English Proverbs

Definition and Origin of Proverbs Linguists have been long intrigued by the remarkable capacity and internal structural complexity of proverbs. Indeed, despite their outward simplicity, proverbs and proverbial phrases are far from being simple. On the one hand they are language phenomena similar to ordinary phraseological units and on the other hand they are logical units. This accounts for the fact that proverbs have attracted attention of linguists, folklorists and other specialists in this domain.

Carrying our investigation of proverbs we began with the study of various approaches to their definitions. Proverbs have been carried out from generation to generation, and each meaning surely defers from generation to generation. One fact about proverbs is that you are allowed to use it in whichever way you feel is correct to your situation. There are many proverbs that contain proper names. The same as other proverbs, they came from people’s everyday life, folklore, prose and poetry, myths, fairy tales, fables, songs, slang and other sources.

Quite a few proverbs with proper names are familiar to people of different nationalities, and it’s natural that a student of English wants to know how to say those colorful expressions in English. It should be pointed out, though, that proverbs with proper names are not often used in speech or writing. Here is a list of proverbs which contain proper names people’s names, e. g. : 1) Bacchus has drowned more men than Neptune. ????? (????) ?????? ?????? ?????, ??? ??????. 2) Caesar’s wife must be above suspicion. ???? ?????? ?????? ???? ???? ??????????. 3) If the mountain will not come to Mahomet, Mahomet must go to the mountain. ??? ???? ?? ???? ? ????????, ??????? ?????? ???? ? ????. 4) Jack of all trades is master of none. ???, ??? ??? ?????, ?? ? ??? ?? ??????????. geographical names, e. g. : 1)All roads lead to Rome. ??? ?????? ????? ? ???. 1)Rome was not built in a day. ??? ?? ?? ???? ???? ??? ????????. 2)When in Rome, do as the Romans do. ? ????? ????????? ?? ????? ??????? ?? ?????. nationalities, e. g. : 1)An Englishman’s home is his castle. ??? ??????????? – ??? ????????. 2) I fear the Greeks even when bringing gifts. ????? ?????? (????????), ???? ?????????? ????. 3) The Dutch have taken Holland! ????????? ????????? ?????????! months, e. . : 1)April showers bring forth May flowers. ????? ? ?????? ????? ????? ? ???. 2)March comes in like a lion and goes out like a lamb. ???? ???????? ??? ???, ? ?????? ??? ???????. objects or places that are capitalized and used as names, e. g. : 1)All work and no play make Jack a dull boy. ?????? ??? ?????? ???????? ????????. 2)East or West, home is best. ? ?????? ??????, ? ???? ?????. I. Arnold considers that a proverb is a short epigrammatic saying, which expresses popular wisdom, a truth or a moral lesson in a brief and imaginative way. [I. Arnold, p. 34], e. g. : A friend in need is a friend indeed. ??? ????????? ? ????. According to other definitions proverbs and sayings are: a) short statements of wisdom or advice that passed into general use; more homely than aphorism, proverbs and sayings generally refer to common experience and are often expressed in a metaphor, alliteration or rhyme, e. g. : When the cats away, the mice will play. ??? ???? ? ????? ????????. b)wise sayings; they are usually popular and memorable, e. g. : All is well that ends well. ??? ??????, ??? ?????? ?????????. c)they are short and to the point, e. g. : Practice makes perfect. ?????????? – ???? ??????. )they provide wise advice, e. g. : Slow but sure wins the race. ????????, ?? ???????? ? ?????? ??????. e)they contain simple truths from experience over the years, e. g. : A burnt child dreads the fire. ?????????? ???? ???? ??????. [www. proverbio. com] The Advanced Learner’s Dictionary of Current English by A. S. Hornby gives such a definition of a proverb: “A proverb is a short, well-known sentence or phrase that states a general truth about life or gives advice, warning or wisdom” [A. S. Hornby, p. 26]. As we see the place of proverbs and sayings with respect to set-expression is a very controversial question. As I.

Arnold gives it, proverbs have much in common with set-expressions, because both proverbs and set-expressions have constant lexical components, their meaning is traditional and figurative in most cases, and they are introduced into speech ready-made. [I. Arnold, p. 36] In papers devoted to proverbs many definitions can be found. Professor Mieder in one of his papers – with admitted overstatement – puts that “We can almost sate that there are more definition attempts than there are proverbs. ” [Wolfgang Mieder, p. 16] If a classification of the proverb definitions is attempted, the following main views can be distinguished: 1.

Archer Taylor states that “The definition of a proverb is too difficult to repay the undertaking … an incommunicable quality tells us this sentence is proverbial and that other is not. ” Some authors consider that a proverb is identical with its text: 2. A proverb is a short sentence of wisdom [Wolfgang Mieder, p. 18] A proverb is a standard statement of moral and colloquial imperatives in fixed metaphorical paradigmatic form; it deals with fundamental logical relationships. [Nigel Barley, p. 39] A proverb is a general statement or judgment, explaining, classifying or assessing a situation. Wolfgang Mieder, p. 18] 5. A proverb is a popular fixed sentence expressing a rule of conduct or wisdom in a vivid, short form. [Wolfgang Mieder, p. 19] There exist a few more complex definitions: 6 “A proverb is a popular set phrase having no author, knowing mostly in diffrernt languages, expressing in one sentence a principle, advice, a genuine or assumed truth in a general, concise form. Its basic idea being of general validity or at least its user considers it as such. ” [Garbor O. Nagy, p. 41] 7. “A proverb is a stereotype linguistic entity expressing a fixed idea.

On the linguistic level it is an artistic picture, on the level of ideas a judgment. As a work of art of folklore it belongs to the secondary semiotic systems. It is a communication system with a double code, a carrier of information at the level of language, but at the same time the information carries content too, becoming a instrument of poetic expression. ” [Voo Gabriela, p. 58] ^/’Proverbs are short, generally known sentences of the folk that contain wisdom, truths, morals, and traditional views in a metaphorical, fixed and memorizable from and that are handed down orally from generation to generation. [Wolfgang Mieder, p. 21] In our graduation paper we stick to the point that a proverb is a short, standard, spoken, written or stored statement (sometime allowing for one or a few standard variants too and sometimes in a poetic form), having an evident or implied general meaning (or general idea) related to a particular typical common or typical rare field of general human condition, attitudes or actions, with implied proper scope and limitation of validity. The reference to the general meaning/idea may be direct (maxim-type proverb) or implied (metaphoric proverb).

It has a currency, i. e. it is well-known and often quoted in a period of time in a certain small or large language community (or in a part of the community), sometimes in a shot form (the rest being implied). In common knowledge it has no known author or literary source. Some of the proverbs have been in use across the English-speaking world for many years, others (especially Scottish proverbs) have spread from regional use to achieved general currency in the 19th and 20th centuries. Many saying from Latin, Greek and the continental languages were drafted nto English. The proverb has retained its popularity as a commentary on life and as a reminder that the wisdom of our ancestors may be useful to us today. The computer world and economics have recently given us a potential classic6 e. g. : 1) Garbage in, Garbage out. ????? ?? ??????, ?? ?????? 2) There is no such a thing as a free lunch. ??? ?????? ? ????????? ??????????. There is no doubt that proverbs help us in our everyday life and communication to cope with the complexities of the modern human condition. [www. DeProverbio. om] The traditional proverbs and sayings and their value system give people some basic structure and if their worldview does not fit a particular situation, they are quickly changed into revealing and liberating anti-proverbs. And there are, of course, the new proverbs of our time; thousands of proverbs that make up the stock of proverbial wisdom of all cultures represent not a universally valid but certainly a pragmatically useful treasure. Comparing the proverbs and sayings of different nations we find out that each nation’s history, economic life, cultural tradition, mentality, morality, etc. are fully expressed in its proverbs.

The specific meaning and functions of particular proverbs should always be determined within the individual contexts where the sayings occur. Thus a proverb is a short, standard, spoken, written or stored statement (some time allowing for one or a few standard variants too and sometimes in a poetic form) having an evident or implied general meaning related to a particular typical common or typical rare field of general human conditions, attitudes or actions, with implied proper scope and limitation of validity. It has a currency, i. e. it is well known and often quoted in a period of time in a certain small or large language community.

In common knowledge it has no author or literary source. Proverbs and sayings are thought to contain the essence of wisdom. Wisdom comes from experience. Experience comes from making mistakes. So proverbs and sayings are largely records of someone’s mistakes, formed to a single phrase, and turned into an example for posterity. There are many proverbs that came from people’s everyday life, folklore, prose and poetry, myths, fairy tales, fables, songs, slang and other sources. Native English Proverbs, e. g. : 1)Bite off than one can chew ????? ? pom ??????, ??? ?????? ??????????; 2)Don’t hold one’s head high

He ????? ?????? ??????; 3)In for a penny, in for a pound ??????? ?? ?????, ?????? ? ?? ???? The Proverbs Denoting Traditions and Customs of English Folks, e. g. : 1) Good wine needs no bush ??????? ???? ?? ????????? ? ?????? (many years ago innkeepers set up the branch of ivy that means that here it is possible to buy the wine) 2)Carry coals to Newcastle ?????? ????? ? ??????? (Newcastle is a centre of English coal industry) 3)Adversity makes strange bedfellows ? ????? ? ??? ?? ?????????? (The separate beds are uncommon in England in the XVI and XVII centuries. And people slept together)

The Proverbs that Prefer to Human Activities (Work), e. g. : 1)Care killed a cat ?????? ?? ????? ?? ??????? (“Much Ado About Nothing” W. Shakespeare) 2)Better a witty foil than a foolish wit ????? ????? ?????, ??? ?????? ?????? (“Twelfth Night” W. Shakespeare) 3)He must have a long spoon that sups with the devil ???????? ? ??????, ????? ?? ???? (“The Canterbury Tales” Jaffrey Chooser) 4)Murder will out ???? ? ????? ?? ?????? (“The Canterbury Tales ” Jaffrey Chooser) 5)Fools rush in where angels fear to tread ??????? ????? ?? ????? (“An Essay on Criticism ” Alexander Pop)

The Proverbs from the Bible, e. g. : 1)Can leopard change his spots? ????? ????? ??????? ???????? ???? ????????? ?????’: (=????????? ?????? ????????) 2)Cast pearls before swine ?????? ????? ????? ???????? 3)Ask the bread and be given a stone ????????? ?????, ? ???????? ?????? 4)Pride goes before a fall ??????? ?? ????? ?? ??????? (=?????? ????????, ?? ? ???? ????????) The Proverbs Borrowed from others languages a) Greek, e. g. : 1) One swallow does not make a summer ???? ???????? ????? ?? ?????? (Aristotle) 2) There’s many a slip ‘twixt the cup and the lip

