What term is defined as: The ability or official capacity to exercise control over others; a person, group, or nation having great influence or control over other.
What are the attributes of Power?
1. Political Power2. Physical Power3.

Social Power

What type of power is held by a person or group in society. Amount of societal influence they can wield, formally or informally
Political Power
What type of Power is defined as: The energy or motive force by which a physical system or machine is operated.
Physical Power
The ability to impose one’s will on others, even if those others resist in some way defines which type of Power.
Social Power
According to Parillo, power can be classified into what two types?
1. Formal2.

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Conferred on a person; not necessarily earned. Is a function of position, not necessarily ability describes which classification of Power?
Formal Power
Comes from forms of leverage. Must be earned and maintained. Cannot be conferred describes which classification of Power?
Informal Power
What are the three bases of Formal Power?
1. Reward Power2. Coercive Power3.

Legitimate Power

Which formal power base is based on a leader’s ability to give recognition, promotions, money or goods?
Reward Power
Which formal power base is based on a real or imagined force. Fear of being hurt physically, poorly treated?
Coercive Power
Which formal power base is based on the office or title of the leader. The higher the status, the more compliance one is able to get in an organization?
Legitimate Power
What are the three bases of Informal Power?
1. Expert Power2. Referent Power3. Information Power
Expert power is based on what?
Knowledge, talent, and skill of a leader. Must be coupled with follower’s respect for that skill and the assuption that this expertise is valuable to the follower.
Referent Power is based on what?
Leader’s personal traits (Charm, Charisma, Sensitivity).

Power is intangible. Characteristic of most leaders and commands: awe, respect, and situation

Information Power is based on what?
Ability of the leader to get and give out information that is necessary to the successful functioning of the organization of individual followers.
What term is defined as: An institutions claim of the right to exercise power over individuals?
What are the Negative aspects of Social Power based on?
Fear, deception, manipulation, bullying
What are the Positive aspects of Social Power based on?
Mutual trust, mutual respect, friendship
What is the purpose of Dr. Terry’s Control Diamond?
Examining any society, organization, or groupIsolate and analyze four independent aspects
What are the four aspects of Dr.

Terry’s Control Diamond?

Power – Who holds power?Culture – Persistent cultural valuesInstitutions – Institutionalized patterns and practicesResources – Who has access to societal resources?
What term is defined as: An unearned advantage based on social group membership that simultaneously disadvantages members outside that social group?
Which strategy to reduce social privilege is based on laws that make discrimination against marginalized groups illegal?
Indirect Strategy
What strategy to reduce social privilege attempts to give marginalized groups access to the historical advantages enjoyed by empowered groups, “Leveling the playing field”?
Direct Strategy
What mechanism ties together all the other aspects of privileges?
What term is defined as: The package of unearned advantages granted to those members of a diverse society with white skin?
White Privilege
What are the Concepts of the White male club?
– Arbitrarily selects members and bestows appropriate and psychological benefits upon them.- Distributes influence and power among its members and uses power to dominate groups like self.- Anyone considered White and not a member of another group is included.
What are the four elements of the White male club?
1. Power Element2. Culture Element3. Institution Element4. Resources Element
Ethnocentric Standards, Value Orientation, and Misplacing the Problem fall under which element?
Culture Element
What are the rationalizations for Retaining Privilege and Avoiding Responsibilities?
Denial, Minimization, Blame, Redefinition, It was unintentional, Its all over now, Its only a few people, Counterattack, Competing victimization
What are strategies on how to acknowledge that responsibility and become a strong White ally?
– Assume racism is everywhere,- Notice who is the center of attention and center of power,- Notice how racism is denied minimized and justified,- Understand and learn from the history of Whiteness and racism,- Understand the connection between racism economics issues,- Take a stand against injustice,- Be strategic,- Dont confuse a battle with the war,- Dont call names,- Support leadership of people of color,- Dont do it alone,- Learn about White people who worked for racial justice.

What is the first step in becoming an effective EOA?
Decode your own social identity in relation to social privilege
Examining your memberships in empowered and marginalized groups are methods used to accomplish what?
Decode your social identity
What strategies are EOA use to heighten awarness in the Military?
The quality that makes an attitude unreasonable is that it does not readily get modified when exposed to new and conflicting information defines what term?
Prejudice (Fishein)
What are the levels of Prejudice?
1. Cognitive – Stereotype2. Emotional – Emotions and feelings of hostility3. An action-oriental – Positive or negative predisposition to engage in discriminatory behavior
What term defines an: Act based on prejudice?
What are the five protected categories in accordance with DoDD 1350.


