ELL vocab
stands for “Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills” – language skills needed for social situations.

Jim cummins differentiated between Social and Academic language acquisition. Social interactions are usually context embedded. they occur in a meaningful social context. usually develop within 6 months to 2 years.

Why does BICS cause a problem?
Problems arise when people/teachers think that a child is proficient with the language when they demonstrate good social skills
What is Scaffolding
Refers to the idea that specialized instructional supports need to be in place in order to best facilitate learning when students are first introduced to a new subject
Affective Filter
The presence of the affective filter explains how two students can receive the same comprehensible input, yet one makes progress while the other does not. One is “open to the input while the other is not.

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If we spark interest, and increase the learner’s self-esteem, the blockage can be reduced.

Register: a variety of a language used for a particular purpose or in a particular social setting. One way is to look at the relationship between language forms and the features of the context. We call this relationship ‘linguistic register.’ The descriptive categories we use are Field, Tenor, and Mode. the relationship between the language and the context of its use. This is known as linguistic register
refers to the subject matter or topic. Field answers the question: “What is happening?” “What is the activity?” “What is the text/multimedia about?” We examine a language/literacy project to find out its content and aims.

The description of the content should be clear and detailed enough to give readers a sense that they have explored the site themselves. At this juncture we can begin to suggest how the content affects the vocabulary used.

refers to the roles of the participants in an interaction. Tenor answers the question: “Who are participating and what is their relative status or power how students interact with one another and with teachers or others who are collaborating.
refers to the channel of communication. Mode answers the questions: “What is the language doing?” Examining the material once more, we look more closely at the language itself. We describe the code (language) used—e.g.

, English, Korean, Spanish, sign language, or mixed codes. We describe the means (sometimes called the channel of communication): whether the communication is spoken or written, whether the site presents graphics or images, and whether there is a combination of these semiotic systems.

: (Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency) Refers to the formal academic learning. Ex: reading, listening, speaking, and writing about subject area content materialThis level of learning language is essential for students to succeed in school~ 5-7 years….includes learning skills such as comparing, classifying, synthesizing, evaluating, and inferring.
Inner Speech
by which the child mediates and regulates her activity through her thoughts which in turn are mediated by the semiotics (the meaningful signs) of inner speech. This is not to say that thinking cannot take place without language, but rather that it is mediated by it and thus develops to a much higher level of sophistication.

Zone of Proximal Development. Vygotsky’s term for the range of tasks that are too difficult for the child to master alone but that can be learned with guidance and assistance of adults or more-skilled children. Child follows the adult’s example and gradually develops the ability to do certain tasks without help or assistance.
Social Construction of knowledge
In any learning context the relationships between the social, the cultural and the historical aspects inherent in forms of communication combine to influence not just what is learned but also how it is learned. The learner brings prior knowledge and combines it with new knowledge through his or her interaction with others.
refers to the idea that specialized instructional supports need to be in place in order to best facilitate learning when students are first introduced to a new subject.

The 4 skills: Listening, Reading, Writing, Speaking
Literacy involves all domains of language: Listening, reading, wriging and speaking. Generally beginners, especially those who are nonliterate, benefit most from listening and speaking instruction with relatively little work on reading and writing. As fluency increases, the amount of reading and writing in your lessons may also increase. With advanced learners, up to half of your lesson time can be spent on written skills, although your learners may wish to keep their focus weighted toward oral communication if that is a greater need.
Speaking involves two-way communication.

the principle components of speech include grammar (or syntax), vocabulary, intonation and stress, pronunciation, fluency, and accuracy.

Listening skills are vital for your learners. it is the first step to acquiring language.

Of the ‘four skills,’ listening is by far the most frequently used. Listening and speaking are often taught together, but beginners, especially non-literate ones, should be given more listening than speaking practice. It’s important to speak as close to natural speed as possible, although with beginners some slowing is usually necessary

Includes early phonics instructuion and use of reading strategies as key components of literacy instruction. reading comprehension is a function that requires graphic and textual support for the student to understand the text. When choosing texts, consider what background knowledge may be necessary for full comprehension.

Tends to be one of the hardest skills for ELL students to learn. students use their prior experiences and knowledge of the world to apply a variety of strategies to, ultimately, make meaning. beginners may start out through drawing, labeling objects, generating lists, or a brief response.
Initiation/Response/Feedback), the teacher asking a question, a student responding, followed by another teacher raised question.

pattern dominates,the teacher’s feedback may actually inhibit learning because she changes students’responses by adding to or deleting from their statements, or completely changes a student’s intent and meaning.Tthe cognitive work of the lesson is often carried outby the teacher rather than the students. In these classrooms, students are seldom given the opportunity to elaborate on their answers; rather, the teacher does the analyzing,synthesizing, generalizing, and elaborating.

involves the teacher asking a question, a student responding, the teacherevaluating the response. Initiation/Response/Evaluation.Often it is the teacherwho ultimately answers his or her own question, especially when no students volunteer
Comprehensible input
Development of second language can develop without formal instruction and study. Language isn’t “soaked up”. The learner must understand the message that is conveyed.

It is a hypothesis proposed by Krashen. He says that they should acquire language by hearing, and understanding messages that are slightly above their English level = Comprehensible input + 1

Comprehensible Output
learners need opportunities to practice language at their level of English language competency. This practice with English-speaking peers is called Comprehensible Output. Cooperative learning groups are one way for new learners of English to receive plenty of understandable input and output.
Explicit instruction
Explicit teaching involves directing student attention toward specific learning in a highly structured environment.

It is teaching that is focused on producing specific learning outcomes.Topics and contents are broken down into small parts and taught individually. It involves explanation, demonstration and practice. Children are provided with guidance and structured frameworks. Topics are taught in a logical order and directed by the teacher.

A language or vocabulary used to describe or analyze language.
Of or relating to two distinct cultures in one nation or geographic region