He ?????? ‘???’ ???? ?? ???????????? (Aristotle) b) Latin, e. g. : 1) Fire that’s closest kept burns most of all ??????? ????? ??????? ????? 2) Anger is a shot madness ???? – ???????? ??????? 3) Homer sometimes nods ?????? ????? ????????? 4) Like cures like ???? ?????? ???????? The proverbs Borrowed from American English, e. g. : 1)Bark up the wrong tree ????? ?? ??????, ?? ??????? ??? ???? 2)Swap horses while crossing a stream ?????? ??????? ?? ????? ????????? (=??????????? ?????? ???????? ? ???????????? ?????? (after Lincoln’s election)) 3)A mill cannot grind with water that is past. ??????? ?? ????? ?????? ?? ??????? ????. 4)Be in general virtuous, and you will be happy. ?????? ? ????? ??????????????, ? ?? ?????? ?????????. The Chinese Proverbs, e. g. : 1)A big tree attracts the gale. ??????? ?????? ??????????? ?????. 2)A clever person turns great problems into little ones and little ones into none at all. ????? ??????? ???????????? ?? ????????? ? ??????? ????????, ? ????????? ???????? ????????. 3) A friend – one soul, two bodies. ???? – ???? ????, ???? ???????. 4) Better a diamond with a flaw than a pebble without one. ????? ????? ? ???????, ??? ??? ?????? ???????. The Scottish Proverbs, e. . : 1)A penny saved is a penny earned. ??????????? ????? ??? ???????????? ???????. 2)Confession is good for the soul. ????????? – ??? ?????? ??? ????. 3)Don ? cry before you are hurt. He ?????, ?????? ??? ?????????. 4)?? that would eat the fruit must climb the tree. ??? ?? ?????? ??????, ????? ????????? ?? ??????. §2 Proverbs and Phraseological Units Proverbs are variants of phraseological units identical to each other in quality and quantity of meanings, in stylistic and syntactical functions, while the lexical stock and word order may differ. One can single out the following types of phraseological variants: 1. exical variants 2. grammatical variants 3. lexico-grammatical variants 4. position variants, which can be of two types: mono structural and heter ? structural 1. quantitative variants, which also can be of two types: with a decrease of elements and with an increase of elements 5. punctuation variants 6. combined variants The analysis of these groups shows that the first group contains lexical variants. These are such phraseological variants, which are identical to each other in quality and quantity of meanings, in stylistic and syntactical functions, but in this case some lexical changes take place, e. . : a) Adversity is a good teacher b) Adversity is a good discipline c) Adversity is a good schoolmaster d) Adversity is a strict master ???? ?????, ?? ??? ????. All these proverbs render the same idea and the images are, to some extent, identical, but the words used in these proverbs are different (teacher, discipline, master). As to their syntactical function in the sentence it remains the same – the nominal part of a compound nominal predicate. Let’s consider some more examples: a) A bad wound is cured, not a bad name. b) An evil wound is cured, but not the evil name. ?????? ????? ????????, ? ??????????? ????????? ?? ????????????. The lexical change that occurs here {cat in gloves; sleeping fox) is as follows: in the first proverb the idea of laziness is expressed by means of a phraseological expression, the second proverb is more simple for understanding, e. g. : a) Close is the shirt, but closer is the skin. b) Near is my shirt, but nearer is my skin. ???? ??????? ????? ? ????. The same can be said about the following proverbs: a) All cats are gray in the dark. (Ch. Dickens “David Coperfield”) b) All cars are gray in the night. ?? ????? ????? ????. The lexical change is in the dark – in the night. The context of the second proverb is more concrete, e. g. : Beauty is in the eye of the beholder. Beauty is in the eye of the gazer. He no ???????? ???, a no ??? ?????. The lexical change is beholder, gazer. The second variant is more common. It should be noted that the change consists in using of a different word of the same part of speech. They may be: NOUNS: e. g. : 1) Better be the head of an ass than the tail of a horse. Better be the head of a dog than the tail of a lion. ????? ?????? ?????. ?? ???? ??????. 2) Better half an egg than an empty shell. (G. Flaubert “Madame Bovary”) Better a small fish than an empty dish. ?? ???????? ? ??? – ????. Lexical changes are horse; lion and half an egg; small fish. The meaning of the last two word combinations is the small quantity, but the idea of it is expressed differently. The lexical change in this example also takes place in the second part of the proverb ‘an empty shell – an empty dish’. And it can be placed in any part of the sentence: at the beginning, in the middle or at the end of it, e. g. : Poverty is not a shame. O. Henry “The Shocks of Doom”) Poverty is not a crime. Poverty is no sin. ???????? ?? ?????. Lexical changes are shame; crime; sin. All these words are synonyms so they do not change the quality and quantity of meaning, their stylistic functions are identical. VERBS: e. g. : 1. A penny saved is a penny earned. (O. Henry “A Lickpenny Lover”) A penny saved is a penny 2ained (sot). ???? ???????????? ???? ???? ???????????. 2. A sin confessed is half forgiven. A sin confessed is half redressed. ????????? – ?????? ????????. Lexical change earned – gained (got) and to be forgiven – to be redressed.

In the second proverb the poetic rhythm occurs confessed – redressed. ADVERBS: e. g. : Unbidden guests are usually welcome when they are gone. Unbidden guests are often welcome when they are gone. ???????? ????? ?????????? ????????? ??????, ????? ??? ??????. Lexical change is usually – often. PREPOSITION: e. g. : There is ill talk between a full man and a fasting. There is ill talk betwixt a full man and a fasting. ??????????? ???????? ????? ????? ????????? ? ??????????. Lexical change is between – betwixt. CONJUNCTIONS: e. g. : Two is company and three is none. Two is company but three is none. ?? ????, ??? ?????? – ??????. Lexical change is and – but. ARTICLES: e. g. : Worry killed a cat. Worry killed the cat. ??????????? ? ??? ?? ? ???. Lexical change is ? – the. There are also cases when several lexical changes occur in the proverb, e. g. : Bad news flies fast. Ill news travels quickly. ?????? ??????? ?????? ???????????. Lexical changes are: bad – ill (adjective), flies – travels (verbs), fast – quickly (adverbs). Grammatical phraseological variants are the variants where some grammatical changes occur. First let’s take some examples concerning the change in the category of number, e. . : Like father(s), like son(s). Like mother(s), like daughter(s). ?????(?) ????(????), ?????(?) ???(????). Thus we can see that the grammatical category of number is a subject for changes. Taking into account our material it occurs very often. Not only morphological changes occur in grammatical phraseological variants but also morpho-syntactical ones. In such cases the morphological features and the syntactical function of the word alter simultaneously. The most vivid example of this phenomenon is the double possibility of possessive case formation, e. g. 1)a) An idle brain is the devil’s workshop. b) An idle brain is the workshop of the devil. ?????????? – ???? ???? ???????. 2)a) The eyes are the soul’s mirror. b) The eyes are the mirror of the soul. ????? – ??????? ????. Here we observe not only morphological changes but also some alteration in the syntactical function. In the first proverb of each pair the marked part syntactically performs the function of an attribute expressed by the noun in the possessive case. In the second proverbs the objects are expressed by the noun with a preposition.

Though the difference seems to be insignificant it is still distinguished by linguists. Another interesting case of syntactical function alliteration is presented by the grammatical variants where the change of the Active into the Passive Voice takes place, e. g. : 1. A fail face may hide a foul heart. (L. Cook “Sammantha’s Secret Room”) 2. A foul heart may be hidden by the fair face. ??? ???????? ?????????? ????? ?????????? ?????? ????. In the first variant a fail face is the subject and a foul heart is the direct object. In the second variant they just change their syntactical function.

In some cases another alteration is observed – the change of the Present Indefinite tense into Future Indefinite Tense, e. g. : Hawks do not pick out hawk’s eyes. Hawks will not pick hawks eyes out. (Journal of Folklore Research) ????? ?????? ????? ?? ???????. This phenomenon can be explained by the type of proverbs: as it is known they express universal truth and are generalized. This coincides with the grammatical functions of the Present Indefinite and Future Indefinite Tense – to express usual and repeated actions. The next group of proverbs under discussion is the group of lexico-grammtical phraseological variants.

Lexico-grammtical variants are such phraseological variants, in which both lexical and grammatical alterations take place, e. g. : 1. Crows do not pick out crow’s eyes. 2. Hawks will not pick out hawks’ eyes. ????? ?????? ????? ?? ???????. In this examples the noun crows and substituted for noun hawks that is a lexical change; and the verb pick – for will pick out, which is a grammatical change. In the following proverbs the noun habit is substituted by the noun dangers that is a lexical change; and a grammatical change is represented by the category of number habit (is) – dangers (are), e. g. Habit is overcome by habit. Dangers are overcome by dangers. The next group under consideration is the group of positional phraseological variants. Positional variants are such phraseological variants where the position of words undergoes some alteration. Positional variants can be of two types: monostructural and heterostructural. a) Monostructural positional phraseological variants are those where the structure of the proverbs does not alter, e. g. : All is not gold that glitters. Not all gold that glitters. He ??? ?? ??????, ??? ???????. Here the negation is related to different words but the essential meaning remain the same.

In the first case the negation is related to the word gold, in the second – to the word all. In the next proverbs the logical stress is changed here. In the first proverb the stress is on the word iron and in the second on the action – verb strike, e. g. : Strike the iron while it is hot. Strike while the iron is hot. (Journal of American Folklore) ??? ?????? ???? ??????. b) Heterostructural positional phraseological variants are those where the structure of the variants alters, e. g. : 1. Every cloud has a silver living. There is silver living to every cloud. ?? ???? ??? ?????. 2. Everything is good in its time. (L. Cook “Samantha’s Secret Room”) There is a time for everything. ????? ???? ?????. As it can be seen from these examples the first proverb of each pair is the simple sentence with the simple verbal or nominal predicate while the second proverb of the each pair is expressed by the verb to be in the construction there is/there are. The next group of phraseological variants goes under the heading quantitative phraseological variants. Quantitative phraseological variants are the phraseological variants where the quantity of components may vary.

Quantitative variants can be of two types: with a decrease of the number of elements and with an increase of the number of elements like in the following proverbs: Quantitative variants with a decrease of element, e. g. : A sood beginning is half the battle. Well begun is half done. ??????? ?????? ??????? ????????. (Folk-Tales of the British Isles) The second proverb is shorter and more precise certainly is more comprehensible. Samples of quantitative variants with an increase number of elements may survey the proverbs, e. g. : 1. Barking dogs seldom bite.

