Elucidating creating an entirely new flow-field causing abnormal

Elucidating blood flow and transport of macromolecules
in the human arterial system is crucial for the in depth understanding of
genesis and progression of atherosclerotic plaques, 1. The Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD)
has proven to be an excellent tool for obtaining qualitative and detailed
quantitative information on stent flow patterns, 2. Oscillating flow develops complex flow field
and from computational point of view poses a difficult task.

Nowadays stent implantations are widely used to unblock
arteries with stenosis. Stents are usually deployed in arteries with significant
amount of stenosis (plaque). However, stent implantation drastically alters the
blood flow characteristics creating an entirely new flow-field causing abnormal
endothelium response. Furthermore, stent designs
greatly influence the reaction of the arterial wall. Questions arise as to how
increased heart rate affect Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) distribution in stented
arteries. Of equal importance is the answer to the question: does diastole in relation to systole favors
elevated LDL distribution at increased heart rates? Stent
implantation affects the Wall Shear Stress (WSS) in the surrounding upstream
and downstream strut flow regions 3. Considering oscillatory flow, low time-Averaged Wall Shear
Stress (AWSS) values give rise to atherosclerotic lesions at specific coronary
arterial regions as it is now widely accepted. The developed highly complex
laminar flow yields low and oscillatory WSS, increase LDL uptake and
permeability, 4.
Thus, the progressing of atherosclerosis is present. Oscillating WSS, lower

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