hypothesis then purposeparticipants then instruments then proceduanalysis then interpretation
What are 2 main types of research?
Basic & Applied
What is basic research?
Basic research develops foundation for future research. Uses a fundamental process; lab manipulations. ex: experimental, non-experimental, correlational, qualitative, multimethod.
What is applied research?
Applied research answers questions to get solutions and is considered an “action” subtype dereved from real world findings.
List 5 types of basic research and describe each.
Experimental= cause/effect with manipulation of indep. variable.2. Non experimental=lacks manipulation & random assign of participants.3. Correlational= focused on vaar direction as parrallel (positive) or intersecting (negative).4. Qualitative= hypothesis based or ethnography5.
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Multimedia= fishnet of some of the basics of the other 4 types of research.
List types of variables and describe each.
Quantitative= varies in amountCategorical= vary in typeIndependent = causes change in anotherDependent= influenced by independentIntervening=in betweenConfounding= variable taht systematically varies with the IV & wrongly influences DV.Extraneous= competing or another influence on the DV.
Contrast inductive and deductive reasoning.
Deductive is top-down, confirmatory, tests theories & hypotheses, general to specific; theory then hypothesis then data, quantitative, explanatory, and stats results.Inductive is bottom up; generatory, generates the theory or hypothesis, specific to general, observe to generalize, qualitative, exploratory, narrative results.
How do you control an extraneous variable in a non-experimental design?
*matching= equal extraneous in each grp*Hold constant= put extraneous in both grp*Statistical control= use a partial correlation by averaging correlations or use an analysis of covariance by equating both groups statistically.
List some ways you can manipulate the IV to affect the DV
Presence or absence= ex: one group receives treatment; other group doesn’t.Amount= groups receive different amounts of treatmentType= Different groups receive different types of treatment.
List the basic steps in conducting research.
1. Determine the problem2. Determine variables3.
Collect data4. Analyze data5. Interpret results
Describe some strong research design elements.
*Repetition of same treatment or measures.
* use of control group for comparison.*Use of pre and post testing*Use of random assignment.
Discuss some weak research design elements.
*Post testing or pre testing instead of both.
*No comparison group.*use static groups that are pre-formed.*All of the above can allow extraneous variables to be present & unequated which affects results.
Define 4 main types of random sampling methods.
CLUSTER:random selected churches/schoolsSTRATIFIED:selected to represent subgroup to group proportional to actual population.(number of females in sample equals proportion in original population)SYSTEMATIC: uses a sampling interval.SIMPLE: (random) all members of population have equal chance of selection.
What is the best research design in terms of sampling?
Random selection and random assignment.
What is Reliability?
The degree to which scores obtained an an instrument are consistent measures of what is being measured.
What is test-retest reliability?
Scores over time of the same test group.
NOT too soon/NOT too long after.
What is equivalent forms reliability?
2 tests to test the same thing. Items are different but content, no. of items & scoring is same.
What is internal consistency:
Internal item consistency ensures that you are measuring the same content.
What is split half reliability?
*Take one test, cut it in half/compare equivalent forms as discussed above.
Did the study measure what it said?
When is validation most important?
*With interpretation.*Value of decisions made based on data.*Gather evidence to support decisions.
List and describe 4 ways to test validation.
*content validity- testing reflects instruction.*Criterion related- concurrent and predictive (testing, predicting, performance)*Construct validity=testing proves unobservable.*Factor analysis- chinking items or subtests.
Discuss threats to internal validity.
*IV doesn’t cause DV (confounding or extraneous variable)*History= event occurs between pre and post test that affects score.*Maturation=learning, age or fatigue*Pre testing= pre test tips off learner for post test.*Instruments= standard of data collected or different pre/post test items.*Statistical regression=scores tend to lower on second testing.*Selection= Different participants have different characteristics.Interaction with selection= “Different groups may react to event and others to aging.Selection by history interaction=comparison groups experience different historical event.*Selection by maturation= comparison groups experience difference in change in aging, etc.
Discuss threats to external validity:
*Do the results transfer to other people at other times?*Population valid? Sample group transfer to target population.*Accessible population=random selection from accessible pop should be representative of accessible population (may not be of total population).*Ecological validity= results transfer across settings.*Multiple treatment interference=carry over from one treatment affects response in another treatment.*Reactivity= results are affected by the spotlight phenomena (people know they are being watched).*Experimenter effects=biases*Temporal validity= results generalize across time (examples, events, fashion, beliefs)
List the 3 elements that make an assessment:
*Testing to measure variables*Observation to record behaviors*Interview to record answers
List main data collection methods for primary data.