Dogs that bark at a distance do not bite at hand. ??????, ??? ????, ????? ??????. 2. Fools have fortune. (Ch. Dickens “David Coperfield”) The biggest fools have the best luck ??????? ?????? ?????. As we seen the second proverb of each pair extends the idea and explains the meaning of its variant. The next group of phraseological variants is punctuation phraseological variants. Phraseological variants are the phraseological variants where the punctuation alteration takes place. Usually it is the change of the affirmative sentence into the interrogative one, e. g. : The moon does not need the barking of dogs.

What does the moon care if the dogs bark at her? ?????? ????, ? ??????? ????. As a rule the interrogative variant wears the shade of the rhetorical question producing a certain effect on the interlocutor. The following examples prove this idea, e. g. : 1. The leopard cannot change his spots. Can the leopard change his spot si ????????? ?????? ????????. 2. The shoemaker’s wife is always the worst shoed. Who goes barer than shoemaker’s wife? ???? ????????? ?????? ????? ???? ????. The last group of phraseological variants is made up of combined variants.

In this case any possible changes could be observed no matter whether they are related to lexical, grammar, or punctuation, e. g. : 1. Almost and hard by saved many a lie. 2. Almost was never hanged. 3. Almost never killed a fly. ???????????? ??????? ?? ????????. Here we see the grammatical change – category of tense and voice – save (Present Indefinite Passive) – killed (Past Indefinite Active) – was hanged (Past Indefinite Passive). The first proverb can also be viewed as a quantitative variant with an increase of the number of elements in relation to the other two. Lexical changes also are quite substantial. 3 Some Approaches to the Definition of Proverbs Some scholars following V. V. Vinogradov, think that proverbs and sayings must be studied together with phraseological units. Other scholars like G. Casares and N. N. Amosova think that it is erroneous to include proverbs and sayings into the system of language, because they are independent units of communication. N. N. Amosova asserts that there is no more reason to consider them as part of phraseological units than, for example, riddles or children’s counts. [I. Arnold, p. 36] It is important to distinguish proverbs and sayings from phraseological units.

The first distinctive feature is the obvious structural dissimilarity. The definition of the phraseological units says: “Phraseological Units are a kind of ready-made blocks which fit into the structure of a sentence in order to form a certain syntactical function, more or less as words do” [G. B. Antruscina, p. 23], e. g. : To have a bee in one’s bonnet ???? ? ?????????; ???? ?????????? ?? ???-???? Proverbs, if viewed in their structural aspect, are sentences and so cannot be used in the way in the way in which phraseological units are used, e. g. Never trouble trouble until trouble troubles you. He ???? ????, ???? ???? ????. Further on, if we consider proverbs and phraseological units under the semantic aspect we will notice that proverbs and sayings sum up the collective experience of a community. They moralize, give warning or give advice, e. g. : Let them laugh that win. ??????? ???, ??? ??????? ?????????. No phraseological unit ever does any of these things. They do not stand for whole statements as proverbs and sayings do, but for a single concept only. Their function in speech is purely nominative, they denote an object or an act.

The function of proverbs in speech though is communicative, they impact certain information. It may be added that sometimes there does not seem to exist any rigid or sharp borderline between proverbs and phraseological units as the latter rather frequently originate from the former. For example, the phraseological units Birds of a feather (????? ?????? ???????? ?????????? ??????). And even more, some of the proverbs are easily transformed into phraseological units, e. g. : 1)Do not cast pearls before swine (a proverb) He ???? ????? ????? ????????. )?? cast pearls before swine (a phraseological units) ?????? ????? ????? ????????. Some scholars assert that proverbs may be treated (folkloristic study of proverbs) from three points of view: a) folkloristic approach b) linguistic approach c) logico-semiotic approach In order to understand a proverb really well, one must consider it from all the angles and in terms of the images it employs. Though it is not image but the underlying logical frame that makes a proverb, with the images providing building material. Nevertheless their role in the overall structure is far from negligible.

The two-plane description of proverbs, which takes into account their linguistic as well as their logical and semantic structure, provides a much better insight into their nature than any single-plane description. Yet, it is insufficient for an adequate understanding and appraisal of the type of proverbs mentioned, e. g. : 1. In much com is some cockle. 2. A feast is not made of mushrooms only. Although these proverbs reveal almost the same idea, only one would fit in a context where the other would be totally inappropriate. The point is that images lend to the proverb not only emotiveness but also local colour.

One becomes particular aware of it in comparing similar proverbs belonging to different nations. Each nation uses its own realia, e. g. : Do not carry coal to Newcastle. He ???? ?? ????? ????????? ? ????. It would be hard to understand this proverb without knowing that there are huge amounts of coal in Newcastle and the samovar is manufactured in Tula. Proverbs of different peoples owe their specific features, all their ethnic, geographical, historical and linguistic uniqueness. Finally it is the realia (tied in with the logical semiotic features) that give proverbs artistic value.

This is immediately apparent when one compares any concrete proverb with its logical scheme, e. g. : 1)When the horses are gone, the donkeys take over the field. In the absence of a good thing, it can be replaced by a less worthy thing. 2)Sings and omens used in rural life and bits of farming wisdom. There is a scabby sheep in every flock. Hence, we can come to the conclusion that these three main aspects of proverbs provide a full enough description of such expressions. Usually the expression proverbs and proverbial phrases are treated as a single term.

It is true that they have much in common; however, special paremeological studies try to distinguish these two concepts. Generally, the term proverb refers to allegoric sentences, formulating a compete statement. While the term proverbial phrases is used to refer to allegoric sayings, expressing an incomplete statement. [Permyakov G. L. , p. 61], e. g. : 1. If you run after two hares at once, you will catch neither. ?????????? ?? ????? ???????, ?? ?????? ?? ????????. 2. ?? run after two hares. ??????? ?? ????? ???????. Grammatically, proverbs and proverbial phrases form two major classes.

Let us consider the following proverbial sayings: 1. To fire cannon at sparrows ???????? ?? ????? no ????????. 2. Only the grave will straighten the hunchback. ????????? ?????? ????????. While the former takes its final shape (and concrete meaning) only in a context, which supplies the missing elements (in this case the subject), the latter is reproduced in speech in its permanent and stable form. In other words, the latter is fully cliched, while the former is only partly so. Sentences that are fully cliches, those consisting of stable elements and not subjected any changes or additions in speech are called closed.

Sentences that are partial cliches contain variable parts that are modified or complemented in spec, are called open sentences. Cliches, which yield open sentences, are proverbial sentences, whereas cliches, which yield closed sentences are proverbs. Furthermore, all the proverbs and proverbial phrases fall into two classes depending on the degree of generalization. Some narrate particular incidents, individual and sometimes downright exceptional cases, while other proverbs speak of regular occurrences, rules or customs, e. g. : 1. A good shepherd must fleece his sheep, not flay them. 2.

The losers are always in the wrong. Sentences of the former type can be called particular and those of the latter type can be called general. Of cause, the difference between particular and general sentences is of a purely logical nature. However, as much it can be reflected in grammar, it cannot be ignored in a linguistic classification. Particular sentences are as a rule of the definite-personal type, e. g. : Somebody fishes in a trouble water. ??????? ? ? ??????????? ????. Less frequently, they are of certain impersonal structures containing an indication of past tense or completed, e. . : /gave the mouse a whole, and it has become my heir. ? ??? ????? ?????, ? ?? ???? ???? ???????????. These sentences are, for the most part: a) indefinite – personal Curiosity killed the cat. ??????????? ????? ????????. b)generalized-personal A man cannot give what he hasn 4 got. ?????? ???? ??, ???? ? ???? ???. c)Infinitival ?? see is to believe. ???? ????, ??? ??????. d)and of the special generalized type with the under legging formula: “There is no .. , without There is no smoke without fire. ??? ???? ??? ????.

In addition to the grammatical method, universality can also be expressed lexically with the help of various words mostly intensifiers, such as every, always, never, which perform the role of universality quantifiers, e. g. : Every grain has its bran. ? ??????? ????? ???? ??????. The class of particular sentences comprises all the open sentence, i/?/ proverbial phrases, and some of the closed ones, i. e. proverbs, while the generalized sentences are only of the closed type. Each of the above mentioned types is divided into subtypes differing in the motivation of general meaning.

One subtype is image-motivated and it includes clich?s whose overall meaning is not directly derived from the component words, but is linked with them through an image, e. g. : The crow thinks her own birds fairest. ?????? ???????, ??? ??? ????? ???????? ?????. In the clich?s belonging to the other subtype, the general meaning is directly motivated, i. e. directly derived from the meaning of the component words, e. g. : There are as many minds as there are wise men. ??????? ????? ??????? ? ??????. This is not to say that image motivated clich?s have no direct meaning.

They do. But on the other hand, their main message is normally understood to lie not in the literal but in the metaphoric meaning of the image. But the same token, directly motivated can also be used in a transferred sense. Thus the previously cited proverb about wise men can be applied ironically not to wise men but to fools. However, the main message of these clich?s stems directly from the words which they consist of, even though these words themselves may be used in a transferred meaning, as metaphors or metonymies, e. g. : Truth is born from doubt. ????? ????????? ?? ????????. Like all sentences, proverbs possess a certain syntactic structure and belong to a certain communicative type. Two syntactic type of proverbs are distinguished. To the first type belong cliches yielding all possible kinds of simple sentence, e. g. : 1. A bird in hand is worth two in the bush. ????? ?????? ? ?????, ??? ??????? ? ????. 2. Do not cast pearls before swine. He ???? ????? ????? ????????. 3. The feather makes not the bird. He ????? ?????? ????? ??????. The second type includes cliches yielding various kinds of composite sentences, e. . : 1. Dog will not cry if you bit him with a bone. ????? ?? ????? ?? ?????? ???????. 2. If there were ?? clouds, we should not enjoy the sun. ??? ???? ??????, ??? ???? ??????. 3. The fox may grow old but never good. ????????? ?????? ????????. As to the purpose of communication, the proverbs fall into two classes. The first class comprises all sentences all that are affirmative, while the second one comprises all negative ones, e. g. : 1. For want of a shoe, the rider is lost. ??-?? ?????? ?????? ??????? ???????. 2. Crows do not pick out crow’s eyes. ?? ?????? ???? ?? ???????. Each type in turn is divided into three modal subtypes: a)declarative, that comprise sentences containing a neutral statement of some fact or phenomenon, e. g. : The sleeping fox catch no poultry. ?????? ???? ?? ????? ???????? ?????. b)imperative, comprise sentences expressing shades of volition, e. g. : Don’t look after hot water under the ice. He ??? ??????? ???? ???? ?????. ?) interrogative, comprise sentences that give questions to the interlocutor, e. g. : What does the moon care if the dogs bark at her. ? ??????? ????, ??-?????? ????.

