There are present many differences in the manner of life between France and the United States of America ; from the societal construction to the occupation market. from the political ambiance to the legislative construction ; from the linguistic communication to manner and so on. The focal point of my research paper is a comparative survey of the system of instruction of the two states ; foregrounding the single traits of each and discoursing the similarities and the differences between the two. I will concentrate on the followers: • How the educational systems of France and the USA are likewise and how they differ ;
– Similarities and differences between the Gallic and American primary instruction ; – Similarities and differences between Gallic secondary and American high schools ; • Approaches to educational reform undertaken by France and the U. S. An scrutiny of these countries intends to offer a clearer penetration to the Gallic and American educational systems. Basic Differences between the Gallic and American Systems From the beginning of the two systems of instruction. to the policies regulating instructors. the federal budget allotment for instruction ; the unsimilarities are many.
I will foreground the major differences between the two distinguishable systems. Harmonizing to “Education in France. ” 2006. in 2006. the Gallic federal budget for instruction was $ 83 billion ( or 64. 6 billion Euros ) whereas the American budget was $ 69. 4 billion ( “Education in America. ” 2006 ) . The Ministry of National Education is France’s largest employer. using pedagogues at every degree – from simple to professors. whereas in America. instructors are employed by territory and professors straight by their several College or University.
There is no incorporate organic structure. unlike the Ministry of National Education in France. which manages pedagogue employment. Gallic schools are comprised of four constituents: 1. Kindergarten or Maternelle. 2. Primary school or Ecole elementaire. 3. Junior High or College. and 4. High school or Lycee. American schools are by and large divided into three or four parts. harmonizing to Cozic ( 1992 ) : 1. Preschool and kindergarten 2. Junior high 3. High school France’s doctrine of instruction is basically unlike that of the United States. as highlighted below. citing Fraser ( 1963 ) :
“In 1957 the Ministry of National Education gave the undermentioned history of school organisation in France: ‘The hierarchy of the three great subdivisions. Primary. Secondary. and Higher. as conceived by the Constituent Assembly and built by Napoleon – to which was later added Technical Education – remains the footing of our school organisation. ‘” Gallic instruction is divided into three parts ; basic American instruction is in consequence branched into merely two. primary and secondary. with the 3rd constituent. higher instruction. is fast going a privilege. non enjoyed by excessively many pupils in the current epoch.
The high school graduation rates besides differ between the two states. In 2001. it was estimated that 70 % of American public high school pupils graduated ( Greene & A ; Forster. 2006 ) . France was taking to accomplish 80 % high school graduation rate. This apparently little difference has important effects on the literacy degrees of the states. which so become apparent in other countries. such as the employment rate. a nations technological or scientific degree of promotion. higher instruction degrees of a state ( per centum of the population who has attended College or University ) .
Differences in the Primary Educational Systems of France and USA Education at the primary degree is extremely stressed upon in both the states. The principals and doctrine of instruction between both the states is most similar at this phase in a child’s academic calling than any other phase. Kindergarten and simple school. or maternelle and ecole elementaire is viewed as a critical occasion in the life of a kid. Attendance in kindergarten and maternelle is compulsory in both the states ; nevertheless parents chose to direct their kids at as immature an age as possible – 3 or 4 being the mean age of attending.
In France. preschool or maternelle is divided into three annual periods. These are: 1. Bantam subdivision ( age 3 ) . 2. Moyenne subdivision ( age 4 ) . and 3. Grande subdivision ( age 5 ) . There exist besides pre-maternelle establishments ( or day care centres ) . which parents frequently decide to direct their kids to ( Lee & A ; Sivell. 2000 ) . Primary School Children of both France and the U. S. are required to go to primary schools. In France. a national authorization has been set which dictates the mandatory school attending of all six twelvemonth old kids ( Education in France. ” 2006 ) . This isn’t the instance in America. where the policies differ between the provinces.
A kid can get down at 5. or 6 depending on the educational Torahs in the province of abode. It is by and large agreed nevertheless that kids in both America and France should go to school every bit early as possible. which proves to be good in the cognitive and larning development of a kid ; helps to develop their societal accomplishments and instills disciplinary values. Elementary School Elementary school attending in both the states is mandatory excessively. In America. this normally entails the continuance between 6 old ages to 11 or 12. depending on the state’s ( of abode ) policy on instruction.
The simple schooling system runs from 1st class. 2nd class. 3rd class and so on in the American system. The 6th class is included in the Elementary system in some province. while non in others. In France. nevertheless. due to the national guidelines on instruction. kids begin ecole elementaire from the age of 6 to 10. in the continuance of which they pass through five classs. cours preparatoire. cours elementaire premiere annee. cours elementaire deuxieme annee. cours moyen premiere annee and cours moyen deuxieme annee.
