Skeletal system

The bones of our skeleton are divided depending on their shape and the work that they do. These are: 1. Short bones are roughly cube shaped with vertical and horizontal dimensions approximately equal. They contain more of small needlelike bars of bone and lots of open space.They can be found in the foot tarsals and the wrist carpals. They consist of cancellous tissue covered by a thin crust of compact substance.

Short bones are intended for strength and compactness combined with limited movement. Example of short bones are the bones of the wrist and ankles. 2. Irregular bones have no definite geometrical shape.  They consist of cancellous tissue enclosed within a thin layer of compact bone. Irregular bones serve as protection of nervous tissue, affording multiple anchor points for skeletal muscle attachment and maintaining pharynx and trachea support, and tongue attachment. Example  are the facial bones and vertebrae. 3.

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  Flat bones are thin, flattened, and usually curved. The bones are expanded into broad, flat plates and provides extensive protection or the provision of broad surfaces for muscular attachment. Flat bones  protect our internal organs. They enclose our vital organs.

  Example of flat bones are the ribs, shoulder blades, hipbones and cranial bones. (MARIEB.  2002)Cartilage is a type of dense connective tissue providing a framework upon which bone deposition can begin and supplying smooth surfaces for the movement of articulating bones. There are three (3) types of cartilage. These are:Hyaline cartilage is the most abundant type of cartilage.  It consists of a gristly mass of a firm consistence, but of considerable elasticity and pearly bluish color.  Hyaline cartilage is found lining bones in joints and inside bones serving as a center of bone growth.Fibrocartilage is a specialize type of cartilage found in areas requiring tough support or great tensile strength such as between intervertabral discs, the pubic and other symphyses, and at sites connecting tendons or ligaments to bones.

  When the hyaline cartilage at the end of long bones as the femur is damaged, it is often replaced with fibrocartilage, which does not withstand weight-bearing forces.Elastic Cartilage is a type of cartilage present in the outer ear, larynx, and epiglottis which contains fibers made of elastin.  Elastic cartilage is similar to hyaline cartilage but contains elastic bundles scattered throughout the matrix  This provides a tissue which is stiff yet elastic.

The axial skeleton forms the central axis of the body. It consists of the skull, the vertebral column, the ribs and the sternum or breastbone.  It consist of the bones of the skull, vertebral column or backbone, and the rib cage. The skull consists of 28 different bones.  The groups of the bones of the skull are: the cranium which encloses and protects the brain and the facial bones.

  The backbone  forms the central part of the skeleton. It supports the skull and protects the spinal cord. It also serves as attachment for the ribs, the pectoral and pelvic girdles.  The ribs are flat, narrow bones with a distinctive bow-shaped curve.

The appendicular skeleton, consisting of 126 bones, makes body movement possible and protects the organs of digestion, excretion, and reproduction. The appendicular anything attached to a major part of the body, such as the upper and lower extremities. These are the bones of the upper and lower limbs, shoulder and hips.

The arm refers to the entire upper limb from shoulder to wrist. The pelvis (pl. pelvises or pelves) is the bony structure located at the base of the spine (properly known as the caudal end).

The pelvis incorporates the socket portion of the hip joint for each leg (in bipeds) or hind leg (in quadrupeds). It forms the lower limb (or hind-limb) girdle of the skeleton.  (MEEKS.  1974)The facial bones form the base for the muscles of the face which allow us to show our feelings to the world and to chew our food.  Of the 14 bones composing the face, 12 are paired.  The mandible and vomer are single bones.    Mandible or the lower jawbone articulates with the temporal bones in the only freely movable joints of the skull.  Maxillae are two bones fused in a median suture which form the upper jawbone and part of the orbits.

  All facial bones, except the mandible join the maxillae.  They are the main or keystone bones of the face.  Palatine are paired bones posterior to the palatine process and form the posterior hard palate and part of the orbit.  Zygomatic is lateral to the maxilla forming the part of the face called the cheekbone and part of the lateral orbitLacrimal is the fingernail-sized bones forming a part of the medial orbit walls between the maxilla and the ethmoid.  Each lacrimal bone has an opening that serves as a passageway for tears.  Nasal is the small rectangular bone forming the bridge of the nose.

 Vomer is the blade-shaped bone in the median plane of nasal cavity that forms most of the nasal septum.  Inferior Nasal Conchae is th thin curved bones protruding medially from the lateral walls of the nasal cavity and serve the same purpose as the nasal conchae of the ethmoid bone.  (MARIEB.  2002)A normal body maintains a state of internal balance to maintain health.  Homeostatic imbalance is when the feedback  of the organ or any part of the body is not normal.  Mild imbalance causes illness and disease while severe imbalance causes death.

  Osteoporosis is a condition in which the bone matrix is lost causing weakening the bones and making them more susceptible to fracture. Osteoporosis is a condition of the elderly.  The demineralization is a silent process, causing no apparent problem until a fracture happens.  Factor associated with bone mass loss are decrease in estrogen level,  calcium deficiency, insufficient Vitamin D intake, and lack of exercise.  (GUYTON.  1981)  Many efforts  is aimed at prevention of the condition.  1.  adequate intake of calcium.

  2.  enough intake of vitamin D and exposure to sunlight.  3.  weight-bearing exercise such as walking  throughout life.  4.  Use of estrogen therapy for the menopausal woman.  5.  Treatment of fracture when it occurs.

  6.  prevention of falls in th elderly. (Meeks.  1974)