Finally proverbs differ in number of structural elements which are juxtaposed, or rather contraposed, in them. Thus, in the proverb Marry in haste, repent at leisure (??????? ?? ?????? ????, ?? ?? ?????? ????), two predicative groups are opposed: marry – repent; in haste – at leisure. But there are proverbs with only one oppositional pairs and those without two oppositional pairs. These are the most essential grammatical features of proverbs. Proverbs may differ in the character of the predicative group (verbal or nominal), lexical fullness and the number of other features, e. . : 1. A blind leader of the blind. ? ??????? ?????? ????????. 2. A storm in a tea-cup. ???? ? ??????? ????. Logico-Semiotic Study of Proverbs. In approaching proverbs from a logical angle, we become immediately aware of the great importance of this aspect for the set folklore expressions. Let us consider the following three proverbs: 1. You cannot wash a black dog white. ?????????? ?????? ?????? ?????? ??????. 2. A crow will not become white however hard you rub it. ?????? ?? ?????? ?????, ??? ?? ?? ?? ????. 3.

No matter how hard you beat an ass, it won’t turn into a mule. ??????? ?? ??? ????, ?? ??? ????? ?? ?????? ?????. On the face of it, the first proverb refers to a black dog, the second – to a crow, and the third – to an ass. In fact they all speak of one and the same thing: “A bad thing will not become a good thing no matter what you do with it”. It is this logical frame, rather than the concrete images (realia), that determines the main message of each these proverbs. It is the logical structure that makes a proverb, while the realia provides building material. [Pernyakov G. L. , p. 6] The same symbols, e. g. “forest” and “animals” (which actually do not represent any saying), can produce different proverbs, depending on the type of logical connection between them, e. g. : Like the forest, like the animals. If the there is a forest, there will be animals. ??? ???? ??? ????????. ?) interrogative, comprise sentences that give questions to the interlocutor, e. g. : What does the moon care if the dogs bark at her. ? ??????? ????, ??-?????? ????. Finally proverbs differ in number of structural elements which are juxtaposed, or rather contraposed, in them.

Thus, in the proverb Marry in haste, repent at leisure (??????? ?? ?????? ????, ?? ?? ?????? ????), two predicative groups are opposed: marry – repent; in haste – at leisure. But there are proverbs with only one oppositional pairs and those without two oppositional pairs. These are the most essential grammatical features of proverbs. Proverbs may differ in the character of the predicative group (verbal or nominal), lexical fullness and the number of other features, e. g. : 1. A blind leader of the blind. ? ??????? ?????? ????????. 2. A storm in a tea-cup. ???? ? ??????? ????. Logico-Semiotic Study of Proverbs.

In approaching proverbs from a logical angle, we become immediately aware of the great importance of this aspect for the set folklore expressions. Let us consider the following three proverbs: 1. You cannot wash a black dog white. ?????????? ?????? ?????? ?????? ??????. 2. A crow will not become white however hard you rub it. ?????? ?? ?????? ?????, ??? ?? ?? ?? ????. 3. No matter how hard you beat an ass, it won V turn into a mule. ??????? ?? ??? ????, ?? ??? ????? ?? ?????? ?????. On the face of it, the first proverb refers to a black dog, the second – to a crow, and the third – to an ass.

In fact they all speak of one and the same thing: “A bad thing will not become a good thing no matter what you do with it”. It is this logical frame, rather than the concrete images (realia), that determines the main message of each these proverbs. It is the logical structure that makes a proverb, while the realia provides building material. [Pernyakov G. L. , p. 26] The same symbols, e. g. “forest” and “animals” (which actually do not represent any saying), can produce different proverbs, depending on the type of logical connection between them, e. g. Like the forest, like the animals. If the there is a forest, there will be animals. ??? ???? ??? ????????. By the same token, the logical frame of the proverbs is determined by the nature of the relationship between objects. This can readily be seen in the way we use proverbs. We always choose proverbs to suit the situation, i. e. the character of relations between objects in real life. When we utter these proverbs any speaker of the language in which they are uttered understands immediately and correctly the message we want to get across, the situation we are referring to.

Thus, proverbs are sings of situations or a certain type of relationships between objects. Being signs they must possess special semiotic properties characteristic of all signs. This means that the logical aspect of proverbs must be approaches to as a logico-semiotic one. Nearly every preface to a collection of national proverbs stresses that the items collected in it reflect, in a vivid from, the life, morals, customs, traditions and specific qualities of the people who have created them. Proverbs, like any other folklore genre, reflected the life and the changing conditions of the people over the centuries.

Proverbs present a realia raging from labour implements to clothing; a comprehensive description of the geographical environment with its landscapes, climate flora and fauna; references to historical events and personalities; echoes of ancient religious beliefs, and a detailed picture of the contemporary social organization. One is struck, however, by the fact that for all their individual national characteristics, proverb collections of different peoples reveal great similarity. Any of these collections, gives us the chance to run immediately into a familiar saying.

If one takes, for instance, collections of proverbs of different nations, in each of the one can find a proverb about the shoemaker who either goes barefoot or has holes in his shoes, e. g. ; The shoemaker is the worst shoed. ???????? ??? ?????. How does one account for the coincidence of proverbs belonging to different people? Scholars have offered different explanations. Some ascribe it to the ethnic and linguistic kinship of the people. [Shakhovich M. , p. 53] Others ascribe it to borrowings in the course of economic and cultural contacts.

Still others ascribe it to the similar of historical experience and “homogeneity of ideology” at similar stages of social development. [V. N. Perets, p. 41] By the same token, proverbs of different peoples that are models of identical or similar situations show a very strong mutual resemblance, despite all the differences stemming from ethnic, geographic, historic and language factors. In term of the character of the situations to which they refer, all existing proverbs can be divided into four large invariant groups. We shall call them logico-semiotic arch-invariants. 1.

The first group is a model of relationship between an object and its properties. If an object possess a certain property, then it can also possess some other property, too, e. g. ; 1. All living things are mortal. ????? ?? ????? ?? ?????. 2. Full bellies make empty brains. ?????? ????? ?????? ?????? ??????. 3. A good action always finds its recompense. ??????? ???????? ?????? ??????? ???? ??????????????. 2. The second group is a model of relationship between objects: were there is an object, there is one more. Or, more accurately, giving the connection between these objects, if there is one, there is another, e. . : 1. Where there is smoke, there is fire. ??? ???? ??? ????. 2. Where every man is a master, the world goes to wreck. ??? ??? ??????? ?????????? ????????, ??? ???????? ????????. 3. If wishes were horses, beggars would ride. ???? ?? ??????? ???? ????????, ??????? ?? ???????. 3. Another group models the relationship between the properties of objects depending on the relationship between those objects, e. g. 1. A candle lights other and consumes itself. ???? ????? ???????? ? ????????? ????. 2. Sh allow streams make most dins. ?????? ????? ???? ??????. 3. A wise head makes a still tongue. ?????? ?????? ?????? ???? ??????????. 4.

The last group models relationships between object depending on whether they possess certain properties, e. g. : 1. A churl’s feast is better than none at all. ??????????? ????? ????? ???? ??????????. 2. A clean fast is better than a dirty breakfast. ??????? ???? ?????, ??? ????????? ???????. 3. ?? would rather loose his friend than his jest. ?? ????? ???????? ?????, ??? ???? ???????????. §4 Semantic Classification of Proverbs The use of proverbs in written texts varies according to the type of text. In normal news texts they are rather rare. In literary texts, especially in fiction written by skilled writers, they are quite frequent.

The meaning of a proverb lies within the person; we all interpret situations and things that are said unto us differently. So as far as proverbs and their meanings are concerned you are allowed to give your own meaning as you see fit because it is according to your view and perceptions. Proverbs somehow fit to all life’s happenings and puts a perfect meaning to all those things. For our research we have collacted a list of proverbs and arranged them by subject-matter. Thus, we have analyzed the proverbs and established the areas of cultural influences, which are manifested in them. Methodology

