EDSP 005
the need of individuals to have friends and be appreciated, valued, respected, and protected members of community.

This makes one feel friendly, caring, and cooperative.

the need of individuals to share and serve others, and the feelings of self worth and esteem that come from assisting others. through making positive contributions to the lives of others, students can increase their feelings of self worth and self-esteem.

the need for individuals to experience a sense of success or competence with respect to their environment. THis is not achieved through besting others but through achieving personal goals or one’s personal best.
need of individuals to feel in control of themselves and their lives. the need to take responsibility for their behavior and learning, to have meaningful choices, to set their own goals, to problem solve around their choices and goals, and to advocate for themselves.

Formal Supports
bring together the services necessary in assisting the individual with severe disabilities to more actively participate in community and family life. mar be funded through the government for things like income, health care, education, housing employment or come through advocacy organizations
Natural Supports
may be provided directly be the nuclear and extended family, friends, or neighbors. provides more personal, empathetic support
Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)
bans discrimination against individuals with disabilities in private-sector employment, all public services, and public accommodations, transportation, and telecommunications
Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA)
-provides assessment, parental involvement, placement in least restrictive environment(LRE), iep-states can establish early intervention, provides services to infants and toddlers, written individualized family service plan-same requirements for preschoolers and school age.
Brown v.

Best services for writing your paper according to Trustpilot

Premium Partner
From $18.00 per page
4,8 / 5
Writers Experience
Recommended Service
From $13.90 per page
4,6 / 5
Writers Experience
From $20.00 per page
4,5 / 5
Writers Experience
* All Partners were chosen among 50+ writing services by our Customer Satisfaction Team

Topeka, 1954

supreme court decision that education must be made available to everyone on an equal basis.
Pennsylvania Association for Retarded Citizens v. Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, 1971
class action lawsuit on behalf of children with mental retardation who were excluded from public education on the basis of intellectual deficiency. Similiar- Millis v. District of Columbia (1972)
Institutional/ Medical Model
model saying- individuals with disabilities are sick, cannot learn, are a menace to society
Developmental Model
model saying- individuals with disabilities learn in the same way as people without disabilities but require more time to master basic skills, have the right to participate in the normal routines of community life and to establish a lifestyle comparable to that of persons without disabilities
Ecological/ Support Model
model saying- people with disabilities have the right to participate in economic and social aspects of the community. service programs should be designed to provide support to people with disabilities in natural home, school, work and community settings.
Full Inclusion
philosophical ideal that says in order for it to become reality reality, service and resource programs for people without disabilities must be restructered to meet the needs of all people and the replacement of the current “continuum of service” with a “menu of services” to allow individuals to select the types of intensity of service they need to be successful in home, school, work, or community settings.

Vocational Rehabilitation Act(1973) Section 504
provision that prohibits discrimination against persons with disabilities in federally assisted programs and activities
Reasonable Accommodations
requirements with DA to ensure that a person with a disability has an equal chance of participation. the intent is to create a “fair and level playing field” for the person with a disability. it takes into account each person’s needs resulting from their disability.

accommodations may be arranged in the areas of employment, transportation, or telecommunications.

a condition resulting from a loss of physical functioning or difficulties in learning and social adjustment that significantly interfere with normal growth and development
Developmental Approach
based on differences in the course of human development from what is considered normal physical, social, and intellectual growth. human differences are the result of interaction between biological and environmental factors. observing large numbers of individuals and looking for characteristics that occur most frequently at any given age can explain normal growth
Cultural Approach
defines normal according to established cultural standards.

human differences can be explained by examining the values of any given society. what is considered normal will change over time and for culture to culture

