Learners display skill/knowledge in real-world applications
Permits a range of responses and more than one correct answer- requires a criterion level
An observable behavior that is the product of learning
Teaching learners how to think, reason, critically evaluate and problem-solve in real world contexts
Conveys a specific behavior to be attained, the conditions which this will occur, and the proficiency desired.
Practice toward a learning outcome
Development of intellectual abilities and skills
The degree of performance or level of proficiency desired
General expressions of values that give a sense of direction
Development of attitudes, beliefs, and values
Knowledge of how to do things
Identifies what must be learned.
Facts, concepts, rules, generalizations in a given domain
Coordination of physical movements and performances
Measures a skill or behavior directly and it will be used in the real world – a culminating product
Thinking about thinking
Performances required for real – world interactions
Ways of achieving a common instructional goal with students who are individually different.
A method of adaptive teaching. Teacher provides the required knowledge, background, or skill so students can learn new info.
A method of adaptive teaching.
Teacher chooses a method that will circumvent a student weakness and build on student strengths. May require changes in content, process or product.
differentiation of content
Teacher varies the manner in which information is presented to students. Vary by modality (visual, auditory, kinesthetic, intrapersonal, interpersonal, etc) and use examples that reflect the knowledge and interests of your students. Provide info in organized and incremental steps.
Teacher varies the learning context, from whole group to small group to individual.
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This provides for gradual release of responsibility to the student and interactions in the shared workspace. Vary the modalities and group composition.
Teacher provides multiple ways for students to express their knowledge. Can use a Tic-Tac-Toe or student/group contract to allow students to present knowledge in a way this is relevant to them and plays to their strengths. Be sure that student is ‘stretching’ and not coasting!
environmentalist position (general ability testing)
Tests are culturally biased – over emphasize language skills which may not be practiced in some cultures. Favors middle class – maintains the ‘status quo’.
hereditarian position (general ability testing)
Intelligence is determined by heredity. Not all children have the same mental abilities.
Memory, verbal intelligence, non-verbal intelligence, concrete reasoning and abstract reasoning. (25% of school success)
specific abilities/social competence
Motivation; Health; Social Skills; Quality of teaching; prior knowledge; emotional well-being; family support (75% of school success)
Preferred modalities for learning or expression: Linguistic; Logical-mathematical; Musical; spatial; bodily-kinesthetic; interpersonal; intrapersonal; Naturalist
Steinberg’s definition of intelligence
The ability to learn and think using known patterns and relationships to learn new info.
Logical progression of ideas – from general to specific and simple to complex. Facts before concepts; concepts before procedures. Build to your desired final outcome (unit level).
Socio-economic status – more important than race or any other demographic in predicting achievement in school.
Using the rules of one culture to make assumptions about language or behavior of another culture.
Recognizing and valuing cultural differences.
cultural deficit model
Genetics and culture are reason for student differences. Those not in the mainstream are deficient.
cultural difference model
Cultures and language backgrounds are equal but different and should be used to support learning.
cultural frame of reference
How a person has learned to respond to the world – knowing this is key to teaching them.
teacher task orientation
how much classroom time a teacher devotes to teaching an academic subject
considered essential for effective teaching: lesson clarity, instructional variety, teacher task orientation, engagement in the learning process, student success rate
used in combinations to implement key behaviors: using student ideas and contributions, structuring, questioning, probing, teacher affect (developing teacher-learner relationship)
student success rate
the rate at which students understand and correctly complete exercises and assignments
the teacher’s variability or flexibility of delivery during the presentation of a lesson
teacher mediated dialogue
an exchange in which the teacher helps learners restructure what is being learned using their own ideas, experiences, and thought patterns
the percentage of time devoted to learning when your students are actually on task, engaged with the instructional materials, and benefiting from the activities being presented