For comparative purposes the following definition of a proverb would be the most suitable: a proverb is a sentence which shows the following asprcts:: didactic character, picturesqueness and minimum variability. If we want to compare proverbs of different languages the best method to study is them by subject-matter. So, taking into account the sphere of life to which this or that proverb refers. We suggest the following main groups, which were identified in our collection of examples: 1)pride, e. g. : 1)A big tree attracts the gale. (Chinese) ??????? ?????? ??????????? ?????. 2)The higher you climb, the heavier you fall. Vietnamese) ??? ???? ??????, ??? ??????? ??? ?????. 2)opportunity, e. g. : 1)A bird in the hand is worth two in the bush. (Latin Proverb) ????? ?????? ? ????, ??? ??????? ? ????. 2)If the eyes didn’t see, the hands wouldn’t take. (Yiddish) ???? ????? ?? ?????, ???? ?? ????? ??????. 3)New day, new fate. (Bulgarian) ????? ????, ????? ??????. 3) beauty, e. g. : 1) A beautiful thing is never perfect. (Egyptian) ???????? ???? ??????? ?? ?????? ???????????. 2) Beauty is in the eye of the beholder. (Greek Proverb) ??????? ? ?????? ??????????. 3) Beauty without virtue is a flower without perfume. French) ??????? ??? ??? – ?????? ??? ?????. 4) Butterflies come to pretty flowers. (Korean) ??????? ???????? ?????. 4) wisdom, e. g. : 1)A man who asks is a fool for Jive minutes. A man who never asks is a fool for life. (Chinese) ???????, ??????? ?????? ?????? ???????? ??????? ?? ???? ?????. ???????, ??????? ??????? ?? ??????? ???????? ????? ?? ??? ?????. 2) Do not cut down the tree that gives you shade. (Arabian) He ??????? ???????, ??????? ??????? ????. 3) Believe what you see and lay aside what you hear. (Arabian) ????????, ? ?? ??? ?? ??????, ? ?? ??????, ? ??, ??? ?? ???????. 4) Proverbs are the lamp of speech. Arabian) ?????? ???????? ??????? ????. 5) luck, e. g. : 1)A body makes his own luck, be it good or bad. (Unknown) ??????? ?????? ?????? ??????? ??????, ???? ??? ????????? ??? ???. 2) In bad luck, hold out; in good luck, hold in. (German) ?? ???? ??????, ? ????? ????? ?? ???. 3) The day you decide to do it, is your lucky day. (Japanese) ?? ????????? ???? ?? ?????? ??? ???????, ??? ??? ?????????? ????. 4)The person afraid of bad luck will never know good. (Russian) He ?????? ???????, ??????? ?????? ???????. 6) friendship, e. g. : 1) A friend – one soul, two bodies. Chinese) ???? – ???? ????, ???? ???????. 2) A friend’s eye is a good mirror. (Gaelic) ????? ???? ???????? ??????? ????????. 3) Better one true friend than a hundred relatives. (Italian) ????? ???? ???????? ????, ??? ??? ?????????????. 4)Lend your money and lose your friend. (Unknown) ?????? ???????? ????? – ?????? ??? ?????. 7)self-reliance, e. g. : 1)A burden that one chooses is not felt. (Italian) ?????, ?????????? ????? ?????????, ?? ?????????. 2)If you want your eggs hatched, sit on them yourself. (Haitian) ???? ?? ??????, ???? ?? ????? ??? ??????????, ?????? ?? ??? ????. )Your own rags are better than another’s gown. (African) ???? ??????????? ?????? ?????, ??? ??????? ??????. 8)revolution, e. g. : I) A cat in gloves catches no mice. (French) ????? ? ????????? ????? ?? ?????. 9)conscience, e. g. : 1)A clear conscience is more valuable than wealth. (Pilipino) ?????? ??????? ???????? ????? ??????, ??? ?????????. 2) A guilty conscience needs ?? accuser. (English) ???????? ??????? ?? ????????? ? ??????????. 3) A horse may run quickly but it cannot escape its tail. (Russian) ?????? ????? ???????? ???????, ?? ?? ???????? ???????? ?? ??????. ) No sin is hidden to the soul. (Indian) ????? ?? ?????? ? ????. 5) The contented person can never be ruined. (Chinese) ????????? ??????? ??????? ?? ????? ???? ????????. 10)attitude, e. g. : 1) If it were not for hope, the heart would break. (Greek) ???? ?? ?? ???? ???????, ?????? ?? ?? ?????????. 2)The heart at rest sees a feast in everything. (Indian) ?????? ? ????? ????? ???????? ?? ????. 3)When what you want doesn’t happen, learn to want what does. (Arabic) ????? ??, ??? ?? ?????? ?? ??????????, ????????? ??????, ????? ??? ?????????. 11)children, e. g. : 1)A crab walks, so walks his children. African) ???? ????? ?????, ??? ? ??? ?????. 2)A child’s life is like a piece of paper on which every passerby leaves a mark. (Chinese) ????? ???????, ??? ???? ??????, ?? ??????? ?????? ???????? ????????? ?????. 12)truth, e. g. : 1) A crown’s ?? cure for a headache. (English) ?????? – ?? ????????? ?? ???????? ????. 2) Shrouds are made without pockets. (Yiddish) ?????? ??????? ??? ????????. 3)The best thing about telling the truth is… you don’t have to remember what you said! (Unlnown) ????? ????? ???????????? ??????… ???? ?? ???? ???????, ??? ??????! 4)Wherever you go, you can’t get rid of yourself. Polish) ???? ?? ?? ?? ???????, ?? ?? ?????? ?????????? ?? ????. 13)conduct of life, e. g. : 1) A day is lost if one has not laughed. (French) ???? ???????, ???? ?? ?????????. 2) As long as you live, keep learning how to live. (Latin) ?? ??? nop, ??? ??????, ????? ????. 1) Hurry is good only for catching flies. (Russian) ?????? ??????, ?????? ??? ????? ???. 4)One should learn to sail in all waters. (Italian) ????? ????? ??????? ?? ???? ?????. 5)One should speak little with others and much with oneself. (Danish) ????? ???? ???????? ? ???????, ? ? ????? ????? ?????. ) One should speak little with others and much with oneself. (Danish) ????? ???? ???????? ? ???????, ? ? ????? ????? ?????. 14) journey, e. g. : 1) A day of travelling will bring a basketful of learning. (Vietnamese) ???? ??????????? – ??? ??????? ??????. 2) Don ? bypass a town where there’s a friend. (Pilipino) He ??????? ?????, ??? ???? ????. 3) The journey is the reward. (Chinese) ??????????? – ???????. 4)The more you ask how much longer it will take, the longer the journey seems. (Maori) ??? ???? ?? ??????????? “??????? ??? ??? ?????? ???????”, ??? ??????????? ??????? ??????. 15) change, e. g. : )A decision made at night may be changed in the morning. (Samoan) ???????, ???????? ? ?????? ????? ????? ???? ???????? ? ?????? ???????? ???. 2) An hour may destroy what an age was building. (English) ?? ??? ????? ? ??? ???????????. 3) Beginning is easy; continuing, hard. (Japanese) ?????? – ?????, ? ??? ?????????? – ??????. 4)Life is like the moon: now full, now dark. (Polish) ????? ??? ????: ?? ?????????? ?? ?????????. 5)When the moon is full, it begins to wane. (Japanese) ????? ???? ??????, ??? ???????? ???????. 16) rich people, e. g. : 1) One law for the rich, and another for poor. ?? ?????? ???? ?????, ? ??? ??????? ??????. 2) A thiefpasses for a gentleman when stealing has made him rich. ???? ???????? ????????????, ????? ?? ?????????? ???????. 17) war, e. g. : 1)War is sweet to them that know it not. ????? ??????? ???, ??? ?? ?? ?????. 2)War is the sport of kings. 18) fool, e. g. : ????? ????? ???????, ? ?? ??????. ¦ 1)A fool’s bolt is soon shot. ? ?????? ?????? ????? ?? ????????. 2)Fools grow without watering. ?????? ?????? ??? ???????. 19)idlers and slackers, e. g. : 1)Idleness is the root of all evil. ?????????? – ???? ???? ???????. 2)If the devil find a man idle, he’ll set him to work. ??? ????? ????????? ??????, ?? ???????? ??? ???????? ?? ????. 20)economy, e. g. : )? penny saved is a penny gained. ????? ???????????, ??? ?????, ??? ????? ???????????? 2) Take care of the pence, and the pounds will take care of themselves. ?????????? ? ?????, ? ????? ??????????? ? ???? ????. There are conservative proverbs (by meaning) and sometime anti-popular proverbs, e. g. 1)Spare the rod and spoil the child. ????????? ?????, ????????? ???????, (conservative proverb) 2)He that will steal an egg will steal an ox. ??? ????? ????, ????? ??????? ? ????, (anti-popular proverb) Proverbs can also ontain comparison, i. e. comparative structures, e. g. : 1) Blood is thicker than water. ????? ?? ????. 2) Words cut (??? hurt) more than swords. ?? ?????? ????? ?? ?? ??? ?????. Proverbs like blood is thicker than water must not be considered as elliptical and complex sentences, on the basic that the second part of the sentence is elliptical (without predicate is). That is why the proverbs like blood is thicker than water are simple sentences. It is a more complicated problem with proverb as well be hanged (??? hung) for a sheep as for lamb (or as a lamb).

In this proverb there is a quantitative-morphologic variation. It is an elliptical simple sentence. The subject and predicate are omitted, but they are easily restored in the speech process. Of cause, this classification is conventional because it doesn’t include all aspect of human life and can be easily expended. To compare proverbs from different languages the following criterion should be used: equivalent proverbs are those, which can differ completely in their wording but which can be used in the same situation and express the same, almost the same or the opposite meaning. pic] CHAPTER TWO: SOME GRAMMATICAL PECULIARITIES OF PROVERBS §1 Opening Elements in Proverbs a) Articles An article is a word that combines with a noun to indicate the type of reference being made by the noun, and may also specify the volume or numerical scope of that reference. An article is sometimes called a noun marker, although this is generally considered to be an archaic term. The article is a structural part of speech used with nouns. There are two articles in Modern English: the indefinite article and the definite article. The indefinite article has the forms a and an.

The form a is used before words beginning with a consonant sound (a book a pen, a student). The form an is used before words beginning with a vowel sound (an opera, an apple, an hour). The indefinite article has developed from the Old English numeral an (one), and as a result of its origin it is used only with nouns in the singular. The use of Indefinite article implies that the object is presented as belonging to a class. [B. A. Ilyish, p. 26], e. g. : 1) A_ cat in gloves catches no mice. He ??????? ???, ?? ????????. 2) _? clean hand wants no washing. ?????? ??????? ?? ????. 3)A. lose mouth catches no flies. ??? ??????, ??? ?? ??????. 4)_? black hen lays a white egg. ?????? ?????? ????? ????? ?????. 5)A_fool always rushes to the fore. ????? ?????? ?????? ?????. The definite article has one graphic form the, The definite article has developed from the Old English demonstrative pronoun se and in some cases it has preserved this demonstrative meaning in Modern English. The use of definite article shows that the particular object is meant. [B. A. Ilyish, p. 26], e. g. : 1) The early bird catches the worm. ??? ???? ??????, ???? ??? ??????. 2) The end crowns the work. ???? – ???? ?????. 3)The end justifies the means. ???? ??????????? ????????. 4)The tailor makes the man. ?????? ????, ? ???? ????? ?????. A zero article is the absence of an article (e. g. English indefinite plural), used in some languages in contrast with the presence of one. 1)Opinions differ. ??????? ?????, ??????? ??????. 2)Promise is debt. ???????? ??? ????. 3)Dog does not eat dog. ????? ?????? ???? ???????. 4)Betwixt and between. ?? ??, ?? ??. In the Appendix there are 182 proverbs which are opened with articles. 125 of them are opened by A (An) and 57 begin with The. ) Pronouns The pronoun is a part of speech which points out objects and their qualities without naming them. Pronouns can be divided into the following classes: 1) personal pronouns, 2) possessive pronouns, 3) reflexive pronouns, 4) emphatic pronouns, 5) demonstrative pronouns, 6) indefinite pronouns, 7) reciprocal pronouns, 8) negative pronouns, 9) conjunctive pronouns. Personal pronouns serve to indicate all persons and things from the point of view of the speaker who indicates himself or a group of persons including him by means of the personal pronouns of the first person -I, we.

He indicates his interlocutor or interlocutors by means of the pronouns of the second person – you. All other persons or thing are indicated by him with the help of the pronouns of the third person – he, she, it and they [B. I. Rogovskaya, p. 99], e. g. : I) It is the first step that costs. ?????? ?????? ??? ????? ??????. 2)He who hesitates is lost. ??????????? ?????? ???????. 3)We know not what is good until we have lost it. ??? ?????, ?? ??????, ????????? ??????. 4)You cannot eat your cake and have it. ???? ????? ?????? ?? ?????. A possessive pronoun attributes ownership to someone or something.