In the early phases of simple system ( or ecole elementaire ) of both the states. one or two instructors are assigned to learn all the topics. which excessively are really similar. including: • linguistic communication. • history. • geographics. • societal surveies. • math. • scientific discipline. • art or music and • physical instruction Religious instruction is avoided at this degree in France and in America merely a really few Elementary schools provide spiritual classs. High School ( or Lycee ) methodological analysis
While the learning doctrine and methods between both the states are alone. they basically serve similar intent: equipping pupils with a solid educational base to fix them for their hereafters. The differences between the Gallic secondary schooling system ( college. and secondary school ) and the American junior high and high school are many. There exist similarities excessively – both systems require attending ( although in France no attending is required after the age 16 ) .
In both systems. school choice is based on the country of abode and in both states parents can pay a small more and educate their kids in private. In the American secondary system. middle or junior high is the spread of 2 or 3 old ages between simple and high school. In France. nevertheless. in-between school or college usually begins in class 6. denoted as 6e. at 11 old ages of age. This lasts four old ages. traveling down to rate 3e when the pupils are about 14. Rate 2e follows. and begins the high school ( secondary school ) . a three twelvemonth period. stoping with their last twelvemonth or terminale.
In the American system. pupils commence junior high either at the 6th Grade ( age 12 ) or the 7th Grade ( age 13 ) . remaining at this phase for 2-3 old ages and so traveling on to Rate 9 ( or High School ) around the age of 15 ( Urdan. 2001. p. 112 ) . This stage extends to four old ages. stoping at the completion of the 12th Grade. Another major unsimilarity between the two systems is that U. S. pupils are normally required to take standardised trials every bit shortly as the Grade 6. including the SATs or ACTs on occasion during in-between and high school.
In France. pupils can take the standardised trials. or the baccalaureat after the completion of their schooling. to assist find what route they’ll take after secondary school. The Gallic baccalaureat is the equivalent of the U. S. high school sheepskin. merely difference being that Gallic pupils have to unclutter specific trials to get their bac ( as it is called. Besides. pupils may make up one’s mind non to take the bac. since it is “in jurisprudence more an test for entryway into university than a lycee completion exam” ( “Baccalaureat” 2006 ) .
A noteworthy facet of the Gallic secondary school is that pupils are provided the chance to specialise in peculiar classs the last few old ages of high school. Both the U. S. and Gallic secondary systems require pupil attending. but pupils in France are obliged to go to merely till the age of 16. After that certain tests are to be undertaken which decide what courses the pupil will take for the remainder of his/her schooling. Students who do good on these scrutiny are given a opportunity to go to a secondary school to analyze for the baccalaureat boulder clay they are 18 old ages old.
Vocational Courses offer those pupils a sawed-off survey period of two old ages who don’t score good on the entryway trials. That is considered one of the strengths of the Gallic system. Alternatively of insulating the vocational subdivision. they amalgamate it within the secondary schooling system. which is promoting for pupils to non merely learn about other countries within their current educational system. but to stay with their equals excessively. Sing the classs. Gallic pupils are permitted merely a restricted figure of options for the way they choose to take.
They are restricted to a few classs and the figure of electives they can take are really few. American pupils. on the other manus. aren’t restricted as such. Most schools permit their pupils to take electives. provided they fulfill certain pre-requisites and the excess classs will finally assist them take up to a sheepskin. Gallic pupils who don’t do good on the in 2nde grade tests can fix for for Brevet d’Enseignement Professionel ( BEP – a enfranchisement in learning ) . or Certificat d’Aptitude Professionelle ( CAP – a certification of professional aptitude ) .
Both these are easy adaptable to gain the pupil a “baccalaureat professionel. ” which. although non every bit esteemed as a baccalaureat in other countries. like as math or scientific discipline. but would still be a immense advantage to pupils prosecuting other countries ( Guichard. 2000. p. 62 ) . Gallic pupils who decide to take the bac are given a pick between three “streams” . all of which entail sole specialisations and carry different ‘weights’ . They are: 1. Scientifique ( natural scientific disciplines ) . 2.
Economique et sociale ( a blend of scientific disciplines and literature with some economic sciences and societal surveies ) . and 3. Litteraire ( Gallic linguistic communication. geographics. history. foreign linguistic communications and literature ) ( “Baccalaureat. ” 2006 ) . Educational Reform In the recent old ages. the subject of educational reform has been deriving impulse. The Bush disposal set forth a “Leave No Child Behind” educational reform policy ( McGuinn. 2006 ) . with the purpose of supplying instruction to every kid in the United States.
Similarly. in France. educational reform frequently turns into political issue for the leaders. who bicker over subdivisions of the nucleus course of study in respects to what is best for the state. There is a important disparity between reform in France and America. As stated earlier. France has a standardized course of study for its public schools. whereas in the United States. the course of study has to be set by the provinces and school territories. This is one of the grounds Gallic educational reform is less extended than the reform measures and Acts of the Apostless passed in the U. S.
to modify the educational system. Decision Taking into position all the ways in which instruction differs between France and the United States. it is problematic which state has the superior system. Each of the two states have pros and cons. The inquiry of which system is superior is irrelevant in this context. There is no 1 correct or wrong manner to educate a kid ; what works good for one pupil might neglect for another. Choosing one construction over the other would be nonmeaningful since both have their ain set of awards and reverses.