Emanuel, Ezekiel J. “Euthanasia
and Physician-Assisted Suicide.” Archives of Internal Medicine162,
Emanuel’s article provides
thorough research of empirical data about euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide
in the United States over the past 10 years, which has revealed many unexpected
findings that has affected public views over the issue. The author discusses various
attitudes about euthanasia and physician- assisted suicide among the American
public, physicians, practices of US patients, and practices of non-physician
health care professionals. The author also discusses how public support for euthanasia
and physician- assisted suicide is closely related reasons why patients want to
die. Emanuel found that pain did not seem to be the main reason patients were motivated
to request euthanasia or physician- assisted suicide, but feelings of hopelessness,
depression, and other psychological factors seemed to motivate patients to that
decision. The article includes several tables relevant to the research
R. Jeffery, Thomas D. Koepsell, Lorna A. Rhodes, and Robert A. Pearlman. “Physicians
Responses to Patients Requests for Physician-Assisted Suicide.” Archives
of Internal Medicine161, 2001.
The authors used an ethnography
approach in conducting the research study on how physicians respond to patient
requests for assisted suicide. The authors found that all physicians respond uniformly
to the requests made by patients regardless of different attitudes and beliefs
about physician-assisted suicide. The reasons for request where broken down into
3 broad categories: physical symptoms, psychological issues, and existential suffering.
During the study the authors found that physicians tend to avoid sharing
knowledge, discussing, or do not receive any support from other health care
professionals about decisions regarding assisted suicide. The authors discuss
that there is a professional code of silence among physicians when talking
about assisted suicide, because of this, professional isolation is made around
those who do discuss the difficult issue.
N. B., M. L. Van Der Lee, Johanna G. Van Der Bom, Jan Van Den Bout, and Peter
M. Heintz. “Effects of euthanasia on the bereaved family and friends: a
cross sectional study.” Bmj327, 2003.
The authors used cross
sectional design for their study on how euthanasia in terminally ill cancer
patients affects the grief response in bereaved family and friends. The authors
discuss how family and friends of euthanized cancer patients had less traumatic
grief, compared to patients who died a natural death. The authors explain that
the reason for less grief symptoms and post-traumatic stress reactions among
family and friends of cancer patients who have been euthanized is because they
were able to say goodbye to their loved ones while they were still fully
cognitive or “there”, they were more prepared for when their loved one will die
and how they would go, and they are able to talk about euthanasia openly. The article had a few tables relevant to the research
Keith G., John F. Scott, Ian D. Graham, Jean F. Kozak, Susan Chater, Raymond A.
Viola, Barbara J. De Faye, Lynda A. Weaver, and Dorothyann Curran.
“Attitudes of Terminally Ill Patients Toward Euthanasia and
Physician-Assisted Suicide.” Archives of Internal Medicine160,
The authors conducted a thorough
survey on the attitudes of terminally ill patients toward euthanasia and physician-
assisted suicide, including their attitudes toward acceptability and legal
status of euthanasia and assisted suicide, their perceived differences between
euthanasia and assisted suicide, their personal interests in receiving euthanasia
or assisted suicide, and their reasons for wanting euthanasia or assisted suicide
in the future. The authors also discuss hastened death requests from terminally
ill patients in their current circumstances and how physical symptoms are just
as important as psychological symptoms (feelings of burden). The authors found
that many patients who are terminally ill support the idea that euthanasia or
physician- assisted suicide should be legalized and believe that they should
have the control and right to choose whether they would like to end their life.
The article had a few tables relevant to the research conducted.