Egypt and Mesopotamia were two of the most significant civilizations known in the world, they both were developed in the same region of Middle East and North Africa. Both Egypt and Mesopotamia were closely interconnected and influenced by one another. These civilizations are grew up different of each other in more ways than one also. In this paper I will explain how the civilizations of ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia thrived due to their writing system, agriculture and also the long rivers that surged across their lands, helping with their agricultural needs, they were able to acquire and maintain their power by laying the foundation of these three things.One of the most important contributions made by the Mesopotamians was the first writing system, this system was called cuneiform and it was created in the Sumerian culture. They needed a writing system so that they were able to keep keep their records. According to (Mahdavi, 2012, Chapter 2.
2) “temple personnel kept track of the receipts and payments of goods, grain, sheep, goats, cattle, and other merchandise by drawing the shapes and quantity of what was received on clay tablets.” By 2900 BCE the writing system that they were using had evolved; they were able to use symbols to express objects and sounds and abstract ideas. By using that form of writing they were able to record economic transactions, religious mythology, hymns, proverbs, and religious essays for future generations to read. “Gradually, they began to use cuneiform to record other activities such as government decrees, military supply needs, tax receipts, and the keeping of the king list, a document that indicated which dynasty was in power” (Mahdavi, 2012). Cuneiform was the standard form of writing in all Mesopotamia and it help create and maintain the Mesopotamians power by using this unique writing system.
Travelers from Mesopotamia introduced the writing concept to the Egyptians because of the commercial exchanges they did and also because the Egyptians writing resembled the cuneiform writing system. According to (Mahdavi, 2012, Chapter 2.3) “Egyptians writing took the form of what the Greeks called hieroglyphics, meaning “sacred carvings,” a system of pictographs and sound symbols.” This writing system was primarily used to record sacred texts for the Egyptians.
Later they begin to use it to record and organize the central government and state affairs. There was also the invention of the stylus and papyrus in Egypt, a writing tool that was developed from the stem of the papyrus plant. The papyrus plant grew in the delta region of the nile.
“The Egyptians built libraries to house the written material, and officials were in charge of caring for the documents. Inexpensive papyrus instigated a proliferation in writing and led to the dissemination of religious texts and scientific knowledge” (Mahdavi, 2012).Egypt and Mesopotamia civilizations had great farming systems and they used it to gain power and maintain their civilization. “Both Egypt and Mesopotamia civilizations have similar economies that centered around agriculture and heavy trading along these rivers” (Bhugra, 2017). Egypt had a very reliable agriculture system during their civilization; both Egypt and Mesopotamia had flooding seasons, this allowed easier farming conditions. “In Egypt, agriculture was the foundation of the egyptian economy and essential to the lives of the people of the land” (Mark, 2017). The lands were fertile, in a good season, so there was enough produced to feed everyone in the country for a year and still have a oversupply. The oversupply was stored and used for trade or saved for spare meals, Agriculture was one of the best ways Egyptians maintain their power, by laying the foundation of their agriculture ways.
“Ancient Egyptian agriculture has been defined as “the? ?science and practice of the ancient Egyptians from predynastic times that enabled them to transform an expanse of semiarid land into rich fields after each inundation of the Nile” (Marl, 2017). In Mesopotamia agriculture was very important for them. “Because the climate of Mesopotamia was dry with little rainfall, farmers depended on the flooding of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers for water for their crops. The silt left behind from the flooding water made the soil fertile” (Infobits, 2011). The people of Mesopotamia tended to their lands grew many things to help them survive for many and many of years. Agriculture allowed farmers to trade to get things that they needed.
“Mesopotamians traded their extra grain for stone, wood, metal products, and other goods. They produced this extra grain by irrigation. They built canals, ditches and dikes to bring water to the land from the rivers” (Infobits, 2011). So, agriculture and farming was a huge contributor to the development of the Mesopotamian civilization and this is how they were able to maintain their power.
Both Egypt and Mesopotamia had long rivers that surged across their lands. “The ancient civilizations of Mesopotamia and Egypt were both facilitated by rivers that ran in their midst. Mesopotamia resided on the Euphrates and the Tigris rivers while Egypt resided on the Nile river” (Bhugra, 2017). These rivers help both civilizations with trading because they had to do it along the rivers; they also depended on the rivers for irrigation.
Every year from July to November the Nile River would over flood and leave fertile silt and washed away all the waste in the land. The Euphrates and Tigris river did not flood as much as the Nile river, so irrigation was sometimes hard, but they made a way to still somehow manage. Without these rivers these civilizations would not have existed. With these rivers they were able to establish trade networks. The Egyptians were able to gain access to gold, ebony, animan skin and ivory during their trades. For Mesopotamians the farmers traded their things like barley, gems, cotton, copper and wool for goods a services. So, for both Egypt and Mesopotamia, the rivers that surged across their lands was kind of a life saver for everyone in the land; without them they wouldn’t have been able to maintain their power. In conclusion, as I have stated before Egypt and Mesopotamia were two of the most significant civilizations known in the world.
Because of their writing system, agriculture and also the long rivers that surged across their lands their civilizations were able to thrive and they were able to acquire and maintain their power by laying the foundation of these three things. The writing system helped them to communicate with one another and als leave reports and other things for the future people of their lands. The agriculture helped to feed all the people of the land. Lastly, the rivers helped to produce fertile lands.
Without the rivers it would have been impossible for the civilizations to make it as far as they did.