RaceColorNational originSexReligion
According to Plous, there are four types of discriminatory practices?
Type A – Isolate discriminationType B – Small group discriminationType C – Direct institutionalized discriminationType D – Indirect institutionalized discrimination
Which of the discriminatory practices is NOT based on the intent to harm?
Indirect Institutionalized discrimination
What type of discrimination is carried out by the dominant group against non-dominant groups because it is the dominant group by definition that generally controls the social institutions?
Institutional Discrimination
Describe how prejudice and discrimination manifest themselves through social learning and conformity.
Laws, regulations, and norms of segregation or unequal access that maintain the power of dominant group over subordinate ones.
What theory is described as: Perceived group threat or perceptions of threatened group interest occur when in-group members see an out-group as posing negative consequences to the interests of their in-group?
Integrated Threat Theory
Realistic Threats, Symbolic Threats, Intergroup Anxiety, Stereotypes are a part of what theory?
Integrated Threat Theory
What is the relationship between power and discrimination?
Power is at the core of discrimination. Without power discrimination is ineffective
Which term is defined as: The broad sense as persons who, individually or collectively, have suffered harm? PhysicalEmotional sufferingEconomic lossSubstantial impairment of their fundamental rights
What term is a reactive problem-solving approach that narrowly defines problems in terms of the victims, victim is center of concern?
Victim Focus
List the 4 steps involved with blaming the victim.
Step 1 – Identify a social problemStep 2 – Study those affected by the problemStep 3 – Define the differences as the cause of problemStep 4 – initiate a humanitarian program to correct impact of differences
Ryan defines the System as?
An organized set of doctrines, ideas, or principles usually intended to explain the arrangement or working of a systematic whole
Which term describes: A problem-solving approach that broadly defines problems as being a part of or caused by the system, organization, society, or community.


System Focus
Within an organization, what term describes the elements and behaviors that collectively characterize an organization?
What term is defined as anyone who sees or otherwise becomes aware of behavior at appears worthy of comment or action?
Psychological phenomenon where persons are less likely to intervene in a situation when others are present than when they are alone describe what term?
What is an active bystander?
Person that intervene and discourage or stop unacceptable behavior. On the lookout for situations that may require some intervention
What is an intervention after the fact strategy in which you listen supportively and provide information about resources available to the aggrieved person?
Privately support an upset person
What is a social phenomenon which tends to occur in groups of people above a certain critical size when responsibility is not explicitly assigned?
Diffusion of responsibility
Bystander Intervention is defined as?
Assessing a situation to determine what kind of interview if any, might be appropriate
List Intervention Strategies in the moment
Name or acknowledge an offense or good deedPoint to the “elephant in the room”Interrupt the behaviorPublicly support an aggrieved personUse body language to show disapproval or approvalUse humorEncourage dialogueHelp calm strong feelingsCall for help
List Intervention strategies after the fact
Privately support an upset personTalk privately with the inappropriate actorReport the incident, with or without names
What is the DoD Directive 1350.2 definition of Race?
A division of human beings identified by the possession of traits that are transmissible by descent and that are sufficient to characterize persons possessing these traits as a distinctive human genotype
What are Anthropologists 4 racial groups?
What are the current categories of race?
American Indian or Alaskan NativeAsianBlack or African AmericanNative Hawaiian or Other Pacific IslanderWhite
What are the two types of Racism?
Individual racismInstitutional racism
What are the two forms of Racism?
Intentional racismUnintentional racism
Which term is defined as a conscious act, usually motivated by prejudice or intent to harm?
Intentional racism
What term is defined as: Unconscious act that, while not usually motivated by prejudice or intent to harm, is still damaging?
Unintentional racism
Describe Racist Behavior.
Directed toward an individual or groupIntentionalUnintentionalBased on skin color, ethnicity, or racePerpetrated by an individual and/or an institution
What are the 3 subtle forms and not so subtle form of racism?
AversiveSymbolicModern Traditional(Not so subtle)
What are the five levels of acting out prejudice?
AntilocutionAvoidanceDiscriminationPhysical attackExtermination
What are the three R’s?
A lack of understanding of the history, stereotyping the members ethinic group, Ethnocentrism, assigning negative attributes are characteristics of Internal or External racism?
What are the factors of External Racism?
FamilySocial visibilityContactMass MediaUnequal PowerCompetition
Executive Order 9981 accomplished what?
Desegregation of the armed services in July 1948
List strategies for Combating Racism.
AwarnessEducationParticipationLegislationMass MediaChange
What manifestation of racism is usually blatant, obvious, and almost always meant to harm?
Overt Racism
What manifestation of racism is harmful treatment of members of subordinate racial groups that is hidden, usually subtle, and difficult to document and prove?
Covert Racism