English punctuation notes
list the conventional uses of a colon
time- between the hour and minute 10:30refrences- between the chapter and verse and biblical refrences between the titles and subtitles Whales: Giants of the Seasalutation of a business letter- use after the salutation of a business letter To Whom This May Concern:
Colons can be used after phrases like _____ and _____
“following” “not what follows”
colons can be used to mean _____
“note what follows”
What two parts of speech never precede colons?
verbs or prepositions
What can follow a colon?
an appositive, a long formal statement or quotation, an independent caluse that explains or restates the idea of the first independent clause
List when one can use a semi colon (4)
between independent clauses when there are no connecting wordsbetween two independent clauses that are joined by conjunctive adverbs or transitional expressionsBetween independent clauses that already contain commas and are joined by coordinating conjunctionsbetween items in a series that already contain commas
list conjunctive adverbs
furthermore, however, meanwhile, moreover, indeed, otherwise, consequently, accordingly, next, also
list transitional expressions
as a result, for example, in fact, in other words, on the other hand, for instance, in addition, that is
what punctuation follows conjuctive adverbs or transitional expressions in a sentence that has a semi colon.
a comma
list the coordinating conjunctions
for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so
what is in an independent clause that is divided with a semicolon and a coordinating conjuction
a comma
what must be in the items of a series that uses semicolons
Declarative Sentence
a statement that is followed by a period
indirect question
does not use the speaker’s exact words and ends in a period
interrogative sentence
a question which is followed by a question mark
exclamatory sentence
an exclamation that is followed by an exclamation point
What must be added for the sentence to have an interjection
comma or exclamation point
Imperative sentence
a command or request which is followed by either a period or exclamation point
When are social titles abbreviated?
before the full name or last name
when are civil and military titles abbreviated
before initials and last name or full name
when are titles and academic degrees abbreviated
when they follow proper names
a word that is formed from the first or first few letters of a series of words written without periods
When is one allowed to use an acronym in formal writing
after the spelling out the first use of the names of agencies and organizations
What does one spell out of geographical terms in text
names of states and other political units, every word in an address
When does one not spell out the state in text
use state abbreviations when ZIP code is included
Do specific year numbers follow or preced A.D.
Do century names follow or preced A.D.
Does specific year number follow or precede B.C.

Does the name of a century follow or precede B.C.
When does one spell out months and days
in text when they are alone
When are A.M. and P.

M. used in text

after a specific time
When should A.M. and P.

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M. not be used for time

when morning, afternoon, or evening precedes the specific time
When must one spell out units of measurements
if they stand alone, follow a numeral, or a spelled out number
When should someone not use commas in an items in a series
when they are joined by and, or, or nor
when there are two or more adjectives prceding a noun are there, where are there commas
between the adjectives
Does a nonessential appositive or an essential appositive need a comma
Where in an address are there not commas?
between the month and daybetween the house number and street namebetween the ZIP code and state abbreviation
list the conventional uses of the comma (4)
datesaddressessalutation/ closing of any letttersabberviations in names- name, abbreviation