reflects how we perceive ourselves although those perceptions may not be consistent with how others see us
Olmstead Decision
in 1999 the supreme court ruled that it is in violation of the ADA to discriminate against people with disabilities by providing services only in institutions when they could be served in a community based setting. this historic decision encourage policy makers to reevaluate how they deliver publicly funded services and supports to people with disabilities. communities must have (1) comprehensive effective working plan for placing qualified people in less restrictive settings, and (2) a waiting list for community based services the ensures people can receive services and be moved off the list at a reasonable pace.
Barrier free Facilities
a building or structure without architectural obstructions that allows people with mobility disabilities move freely through all areas.
intellectual disability
limited ability to reason, plan, solve problems, think abstractly, comprhend complex ideas learn quickly, and learn from experience
intellectual abilities
include reasoning, planning, solving problems, thinking abstractly, comprehending complex ideas, learning quickly and learning from experience
adaptive behavior
conceptual, social, and practical skills that have been learned by people in order to function in their everyday lives
principle of normalization
making the patterns and conditions of everyday life and of mainstream society available to persons with disabilities
the ability to regulate ones own behavior
down syndrome
the chromosomal pairs on the 21st pair have an extra chromosome, also called non-disjunction
direct instruction
teaching academic subjects through precisely sequenced lessons involving drill, practice, and immediate feedback
sheltered workshop
segregated vocational training and employment setting for people with disabilities
supportive employment
jobs for the severely disabled who will need continuous support and for whom competitive jobs have traditionally not been possible
person first language
form of linguistic prescriptivism in English, aiming to avoid perceived and subconscious dehumanization when discussing people with disabilities, as such forming an aspect of disability etiquette.
self-fulfilling prophecy
prediction that directly or indirectly causes itself to become true, by the very terms of the prophecy itself, due to positive feedback between belief and behavior
learned helplessness
A condition in which a person suffers from a sense of powerlessness, arising from a traumatic event or persistent failure to succeed.

It is thought to be one of the underlying causes of depression

sociological model
health places more emphasis on the environmental, social and economic causes of disease rather than solely focusing on the biological aspect- as seen in the Medical Model. Health promotion and disease prevention is a key aspect, instead of relying on the treatment.
strength based approach
a social work practice theory that emphasizes people’s self determination and strengths
educational right of children with disabilities in the United States that is guaranteed by the Rehabilitation Act of 1973[1] and the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) defined as “the provision of regular or special education and related aids and services that are designed to meet individual needs of handicapped persons as well as the needs of non-handicapped persons are met and based on adherence to procedural safeguards outlined in the law.
No Child Left Behind
United States Act of Congress concerning the education of children in public schools.

based on the belief that setting high standards and establishing measurable goals can improve individual outcomes in education. The Act requires states to develop assessments in basic skills to be given to all students in certain grades, if those states are to receive federal funding for schools. The Act does not assert a national achievement standard; standards are set by each individual state

Highly Qualified Teacher
a federal definition under No Child Left Behind legislation that sets a standard for teachers who provide instruction in core academic subjects
Evidence Based Special Education Practice
ensures an appropriate educational experience for students with disabilities . they enhance learning opportunities for students of all Ages and across multiple settings and include individualization, intensive instruction and teaching academic adaptive and or functional life skills
Parental Safeguards and Involvement
set of requirements to ensure that children with disabilities are provided with a free appropriate public education, according to the standards and mechanisms established by the IDEA and its regulations
Due Process Hearing
whenever there is a dispute between the parent and the school district over the district’s proposal or refusal to initiate or change the identification, evaluation, proposed IEP or portion thereof, the implementation of the IEP, educational placement, or the provision of a free appropriate public education (FAPE).
designed to meet the unique educational needs of one child, who may have a disability, as defined by federal regulations
Least Restrictive Environment
identified as one of the six principles that govern the education of students with disabilities and other special needs. By law, schools are required to provide a free appropriate public education (FAPE) , means that a student who has a disability should have the opportunity to be educated with non-disabled peers, to the greatest extent appropriate.

They should have access to the general education curriculum, extracurricular activities, or any other program that non-disabled peers would be able to access. The student should be provided with supplementary aids and services necessary to achieve educational goals if placed in a setting with non-disabled peers. Academically, a resource room may be available within the school for specialized instruction, with typically no more than two hours per day of services for a student with learning disabilities.[1] Should the nature or severity of his or her disability prevent the student from achieving these goals in a regular education setting, then the student would be placed in a more restrictive environment, such as a special school, classroom within the current school, or a hospital program. Generally, the less opportunity a student has to interact and learn with non-disabled peers, the more the placement is considered to be restricted.