Like all other pronouns, it substitutes a noun phrase and can prevent its repetition. There are seven possessive pronouns in modern English: my, his, her, its, our, your, their; mine, his, yours, hers, ours, and theirs. The possessive pronouns are usually treated as adjective pronouns, whereas they are in reality noun pronouns or pro-nouns, but they replace only possessive case nouns with which they are correlated. [B. I. Rogovskaya, p. 104] e. g. : 1) My_ house is my castle. ??? ??? – ??? ????????. 2) His money burns a hole in his pocket. ? ???? ?????? ?? ????????. 3) You cannot flay the same ox twice. ?????? ???? ???? ???? ?? ?????. Pronouns are used as noun pronoun in the sentence. They are called reflexive pronouns because they serve to show that the action performed by the person which is indicated by the subject of the sentence passes back again to the same person. In other words, the subject of the sentence and its object indicate the same person. In this case the reflexive pronouns are weakly stressed. [E. M. Gordon, p. 338] e. g. : 1)Self done is soon done. ????? ???????? ??, ??? ???????? ?????? ??????. 2)Self is a bad counselor. ??????? ??? ???? ?????? ????????. )Self-praise is ?? recommendation. ?? ????? ???? ???, ????? ???? ???? ????????. Emphatic pronouns have the same forms as reflexive pronouns – they are homonyms. Emphatic pronouns are used for emphasis. They serve as noun pronouns and always perform the function of apposition in the sentence. They can be placed either immediately after their headword or at the end of sentence. The emphatic pronouns are strongly stressed, but nevertheless they can be omitted without destroying the sense of the sentence. [E. M. Gordon, p. 340], e. g. : 1)He that does you an ill turn will never forgive you. ??, ??? ???? ???????, ??????? ???? ????? ?? ???????. 2)It is a good horse that never stumbles. ?????? ?? ??????, ??????? ??????? ?? ???????????. Demonstrative pronouns. Usually only the pronouns this (these) and (the) same are regarded as demonstrative/ But even this small group is not homogeneous. The pronouns this -that (these – those) are correlative. The sphere of this or these is the space or time close to the speaker and the movement of speech, whereas the sphere of that and those is the time or space away from the speaker and the moment of speech [B. I.

Rogovskaya, p. 106], e. g. : 1)Those who live in glass houses should not throw stones. He ???????? ?? ????? ???? ???????, ? ?? ?????? ?? ???? ??????. 2)That cock won ?fight. ???? ????? ?? ???????. The indefinite pronouns express various degrees and various kinds of indefiniteness. [E. M. Gordon, p. 345], e. g. : 1)Any port in a storm. ? ???? ????? ?????? ??????. 2) Something is rotten in the state of Denmark. ??? ???-?? ?? ???. 3) Every day is not Sunday. He ??? ???? ?????????. 4) Many a little makes a mickle. ? ???? no ????? – ?????? ??????.

The pronoun one in all of its uses refers exclusively to persons or things that are countable. The pronoun one is used as a noun pronoun and as an adjective pronoun. As a noun pronoun, it can have the plural form ones and the form of the genitive case one’s. Besides, as has been said above, the reflexive pronoun oneself s formed from it. [E. M. Gordon, p. 350], e. g. : 1)One chick keeps a hen busy. ? ???? ???????? ?????????? ??????? ????? ??????. 2) One fire drives out another. ???? ????? ?????? ???????. 3) One lie makes many. ???? ???? ????? ?? ????? ??????. The pronoun none is a noun pronoun.

It is negative in meaning indicating not one or not any and can be of persons (no one) as well as of things, countable and uncountable (nothing). The verb following it may be singular or plural, according to the sense required. [E. M. Gordon, p. 353], e. g. : 1)None but the brave deserve the fair. ?????? ?????? ???????? ????????. 2)Nothing succeeds like success. ???? ???????, ? ???? ? ????? ???????. The pronoun all is used as a noun pronoun and as an adjective pronoun. All is used as a noun pronoun is singular when it means everything, the whole of s thing, everybody [E. M. Gordon, p. 54], e. g. : 1)All is fish that comes to his net. ??? ?? ?????????? ? ??? ????, ??? ????. 2) All roads lead to Rome. ??? ?????? ????? ? ???. 3) All are not merry that dance lightly. He ??? ?????, ??? ????. The pronoun every is used only as an adjective pronoun. It modifies singular countable nouns when there are more than two objects of the same description. [E. M. Gordon, p. 356], e. g. : 1)Every dog has his day. ????? ? ?? ????? ????? ????????. 2)Every man has his faults. ??? ????? ??? ???????????. 3)Every man to his taste. ?? ???? ? ???? – ???????? ???.

There are following compound pronouns formed with every, e. g. : 1) Everybody’s business is nobody business. ? ???? ????? ???? ??? ?????. 2) Everything is good in its season. ??????? ????? ???? ?????. The pronoun each is used as a noun pronoun and as an adjective pronoun. Each as an adjective pronoun is a synonym of every but there is some difference in meaning between them. [E. M. Gordon, p. 357], e. g. : Each bird loves to hear himself sing. ?????? ?????? ???? ????? ??????. As a determiner, the word one is sometimes used before a proper noun to designate, particularly, this person.

As a pronoun, one can also function in an impersonal, objective manner, standing for the writer or for all people who are like the writer or for the average person or for all people who belong to a class, e. g. 1)One chick keeps a hen busy. ? ???? ???????? ?????????? ??????? ????? ??????. 2)One fire drives out another. ???? ?????? ??????????. The negative pronouns are no, none, nothing, never, neither, e. g. : 1) Never offer to teach fish to swim. He ??? ???? ???????. 2) No flying from fate. ?? ?????? ?? ??????. 3) None so blind as those who won’t see. ??? ??????? ???????, ??? ?? ????? ??????. 4) Nothing so bad, as not to be good for something. ??? ???? ??? ?????. 5) Neither here nor there. ?? ? ???? ?? ? ??????. Conjunctive pronouns. The pronouns who and what serve to connect subordinate clauses with the principal clause. Owing to their auxiliary function they are called conjunctive pronouns. Pronouns that marks a relative clause within a larger sentence are who and what. A pronoun links two clauses into a single complex clause. To this extent, it is similar in function to a subordinating conjunction, e. . : 1) Who has never tasted bitter, knowns not what is sweet. He ?????? ????????, ?? ??????? ? ????????. 2) What is lost is lost. ??? ????????, ?? ?????????. 60% of proverbs in our collection are opening by pronouns. 30% (69 proverbs) of proverbs are begun with he, one begins 11 proverbs (it is near 5% of all collection of examples), it – 16 proverbs (it is near 7%), 20 proverbs are begun with every, what, who, you. c) Abstract nouns Abstract nouns refer to abstract objects that are ideas or concepts, such as “adversity” or “hate”.

In our collection of examples there are just 12proverbs from 235 which are opened with abstract nouns, e. g. : 1)Adversity is a great schoolmaster. ????????? – ??????? ???????. 2)Curiosity killed a cat. ??????????? ???????? ?????. 3)Hope is the poor man’s bread. ??????? – ???? ???????. 4)Death when it comes will have no denial. ?????? ?? ???????, ?????? ? ??????. §2 Verbal and Nominal Sentences in the Proverbs a) The Infinitive and Participle I In grammar, the infinitive is the name for certain verb forms that exist in many languages.

In the usual (traditional) description of English, the infinitive of a verb is its basic form with or without the particle to: therefore, do and to do, be and to be, and so on are infinitives. As with many linguistic concepts, there is not a single definition of infinitive that applies to all languages. The infinitive developed from verbal noun, which in course of time because verbalized, retaining at the same time some of its nominal properties. Thus in Modern English the infinitive, like the participle and the gerund, has a double nature, nominal and verbal.

The nominal character of the infinitive is manifested in its syntactic functions. The infinitive can be used as a subject of a sentence [V. L. Kaushanskaya, p. 185], e. g. : 1) To wash one’s dirty linen in public. ???????? cop ?? ????. 2) To throw dust in somebody’s eyes. ??????? ????-???? ???? ? ????? 3) ?? take the bull by the horns. ????? ???? ?? ????. In Modern English the infinitive has active and passive forms, e. g. : 1) To tell tales out of school. ???????? cop ?? ????. 2) To be up to the ears in love. ???? ?????????? no ???.

In Modern English the infinitive is chiefly used with the particle to. In Old English to was a preposition used with the infinitive in the dative case to indicate purpose. Later on to was reinterpreted as the formal sign of the infinitive and came to be used not only to denote purpose but in other cases as well. Still there are cases when the so-called bare infinitive (the infinitive without the particle to) [V. L. Kaushanskaya, p. 188], e. g. : 1) Cut your coat according to your cloth. ?? ?????? ?????????? ?????. 2) Don’t keep a dog and bark yourself. ? ?? ?????? ??????, ??? ??? ????. Participle I is formed by adding the suffix -ing to the stem of the verb; the following spelling rules should be observed: If a verb ends in a mute e, the mute e is dropped before adding the suffix -ing: to give -giving. If a verb ends in a consonant preceded by a vowel rendering a short stressed sound, the final consonant is doubled before adding the suffix -ing: to run – running. A final / is doubted if is preceded by a vowel letter rendering a short vowel sound, stressed or unstressed: to expel – expelling. [V. L. Kaushanskaya, p. 55] As has already been stated, the participle has verbal andan adjective or adverbial character. Its adjectival or adverbial character is manifested n its syntactic functions, those of attribute or adverbial modifier. [V. L. Kaushanskaya, p. 155], e. g. : 1) Saving and doing are two things. ??????? ? ???????- ??? ?????? ????. 2) Rollins stone gathers ?? moss. ????????? ?????? ???? ?? ????????? A lot of proverbs are begun with infinitive (88 proverbs), and with participle I just 7 proverbs, b) Nominal sentence A nominative sentence is a variant of one-member structures: it has neither subject nor predicate.

It is called nominative or nominal because its basic (head) component is a noun or noun-like element (gerund, numeral). Communicative functions. A sequence of nominative sentences makes foe dynamic description of events. Sets of nominative sentences are used to expressively depict the time of the action, the place of the action, the attendant circumstances of the action, the participants of the action. Classification. There are such structural types of nominative sentences as: 1. Unextended nominative sentences consisting of a single element, e. g. : Slow. There are neither proverbs nor sayings of such syntactical structure. . Extended nominative sentences consisting of the basic component and one or more words modifying it, e. g. : Slow but sure. Examples of proverbs of such structure may serve the following proverbs: 1)Any port in a storm. ? ???? ????? ?????? ??????.. 2)Business before pleasure. ?????? ????, ????? ?????. 3)Great boast, small roast. ????? ????, ?? ???? ????. 2. Multicomponent nominative sentences containing two or more basic elements, e. g. : Many men, many minds. Here some proverbs of this syntactical structure: 1)Slow but sure. ???????? ?? ?????. )Many men, many minds. ??????? ?????, ??????? ????. ?) A storm in a tea-cup. ???? ? ??????? ????. 13 proverbs from 235 are nominal sentences. §3 Structural and Communicative Kinds of Sentences in Proverbs a) Structural types Sentences with only one predication are called simple sentences. Those with more than one predication have usually no general name. We shall call them composite sentences, e. g. : 1)A watch pot never boils. ???????, ?? ??????? ?????????, ??????? ?? ???????? 2)If vou dance you must pay the fiddler. ?????? ????????, ???? ? ??????? ??????.

