labour exterior of the family are from poorer households. Tables 2 and 3 indicate that there is no pronounced difference between kids who do non work and those who do merely work indoors of the family.

Table 3: Descriptive Statisticss of Selected Variables by Child Work Status

Variable

Non-Working

Working

Children engaged in work outside of family

Child Properties

Mean

Std. Dev.

Mean

Std. Dev.

Mean

Std. Dev.

Age

11.581

1.352

12.060

1.438

12.418

1.420

Ever Attended School = 1

0.845

0.362

0.420

0.494

0.270

0.445

Educational Properties

Annual cost of Primary school instruction

125.783

154.971

131.850

180.803

152.226

192.691

Distance to closest in-between school

4.040

8.457

7.294

12.377

9.284

10.532

Distance to closest secondary school

4.420

7.192

4.614

7.501

6.674

8.537

Proportion of local primary school with electricity

0.371

0.373

0.365

0.365

0.382

0.380

Proportion of local primary school with H2O

0.541

0.395

0.545

0.396

0.473

0.406

Proportion of local primary school with brick wall

0.841

0.267

0.830

0.280

0.805

0.267

Family Properties

Highest instruction degree of Female Adults

0.827

2.503

0.515

1.934

0.193

1.105

Highest instruction degree of Male Adults

4.826

4.987

3.815

4.544

2.219

3.327

Entire family Landholding

2.812

10.230

2.865

9.312

0.425

1.231

Family size

10.255

5.276

9.678

4.101

8.723

2.808

Number of male members aged 0-4

0.620

0.872

0.655

0.854

0.546

0.779

Number of female members aged 0-4

0.743

1.125

0.690

0.927

0.603

0.745

Number of male members aged 5-9

0.952

1.066

0.947

0.968

0.993

0.982

Number of female members aged 5-9

0.925

1.086

0.889

0.941

0.723

0.887

Average hours worked per hebdomad

Variable

Nitrogen

Mean

Std. Dev.

Plants within the family

2199

0.531

0.499

Works off farm, hrsout & A ; gt ; 0

2180

0.056

0.230

kid works – hrswk ~=0

2071

0.587

0.492

Entire hours worked past hebdomad

2199

15.746

24.468

Hours per hebdomads worked in family

2199

13.500

22.151

Hours per hebdomads worked outside family

2193

2.252

10.181

Child Properties

Variable

Nitrogen

Mean

Std. Dev.

Male = 1

2199

0.518

0.500

Age in old ages

2199

11.851

1.420

Ever Attended School = 1

2197

0.605

0.489

Family Properties

Variable

Nitrogen

Mean

Std. Dev.

Highest instruction degree of Male Adults

2106

4.227

4.740

Highest instruction degree of Female Adults

2173

0.657

2.204

Entire family Landholding

2199

2.892

10.207

Family size

2199

9.865

4.599

Number of male members aged 0-4

2199

0.635

0.858

Number of female members aged 0-4

2199

0.703

1.004

Number male members aged 5-9

2199

0.940

1.010

Number female members aged in 5-9

2199

0.906

0.999

Community and Regional Attributes

Variable

Nitrogen

Mean

Std. Dev.

Cluster mean day-to-day male weakly pay ( Rupees )

2199

39.969

11.722

Distance of community from Tehsil capital ( kilometer )

2199

21.531

15.808

Entree to canal irrigation

2199

0.609

0.488

Visited by agric extension worker in the past 6 months

2199

0.547

0.498

Entree to paved route

2186

0.684

0.465

Educational Properties

Variable

Ob river

Mean

Std. Dev.

Distance to closest secondary school

2199

4.479

7.257

Annual cost of Primary school instruction

2127

125.612

168.244

Proportion of local primary school with electricity

2154

0.372

0.370

Proportion of local primary school with H2O

2154

0.542

0.394

Proportion of local primary school with brick wall

2154

0.838

0.273

Distance to closest in-between school

2156

6.028

11.066

Average Weekly Hours of Work by 10-14 Year Old Children

Hours of Work

Entire

Male

Female

Entire Number of Hours

15.75 ( 24.47 )

8.67 ( 18.98 )

23.36 ( 27.26 )

Hours per hebdomad worked in family

13.50 ( 22.50 )

6.29 ( 15.14 )

21.27 ( 25.61 )

Hours per hebdomad worked out of family

20.25 ( 10.18 )

2.39 ( 11.32 )

2.11 ( 8.78 )

4. Model Specification and Variable Choice

I have chosen to utilize two dependent variables, viz. school attending position of the kid ( sch ) and the working a position of the kid ( work ) . The dichotomous nature of these 2 variables allows for the scrutiny of the chance of whether a kid goes to school or work in reaction to alterations in the cost of schooling. The sample besides allows for the testing of the consequence of kid labour supply on whether or non a kid works at place or in the. Both school attending and work are binary variables. School attending takes on a value of 1 if the kid is in school and 0 if the kid is non. Working position besides takes on a value of 1 if the kid plants and 0 if the kid does non.

The allotment of a kid ‘s clip is likely to be jointly determined by work and school attending. This means that a kid ‘s engagement in the work and school are both endogenous and as such it would be incorrect to utilize one as an endogenous variable of the other on the one manus and disregarding the endogeneity job may besides leads to specious correlativity between the schooling result and work position. To work out the issue of endogeneity, one can utilize instrumental variables ( IV ) to rectify for the consequence of endogeneity between the two variables. I will nevertheless non try to utilize the IV attack since I can non look to come up with a valid instrument that affects child labor without holding a direct consequence on school attending. I have hence decided to utilize a decreased signifier attack to analyze the connexion between school, work position and the direct cost of schooling and the grade of permutation between kid work and schooling. For this ground, I use 2 different theoretical accounts to analyze the consequence of the direct cost of schooling on school attending and another one to analyze the consequence of the direct cost of schooling on kid work position. Since schooling competes with economic activities in the usage of a kid ‘s clip, they can be thought of as replacements in the sense that an addition in the monetary value of one leads to a lessening in the ingestion of the other and frailty versa. Therefore, a lessening in the direct and indirect cost of schooling should take to a decrease in the kid work and an addition in child school attending. The theoretical account I intend to utilize to analyze this relationship is therefore ;

Schi =?1 + ?1 dircosti + ?1 Xi + ?i 1

Worki =?2 + ?2 dircosti + ?2 Xi + ?i 2

where,

Schi = school attending for ith kid

Worki = working position of ith kid

dircosti = cost of schooling

Eleven = independent variables

? , ? , ? = coefficients to be estimated

?i, ?i = mistake footings picturing single unobservable effects

x

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