Discuss the need for Islamic (Gagnon)counseling in meetingthe psychological needs of the Muslim clientsDefinition of psychology from the Islamic perspective:An alternative definition of psychology from the Islamicperspective would include: the study of the soul; the ensuing behavioral,emotional, and mental processes; and both the seen and unseen aspects thatinfluence these elements.General definition of psychology:The scientific study of behavior and mental processes.Behavior is considered to be anything that an individual does, or any actionthat can be observed by others. However the three psychological needs accordingto Self-determination theory, humanbeings should have: a need for autonomy, competence, and relatedness.
In a cross-cultural research they showed that for allpeople’s healthy development, engagement, motivation, and well-being needsatisfaction is very necessary (Gagné et al., 2014).Here I am discussing the psychological needs of Muslimclients through analyzing the articles related to Islamic overview onpsychological need.AnIslamic Take on Maslow’s Hierarchy of Psychological NeedsMaslow’shierarchy of needs is the theory in which Abraham Maslow gives five factors inhierarchy that are the basic human needs and the fulfillment of which leads toa person being motivated or in other words happy and at peace. Physiological Needs:Maslowputs at the bottom of the hierarchy is of the physiological needs.
Thephysiological needs comprise of all the needs that are related to basic humanbiological needs. In these needs there is food, water, sleeping, breathing etc.Regarding them, Allah Almighty says in Quran:”And it is He who has made the night for you asclothing and sleep (a means for) rest and has made the day of resurrection.
“(25:47)Furthermore,Allah Almighty says:”Also,And when the prayer is ended, then disperse in the land and seek of Allah’sbounty, and remember Allah much, that ye may be successful.” (62:10)Inthis Ayah Allah says who fulfills these needs of a person, therefore, one mustask of these needs from Allah and no one else.Safety Need:Inthe second level Maslow said that every human is concerned about the need forsafety. Every one of us wants safety for ourselves as well as for our futuregeneration. Islam in this regard has given a law in the form of Sharia and allguidelines and instructions that protects and keeps the life and property of aperson safe.Social Needs:AllahAlmighty has created man as a social animal.
Maslow’s third level says thatalong with other needs there are the social needs of a human as well whereeveryone wants to interact with other people, loves them and wants to be lovedand taken care of. In Quran, Allah Almighty says:”Andof His signs is that He created for you from yourselves mates that you may findtranquility in them; and He placed between you affection and mercy. Indeed inthat are signs for a people who have thought.” (30:21)Althoughthis ayah is about the love between a husband and wife, however, those who think and ponder over the signs of Allah areaware of the fact that humans also share a bond of love and this bond of lovehas been present among them because Allah put it there. Therefore, a Muslimmust realize that humans are to love and support each other especially whenthey live in the form of a group. Esteem Need:Self-esteemis another need of humans.
However, there are people who rise to the levelswhere they want respect and want their esteem to be fulfilled. As AllahAlmighty says in Quran:”Thoseare the believers, truly. For them are degrees (of high position) with theirLord and forgiveness and noble provision.” (8:4)Fromthis ayah of Quran it is clear that it is Allah Almighty who assigns degrees orpositions that sooth and satisfy the self-esteem need of a person. Therefore,whenever one feels low in self-esteem or does not feel it being fulfilled, heor she needs to turn towards Allah and seek His assistance.Self-Actualization Need:Whenall the needs of a human are fulfilled the next level of needs is theself-actualization where a person tries to find about who he or she is and howthey can achieve their full potential. Allah Almighty says in Quran:”Oyou who believe! Do your duty to Allah and fear Him. Seek the means of approachto Him, and strive hard in His cause as much as you can.
So that you may besuccessful.” (5:35)Ifbeing successful means knowing who you truly are and what you need to do tofulfill your true self, then the way to it is by walking in the way of Allah.The more a person moves in His way, the more he or she gets to actualize theirself.
Thepsychological needs theory from Islamic perspectives However the theoryis Based on the objective Islamic law (Maqasid al-Shari’iyyah), a hierarchicalhuman needs has been 4 construct into three needs. Starting with the lowestneed; the essential needs (aldaruriyyat), the complimentary needs(al-hajjiyyat), and the embellishment needs (altahsiniyyat) (Kamali, 1991; andAlias & Samsudin, 2005). The complimentary need is divided into five needs;religion (ad-din), life (al-nafs), intellect (al-aql), lineage (al-nasb) andproperty (almal). As we can see, the difference between Maslow?s needs theoryand al-daruriyyat needs is religion needs. “In Islam, religionis the basic human needs as guidance for human life as a servant to the god(Allah) and a representative (khalifah) in the world. In the light of religion,this Maqasid al-Shari’iyyah theory shows flexibility in fulfilment of needs asservant and khalifah. Next, based on this Islamic law, contemporary Muslim?scholar simplified five categories of human need; physiological, material,psychological, spiritual and mental or intellectual (Shariati, 1979; Nusair,1983; Al-Jasmani, 1996; Glaachi, 2000; and Ali 2009). In Islamic perspective,physiological needs located under primary drive, while spiritual needs,psychological needs and intellectual needs located under second drive.
The uniqueof this human needs theory is spiritual needs. According to Ali, (2009)spiritual need focus on faith, harmony, confidence and purpose in life toabsorb frustration, crisis, failure and so on. In other word, spiritual needshelp human to have a good life in adhering to Allah?s order and avoiding Hisobedience”(Khair,Ahmad and Abd Hamid,2016).
Since these findings havebeen documented across many cultures and contexts, the theory specifiesthat people have evolved rather learned the needs. The needs are universal.Now after readingand analyzing came with a conclusion that counseling of psychological need isvery effective in reference with the Quranic verses. Bibliography Amber Haque, F. K. (2016). Integrating Islamic Traditions in Modern Psychology: Research Trends in Last Ten Years. Journal of Muslim Mental Health, volume 10.
107 Croshaw, T. (n.d.).
6 Human Psychological Needs. the hope street center. Gagné. (March 19, 2015).
The Three Most Basic Psychological Needs, and Why We Need to Satisfy Them. reflected in the mind. Gagnon, D. (n.d.). GETTING YOUR PSYCHOLOGICAL NEEDS MET. Psychologist (514) 605-7610 .
Haque, A. ( 2004). Psychology from Islamic Perspective: Contributions of Early Muslim Scholars and Challenges. Journal of Religion and Health, Vol. 43, 22.
Retrieved 01 07, 2013 , from http://www.jstor.org/stable/27512819 Muhammad, H. (2012, April 4).
Islam and Mental Health. American Muslims, Science and Health. Sennels, N. (2010, may).
Muslims and Westerners: The Psychological Differences. the english review. Sennels, N. (May 2010).
Muslims and Westerners: The Psychological Differences. new english review. Tahir, M. A.
(n.d.). ibrahim hierarchy of needs.
Tobah, S. (2015, april). Muslim Leaders’ Understandings of Mental Health,. westren graduates and postdoctoral studies, 94. Utz, D. a.
(n.d.). psychology from the islamic perspective. international islamic publishing house.