Nondiscriminatory and Multidisciplinary Assessment
testing of students in their native or primary language, whenever possible, the use of evaluation procedures selected and administered to prevent cultural or racial discrimination, validation of assessment tools for the purpose for which they are being used, assessment by a team of school professionals using several pieces of information to formulate a placement decision.
Related Services
those services necessary to ensure that students with disabilities benefit from their educational experience. may include special trasnportation, sppech pathology, psychological services, physical and occupational therapy, recreation, rehabilitation, counseling, social work, and medical services
Special Education
specially designed instruction provided at no cost to parents in all settings (such as the classroom, physical education facilities, the home, and hospitals.)
Zero Exclusion Principle
advocates that no person with a disability can be rejected for a service regardless of the nature or extent of their disabling condition
a student centered approach to instructional decision making
Intensive Instruction
frequent instructional experiences of significant duration
Functional Life Skills
practical skills that facilitate a person’s involvement in family, school, and community life.

adaptive instruction
instruction that modifies the learning environment to accommodate unique learner characteristics
a person’s ability to consider options and make appropriate decisions and to exercise free will, independence, and individual responsibility.
social ecological model
an organization that provides structure for human interactions, defining roles, establishing goals for behavior, and specifying responsibilities in a social environment
family centered support
encourages families to take the lead in establishing and pursuing their priorities. focuses on the strengths and capabilities of families not their deficits.

directed at the entire family, not just the mother and the child

face-face interactions
(williams)the importance of being able to see the face of each member during a meeting
positive interdependence
(williams) developed by sharing common goals, ideas, resources and materials, and the work decision making and responsibility of the team
individual accountability
(williams) making sure to contribute positive interdependence and use time effectively in a team meeting
group processing
(williams)taking time to see how each member is feeling about being a member of the team. not doing this good lead to hurt feelings or violatino of trust
team norms
(williams)how team members are expected to behave and interact. help to establish trust, work cooperatively, productivity, belonging, respect, accomplish goals and
disorder with onset prior to age 3 characterized by extreme withdrawal, self-stimulization, intellectual deficits, and language disorders
autism spectrum disorder
the range of functioning in multiple skill areas found among those with autism disorders
asperger syndrom
a condition that shares unusual social interactions and behaviors with autism, but includes no general language delays
rett syndrome
neurological condition primarily affecting girls who develop normally until about 5-30 months of age when their skill development slows and in many cases regresses
a meaningless repetition or imitation of words that have been spoken in children with autism and language delays
stereotypic Behavior
behavior involving repetitive moments such as rocking, hand flicking or object manipulation
emotional disorder
behavior problems, frequently internal, exhibited by difficulties in expressing emotions evoked in normal everyday experiences
functional behavioral assessment
assessments to determine the child’s skills, the characteristics of the setting, and the family’s needs resources, expectations, and aspirations
response to intervention
a problem-solving structure to identify and address student difficulties using research based instruction and interventions monitored over time
strength-based assessment
assessment that rates a child’s strengths and uses this information to develop a strength centered individualized education program
curriculum of control
classroom routines, structures and instructional strategies focused on controlling children rather than teaching them success-related behaviors
wrap around services
care that provides comprehensive services to youth and their families using flexible approaches coordinated and orchestrated by a team
full inclusion
the delivery of appropriate specialized services to children or adolescents with EBD or other disabilities in general education settings
behavior disorders
conditions in which the emotional or behavioral response of individuals significantly differ from those of their peers and seriously impact their relationships
orthopedic impairment
an impairment such as an amputation, the absence of a limb, or a condition associated with cerebral palsy that may affect physical and educational performance
physical disbilities
disabilities that can affect a persons ability to move about, use the arms and legs, and or breathe independently
other health impairment
a category of disability that includes students with limited strength as a consequence of health problems
cerebral palsy
a neuromuscular disorder caused by damage to one or more specific areas of the brain, most often occurring during fetal development before during or shortly following birth or during infancy
spina bifida
a defect present at birth that involves the incomplete growth if the spinal chord or its coverings
spinal cord injury
an injury derived from the bruising, traumatizing or severing of the spinal cord, producing bleeding and swelling that often produce irreversible damage resulting in loss of motor and/or sensory function
muscular dystrophy
refers to a group of 30 genetic diseases marked by progressive weakness, degeneration, and death of the skeletal or voluntary muscles which control movement
health disorders
disabling conditions characterized by limited stamina, vitality, or alertness due to chronic or acute health problems
cystic fibrosis
a life-threatening genetic disease that causes mucus to build up and clog some of the organs in the body, particularly the lungs and pancreas
seizure disorder (epilepsy)
a brain disorder in which clusters of nerve cells, or neurons, in the brain sometimes signal abnormally causing strange sensations, emotions, and behavior or sometimes convulsions, muscle spasms, and loss of consciousness
sickle-cell anemia
an inherited disorder that profoundly affects the structure and functioning of red blood cells
traumatic brain injury
occurs when there is a blow to the head or when the head slams against a stationary object.