Composite sentences divide into compound and complex sentences. The differences between them is not only in the ralations of coordination or subordination, as usually stted. It is also importantto known what is coordinated or subordinated. In compound sentences the whole clause are coordinated together with their predications. In complex sentences a clause is mostly subordinated not to the whole principle clause but to some word in it which may be regarded as its head-word. [Rogovskaya, p. 241] e. g. : 1)A thiefpasses for a gentleman when stealing has made him rich. ???? ????????? ??????? ???? ???????, ?? ?? ?????? ?? ???????????. 2)All are friends that speak us fair. He ???? ??? ????, ??? ??? ?????? The clauses of a complex sentence, on the contrary, are often treated as forming a unity, a simple sentence in which some part is replaced by clause The clauses of compound sentences are equal rank, but usually the clause preceding the conjunction is regarded as the initial clause to which the other clause is related. These relations are mostly determined by the conjunction and are accordingly copulative, adversative, disjunctive, causal, resulative.

The principal clauses of complex sentences are usually not classified, though their meanings are not neutral with regard to the meanings of the subordinate clauses, e. g. : 1)If we can 4 as we would, we must do as we can. ???? ?? ?? ????? ??????, ??? ??? ???????, ???? ?????? ??? ???????. 2)If you sell the cow, you sell her milk too. ???????? ?????? – ??????, ???????? ? ?? ??????. A simple sentence or a clause containing some words besides the predication is called extended. An unextended sentence (clause) contains no other parts but the subject and the predicate. The dominating type of sentence (clause), with ull predication, i. e. containing both the subject and the predicate, is called a two-member sentence (clause). All other type are usually called one-member sentences (clauses). [Rogovskaya, p. 241] e. g. : 1) Don V put all your eggs in one basket. He ????? ???? ??? ? ???? ???????. 2) Opinions differ. ??????? ?????, ??????? ??????. b) Communicative types In linguistics, sentence function refers to a speaker’s purpose in uttering a specific sentence or phrase. Whether a listener is present or not is sometimes irrelevant. It answers the question: “Can they leopard change his spots? The most basic sentence functions in the world’s languages include the declarative, interrogative, exclamatory, and the imperative. These correspond to a statement, question, exclamation, and command respectively. Typically, a sentence goes from one function to the next through a combination of changes in word order, intonation, the addition of certain auxiliaries or particles, and many times by providing a special verbal form as well. The four main categories can be further specified as being either communicative or informative. The line between communicative and informative can at times become a little blurred.

However they do differ in a few very important ways: Communicative sentences are more intended for the speaker’s sake than for any potential listener. They are meant more for the speaker’s immediate wants and needs. These sentences tend to be less intentional (out of frustration for example), in general more rhetorical, more primitive, and are usually about the here and now. Because of these features, it is speculated that this is pretty much the basis or limitation of any form of animal communication. (Speculated because scientists will never truly be able to understand non-human forms of communication like we do our own. Proverbs can be rendered by declarative, imperative and interrogative sentences. There are almost no exclamatory sentences among proverbs. 1) Declarative sentence is the most common kind of sentence in any language, in most situations, and in a way can be considered the default function of a sentence. It states an idea or gives information to the receiver. A statement usually ends with a period, e. g. : 1)Necessity knows no law. ????? ?????? ?? ?????, ? ????? ??????. 2)A clean hand wants ?? washing. ?????? ??????? ?? ????. A great number of proverbs are declarative sentences.

As a rule the subject in the simple sentence is expressed by noun. On the contrary, in proverbs rendered by composite sentences the subject is normally expressed the pronoun it. The subject in simple sentences usually have no attributes, e. g. : 1)A cat may look at a king. ???????? ?? ?? ???? ?? ????????????. 2)Appetite comes with eating. ??????? ???????? ?? ????? ???. 2) Exclamatory. An exclamatory sentence is released because of, and expresses strong emotion. Exclamations are comparable to interjections. In punctuation, an exclamatory is ended with an exclamation mark, e. g. : 1) That’s where the shoe pinches! ?? ??? ?????? ??????! 2) The Dutch have taken Holland! ??????? ??????! 3)Imperative. An imperative sentence gives anything from a command or order, to a request, a suggestion, directions, or instructions. Imperative sentences are a little more intentional than exclamatory sentences, and their aim is to get the person(s) being spoken to to either do or not do something. An imperative can end in either a period or an exclamation point. The vocative case of nouns can be said to be in the imperative as well since it does not seek information, but rather a reaction from the person or animal being addressed, e. . : 1)Keep your mouth shut and your ears open. ???????? ??????, ???????? ??????. 2)Don ? look a gift horse in the mouth. ???????? ???? ? ???? ?? ???????. 4)An interrogative sentence naturally asks a question and therefore ends with a question mark. Its effort is to try and gather information; (unless the question happens to be rhetorical), e. g. : 1)Can they leopard change his spots? ????? ?? ??????? ???????? ???? ???????????? 2)Who is the worst clad than the tailor’s wife? ???? ???????? ????? ???? ????. a) Intensifies (emphasis)

Among fixed patterns functioning as intensifiers of grammatical meaning in structures of predication the following may be taken for illustration: It is … (it was) – a fixed phrase of emphatic precision which can, by situation, lay emphasis on any part of the sentence and intensify its rhematic quality. Sentences that are introduced by it is (it was) have special traits of their patterning and logically interesting. We may reasonably say that they homonymically combine grammatical and a stylistic meaning always signaled by the speech context or situation. When we say It is a poor mouse that has only one hole.

The relative clause thus does not restrict a mouse but obviously belongs to it. This to explain why in such sentences we can have a that-ca. use or a contact-clause after a word which is in it so definite that it cannot be further restricted, e. g. : It is the first step that costs. ?????? ?????? ??? ????? ??????. There is great number of proverbs in which such emphatic structure is used, e. g. : 1)It is long lane that has no turning. ?????? ??? ????????? ??????. 2) It is the first step that costs. ?????? ?????? ??? ????? ??????. 3) It is a poor mouse that has only one hole. ????? ?? ????, ? ??????? ?????? ???? ???????.

The use of such structures is always a logical result of the previous linguistic situations, and it is but natural that only the syntactical context can define their functional and stylistic value, with all the subtle shades of subjective modal force potentially implict in them. Variation in actualizing a word or a phrase in a sentence is organically combined with changes in the order of words. The two devices in such appear inextricably involved and are inseparable. The grammatical arrangement of words in these patterns may well illustrate the fact that the formal and the logical subject in a sentence are two independent elements.

The foremost notion in the speaker’s thoughts, i. e. the logical subject of the utterance is the element introduced by it is (it was… ). In similar structures another proverbs may be placed in the first position (he), e. g. : )Itis an ill wind that blows nobody sood. ??? ???? ??? ?????. 2)He who would eat the nut must first crack the shell. He ?????????? ????? – ?? ????? ? ????. 3)?? who says what he likes shall hear what he doesn’t like. ???, ??? ??????? ???, ??? ??? ????????, ??????? ??, ??? ??? ?? ????????. 4)?? who makes ?? mistakes makes nothing. ??? ?? ?????????, ??? ?????? ?? ??????.

The linguistic essence of structures with it is, it was has been variously treated by grammarians. Patterns of this sort are sometimes referred to as special emphatic forms of a simple sentence, complex sentences with emphatic attribute clauses, complex sentences with subordinate subject clauses. Proverbs with Constant Dependence of Components The proverbs with constant dependence of components are more popular. It is peculiar the rethinking of meaning of proverbs, e. g. : 1)As you make your bed, so you must lie on it. ??? ?????????, ??? ? ???????. 2)A great ship asks deep waters. ???????? ??????? ??????? ????????.

The main characteristic trait of proverb is their monosemantic meaning. There are polysemantic proverbs as well as in other language Modern English. But some english proverbs have variation, e. g. :— 1) Fine (old fire) words butter not parsnips. ??????? ??????? ?? ??????. 2) Fine (old fair) feather make fine birds (???. fowls). ?????? ?????? ????????. Lexical Variants, e. g. : 1)Every cloud has ? (??? sure) bind, fast (safe ??? sure) find. ?????? ???????, ?????? ???????. 2)The parson (priest) always christens is own child first. ???? ??????? ????? ? ????. It is possible to replace some words by their equivalents.

As a rule the words belong to one part of speech. Grammatical Variants, e. g. : 1)Constant dropping wears away (??? will wear away) a stone. ????? ?????? ?????? ?? ?????, ? ?????? ????????. (= ???????? ? ???? ??? ????????. ) 2)Small rain lays (??? will lay) great dust. ?????? ????? ????????? ?????? ????. (= ??? ???????? ?? ?????. ) Proverbs with Constant Dependence of Components The proverbs with constant dependence of components are more popular. It is peculiar the rethinking of meaning of proverbs, e. g. : 1)As you make your bed, so you must lie on it. ??? ?????????, ??? ? ???????. )A great ship asks deep waters. ???????? ??????? ??????? ????????. The main characteristic trait of proverb is their monosemantic meaning. There are polysemantic proverbs as well as in other language Modern English. But some english proverbs have variation, e. g. :—«-*”* 1) Fine (old fire) words butter not parsnips. ??????? ??????? ?? ??????. 2) Fine (old fair) feather make fine birds (???. fowls). ?????? ?????? ????????. Lexical Variants, e. g. : 1)Every cloud has ? (??? sure) bind, fast (safe ??? sure) find. ?????? ???????, ?????? ???????. 2)The parson (priest) always christens is own child first. ???? ??????? ????? ? ????.

It is possible to replace some words by their equivalents. As a rule the words belong to one part of speech. Grammatical Variants, e. g. : 1)Constant dropping wears away (??? will wear away) a stone. ????? ?????? ?????? ?? ?????, ? ?????? ????????. (= ???????? ? ???? ??? ????????. ) 2)Small rain lays (??? will lay) great dust. ?????? ????? ????????? ?????? ????. (= ??? ???????? ?? ?????. ) 1)There is no rose without a thorn. (= No rose without a thorn. ) ??? ???? ??? ?????. 2)There is no smoking without fire. (= No smoke without fire. ) ??? ???? ??? ????.

