Mark Joseph M. Hermogino January
11- San Jose Mr. Andrew Virtucio Gacuma
do definitions of academic language vary in the review article?
definitions of academic language varies by basing on two recent combinations of
academic language and academic vocabulary of (Baumann & Graves 2010) and
(Snow and Uccelli 2009) which emphasized multiple interpretation that have
surfaced. Snow (2010) also added that “There is no exact boundary when defining
academic language; It falls toward one end of a continuum (defined by formality
of tone, Complexity of content, and degree of impersonality of stance), with
informal, casual, conversational language at other extreme (p.450)”. The review
article also states their own definition and according to them “Academic
Language is the specialized language, both oral and written, of academic
settings that facilitates communication and thinking about disciplinary content”.
does grammatical metaphor behave in an academic writing?
metaphor behaves like a figure of speech in an academic writing. It tends to
have a figurative meaning unlike any non-academic word that has its typical or
literal meaning. Grammatical metaphor in an academic writing can characterize
complicated processes and general concepts that can execute actions just like
the given example of the review article. It states there that the sentence
“this use of language requires students to shifts…” is claiming and requiring
something which is not commonly used in non- academic language because
normally, only nouns can perform actions. It also uses few words and disregard
extra or unnecessary information in expressing general, technical and/or
the morphological structure of academic words as explained in the review
structure is a structure that puts the words together because of their
similarities, structure, how they are formed, and their relationship to other
words in the same language. They have the same root word but they have different
definition and roles. For example, the headword observe covers observer, observation, observatory, observant,
observance, observational. According to the review article, being aware of
morphological families of a certain word is very strongly correlated with vocabulary
size meaning, the morphological awareness is directly proportional to
vocabulary size of a certain person/student because you can explore or scan
different words that are related to just one word.
are the functions of nominalization as regards abstractness and informational
Nominalization is the use of a word which is
not a noun and uses it as a noun of a noun phrase with or without morphological
transformation. It is not only converting adjectives or verbs into nouns by
adding suffixes but also increase the usage of prepositional phrases and
attributive nouns and adjective. Nominalization helps to achieve informational
density by inserting more prepositions and more content to a clause to make it
dense in information or to have more information in a text because based on the
review article, informational density is defined as dense in a more literal
sense, which is in terms of measures of amount of information per unit of text.
In addition, the word dense can also be defined as hard to understand in
figurative way which also applies to the aforementioned function of nominalization
with regards to informational density. As for the abstractness, Nominalization
helps it to be as general as possible by converting a word which is not a noun
into a noun that will make it more abstract than in non-academic
language/conversation. In general, informational density and abstractness was
made possible thanks for nominalization that put the words together to form
phrases, clauses, or sentences that require changing part of speech.
the similarities and differences of the two main categories of academic
vocabulary; general and discipline-specific?
is the oral and written technical language of academic settings that ease
communication and thinking about its disciplinary content. It is a technical
and abstract language because it involves general people, things, and events
unlike in non-academic language or conversation that uses a non-formal register
in typical/common settings. Academic vocabulary has two categories and that is
general and discipline-specific. General academic words are used commonly in
academic languages or appear more frequently in it such as journals, textbooks,
research and etc. They are abstract words because it conveys technical and
concise ideas or phenomena. Discipline-specific words are words that are unique
to individual academic disciplines. There are words that are sometime used only
in one discipline such as cytoplasm in science and etc. Both categories of
academic vocabulary can be technical or abstract but the discipline-specific
words is more unique because it can only be found in various disciplines unlike
in general words that are found commonly in different academic language
do academic vocabulary instructions intervene in building academic language
vocabulary instructions intervene in building academic language proficiency by
conducting different research and study with varying degrees. It teaches the
academic words to students by using rich instructions and exposing them to it
repeatedly and gives them opportunities to practice and/or personalize meanings
with different levels accompanied by having activities about the topics and the
target words. Academic vocabulary instructions intervene in building academic
language proficiency by having an effective method of familiarizing the words
to students and treating the words as a tool and not as facts to be memorized.
In general, the consistency of academic vocabulary instructions intervention
helps students learn and use academic vocabulary.
the dynamics of the researches in the two academic vocabulary interventions;
general and discipline-specific. How did the intervention researches yield
All of the interventions in the two academic vocabulary category namely General
and Discipline-Specific words use different dynamics who work within this structure
and guide students’ general and discipline-specific academic vocabulary
development to find the results of their intervention. The intervention
research on General Academic Word conducted by the following researchers namely
Townsend & Collins (2009) who employs various independent word-learning
strategies and analyzing academic texts with the academic words in it then
ALIAS of Lesaux et al. (2010) who gives the explanation of the text that used
the word while the Word Generation of Snow et al.
(2009) were structured to expose them to the words and facilitates reading,
writing and speaking practice opportunities. On the other hand, the
intervention research on Discipline-Specific Word conducted by the following
researchers namely Vaughn and her colleagues (2009), The QUEST of August,
Branum-Martin, Cardenas-Hagan, Francis (2009) and Brown Ryuu and Rodriguez
(2010) teach academic vocabulary with their respective content areas of
has been the element in the vocabulary intervention in both general and
discipline-specific that proved to be substantial. How it should be utilized?
elements in the vocabulary intervention in both general and discipline-specific
that proved to be substantial is the rich instruction, exposure, and
familiarizing of the words which was applied to academic vocabulary and yield
to improve knowledge and ability when it comes to instructed words and use it
in writing and comprehending text. The richness of rich vocabulary instructions
greatly affects the students that open multiple opportunities to utilize the instructed
words and be open-minded to changes and improvement when it comes in the
context of discussion about academic contents. The word has to be treated as a
tool and not as a fact to be memorized in order to produce gains in the
knowledge and abilities of students.
makes a word academic?
A word is an academic if it is commonly use or appear frequently in academic
language than in non-academic language. It is also more abstract or involving
general ideas or qualities rather than specific people, objects or action than other
words which means it tends to have more definitions and information when you
searched it in the dictionary. It is also used in various disciplines like
science and math especially when it is considered as discipline-specific word
which is a part or one of the categories of an academic word. In general, they
belonged to the formal type of register used in all academic texts such as
journals, research and etc.
do words become tools?
become tools if they are not treated as facts to be memorized but treated as a
stepping-stone or a medium for conversing or communicating with each other and
thinking about it purpose, relevance, and its disciplinary content. It can also
become tools if we focus not just on the word itself but also in its structures,
nature and disciplinary content by teaching it with a rich instruction and
effective teaching methods which will help us to understand the nature of the
word to achieve the language proficiency, linguistic knowledge, and eventually
learning how to apply it effectively in our everyday lives.