There are just imperfect components. Combined Variants subdivided into: Lexico-Grammatical Variants: 1)Monostructural variants, e. g. : Crows do not pick crow’s eyes out. = Hawks will not pick hawk’s eyes out. (Lexico-Morphological variation) ????? ?????? ???? ?? ???????. 2)Polystructural variants, e. g. : Do in Rome as the Romans do. = When at Rome do as the Romans do. (Lexico-Syntactical variation) ? ????? ????????? ?? ????? ??????? ?? ?????. Changes are possible depending on polystructural variants, e. g. : What does moon care if the dogs bark at her? = The moon does not heed the barking of dogs. ?????? ????, ????? ?????.

Lexico-Positional Variants. Lexical variation can be united with positional variation, e. g. : He must (??? should) have (??? he needs) a long spoon that sups with the devil. = He that sups with the devil needs (must have ??? should have) a long spoon. ??? ????? ????? ????, ?????? ??????? ??????????. Quantitative-Lexical Variants, e. g. : There are spots (even) in (??? on) the sun. ? ?? ?????? ???? ?????. Informative sentences are more for the benefit of the listener than the speaker (though not entirely), and infact require more of an interaction between both parties involved.

They are more intentional or premeditated, less rhetorical, and they intend to either provide or retrieve information. But perhaps the most differentiating quality that distinguishes informative sentences from the communicative is that the former show displacement. Displacement is information lost in time and space which allows us to communicate ideas in the past or future (not just the now), and that have taken or can take place at a separate location (from here). To an extent, this is one of the biggest differences between human communication and that of other animals.

In most cases the noun in proverbs has various attribute expressed by: 1)Adjective in pre-position, e. g. : 1)A bad workman quarrels with his tools. ? ??????? ??????? ?????? ?????????? ???????. 2)A cock is valiant on his own dunghill. ?????? ????? ?? ????? ?????? ?????. 3)All cats are grey in the dark (??? in the night) ????? ??? ????? ?????. 2)Participle I in the function of an attribute, e. g. : 1)A creaking door hangs long on its hinges. ????????? ?????? ????? ?????. 2)Barking fogs seldom bite. He ????? ??????, ??????? ????. 3. ) Participle II in function of attribute, e. g. : A penny saved is a penny gained. ???? ??????????? – ????? ???????????? 40 A noun in the genitive case like an attribute, e. g. : A priest’s pocket it not easily filled. ????????? ??????? ?????????. 5) A numeral in function of attribute, e. g. : One misfortune comes upon another. ?????? ???? – ??????? ??????. 6) Two attributes to the subject: a) pre-positional and post-positional, e. g. : 1) One drop of poison infects the whole tun of wine. ????? ????? ? ????? ????. 2) One man’s meat is another man’s poicon. ??? ??????? ??????, ?? ?????? ???????. It should be pointed out that often proverbs are rendered complex sentences. Though there are many compound sentences, e. . : 1) Agues on horse-back, but go away on fool. ???? ? ??? ??????, ? ?? ??? ??????. 2) Hope is a good breakfast, but a bad supper. ??????? – ??????? ???????, ?? ?????? ????. Complex sentence. Rather often such sentences contain a clause which is introduced by the pronouns that and he in the function of the subject of the main clause. In similar syntactical structures the clause may be introduced by he pronoun who. In many cases the clause introduced by the connective pronoun who is placed before the main clause, while those clause which are introduced by the pronoun that can not be placed before the main clause, e. . : 1)He is lifeless, that is faultless. He ??????? ??? ???????, ??????? ??????? ?? ?????????. 2)?? jests at scars, that never felt a wound. ??? ??????? ??????? ???, ??? ?? ??? ?????. 3)?? who laugh best laugh last. ?????? ??????? ???, ??? ??????? ?????????. 4)Who breaks, plays. ??????? ????, ??? ? ???????????. Widely spread and frequently used types of proverbs are those rendered by emphatic complex sentences introduced by the pronoun that, and it which is the subject of the sentences, e. g. : 1)He that would eat the fruit must climb the tree. ?? ???? ????? ??????? ??????, ????? ???????? ??????. 2)It is the first step that costs. ?????? ?????? ??? ????? ??????. Imperative Sentence. An imperative sentence gives a direct command to someone — this type of sentence can end either with a period or with an exclamation mark, depending on how forceful the command. A good number of proverbs are expressed by imperative sentences because they have an instructive aim. They may be simple, compound and complex, e. g. : 1) Let sleeping dogs lie. He ???? ????, ???? ???? ???? 2)Do in Rome as Romans do. ????? ????????? ?? ????? ??????? ?? ????. §5 Figures of Speech in Proverbs It is well known that the study of the sentence and its types and especially the study of the relations between different parts of the sentence has had a long history. The peculiarities of the structural design of utterances which bear some particular emotional colouring, that is, which are stylistic and therefore non-neutral, may also be pattered and presented as a special system which we shall call “stylistic patterns”. Stylistic patterns should not be regarded as violations of the literary norms of standard English.

On the contrary, theses patterns help us to establish the norm of syntactical usage, inasmuch as their study reveals the invariant of the form together with the variants and what is more, reveals the borders beyond which the variants must not be extended. Repetition. Here are some proverbs from our collection that contain this stylistic device, e. g. : a)repetition of the first lexeme, e. g. : 1)First come, first served. ??? ?????? ??????, ???? ??????? ? ?????????. 2)Love ??, love ?? dog ?????? ????, ???? ? ??? ??????. b)repetition of the second lexeme, e. g. : 1)He laughs best who laughs last. ????? ??????? ???, ??? ??????? ?????????. 2)Let bygones be bygones. ??? ?????? ???????, ???? ???? ???. c)repetition of the third lexeme, e. g. : 1) He that served God for money, will serve the devil for better wages. ???, ??? ?????? ?? ?????? ????, ????? ??????? ? ???????, ???? ?? ???????? ??????. d)repetition of the forth lexeme, e. g. : If two men ride on a horse, one must ride behind. ???? ???? ???? ?? ????? ??????, ?? ???? ?????? ???? ?????. e)repetition of two lexeme, e. g. : Out of sight, out of mind. ? ???? ????? – ?? ?????? ???. f)multiple repetition, e. g. :

Don’t trouble trouble until trouble trouble you. He ???? ???? ???? ????. Antithesis. This figure of contrast stands close to oxymoron. The major difference between them is structural: oxymoron is realized through a single word-combination, while antithesis is a confrontation of at least two separate phrases semantically opposite. Here are some examples from our collection of proverbs: 1)A black hen lays a white egg. ?????? ?????, ?? ?????? ? ??? ????. 2)A good horse cannot be of a bad colour. ??????? ?????? ?? ????? ???? ?????? ?????. 3)A bird in the hand is worth two in the bush. ???? ????? ? ?????, ??? ? ????. Phonetic Means. Alliteration is a phonetic device which aims at imparting a melodic effect to the utterance. The essence of this device lies in the repetition of similar sounds, in particular consonant sounds, in close succession, particularly at the beginning of successive words. There are several types of alliteration used in proverbs: Repetition of one sound: a) Repetition of a consonant in the first and last words, e. g. : Barking dogs seldom bite. Let sleeping dogs lie. Look before you leap. b)Repetition of a consonant in the second and last words, e. . : Every dogs has his day.. A cat may look at a king. Every bullet has its billet. c)Repetition of consonants in two or three words, e. g. : We never know the value of water till the well is dry. Faint heart never won fair lady. A small leak will sink a great ship. Alliteration in combination with rhyme, e. g. : 1)Beauty lies in lover’s eyes. He ??-???????? ???, ? ??-???? ?????. 2)A stitch in time saved nine. ???? ??????, ????????? ???????, ????? ??????. 3)Many a little makes mikes a mickle. ? ???? ?? ????? – ?????? ??????. Assonance is a repetition of vowels.

But such proverbs are few in number. 1)Little pitchers have long ears. ? ???? ???? ???. 2)Small rain lays great dust. ??? ???????? ?? ?????. 3)The nearer the bone the sweeter the flesh. ??????? – ??????. Alliteration in combination with assonance. 1)All roads lead to Rome. ??? ?????? ????? ? ???. 2)Death pays all debts. ?????? ??? ?????????. 3)Time and tide wait for no man. ????? ?? ????. CONCLUSIONS The lexical stock of any spoken language includes a fair number of so-called complex clich?s, i. e. set word-combinations which are reproduced in a form fixed once and foe all.

These include various idiomatic phrases, complex terms, all kinds of proverbs, proverbial phrases, winged words; quotations etc. proverbs proper comprise a high proportion of the lexical stock. Proverbs are popular folklore items which reveal almost all the features characterizing all complex language signs. Notwithstanding their outward simplicity, proverbs are far from simple and present a great interest. On the other hand, they are language phenomena similar to ordinary phraseological units; on the other hand, they are artistic miniatures, reflecting living reality in a graphic and finely-etched form.

It is important to distinguish proverbs from phraseological units. The main distinctive feature is the obvious structural dissimilarity. Phraseological units are a kind of ready-made blocks which fit into the structure of a sentence reforming a certain syntactical function, more or less as words do. Proverbs, if viewed in their structural aspect, are sentences, and so cannot be used in the way in which phraseological units are used. Proverbs could be compared with minute fables for, like the latter, they make up the collective experience of the community they moralize, give advice, warning, criticize, admonish.

No phraseological unit ever does any of these things. They do not stand for whole statement as proverbs do, but for a single concept. Their function in speech is purely nominative (i. e. they denote an object, an act, etc. ). Having carried out our research me can draw the fallowing conclusions: The function of proverbs in speech, is communicative (i. e. they impart certain information). It may be added that there does not seem to be any rigid or permanent boarder-line between proverbs and phraseological units as the latter rather frequently originate from the former.

What is more, some of the proverbs are easily transformed into phraseological units. In speech, the proverb is reproduced in speech in its permanent and stable form. Proverbs present a full set of ethnographic realia ranging from labor implements to clothing; a comprehensive description of the geographical environment with its landscapes, climate, flora and fauna; references to historical events and personalities; echoes of ancient religious beliefs, and a detailed picture of the contemporary social organization.

Proverbs of different nations that are models of identical or similar situations show a very strong mutual resemblance, despite all the differences stemming from ethnic, geographic, historic and language factors. f proverbs are characterized by certain communicative types of sentences. The most typical pattern is the declarative sentence. Out of 235 proverbs 231 are declarative. All other types are rather few in number. As to exclamatory and interrogative sentences in proverbs, there are not any at all.

Another important feature of proverbs is their syntactical structure. First they tend to be short. Simple and composite sentences rendering proverbs are approximately equal in number 55 . Among composite sentences most of them are complex, and among simple sentence, most are extended. Emphatic structures is another characteristic feature of proverbs. Such patterns as It is … thatHe that is … ; etc. are rather frequently used. In our collection of examples the number of such proverbs comes to 50.

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