Essentials of Management

The nature of groups and squads


The term group can be defined as two or more individuals interacting and working together for a common intent.

When people work in groups instead than as persons, the ends of the organisation can be easy achieved. However, working in a group is a complex undertaking. Group dynamics refers to the interactions between the members of a group. A work group of an organisation is the chief foundation for the societal individuality of employees in that organisation. Hence, public presentation at work and relationships outside the organisation are influenced by the nature of groups in the organisation.Therefore in this essay I will be discoursing in inside informations about the nature of groups and so followed by the ground why people tend to organize groups. Then I will discourse the assorted types of groups followed by the phases of groups development. Last i will besides discourse the procedure of groups

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Nature of groups

Different types of groups are formed to accomplish specific consequences in organisations.

The definition of a group as given by Harold H. Kelley and J.W. Thibaut is “ A aggregation of persons. The members accept a common undertaking, go interdependent in their public presentation, and interact with one another to advance its achievement. ” Kurt Lewin popularized the term ‘group kineticss ‘ in the 1930s. There are three positions on the nature of interaction between members of a group or group kineticss. The first position is the normative position, which describes how to transport out activities and form a group.

Harmonizing to the 2nd position, group kineticss consists of a set of techniques which include brainstorming, function drama, squad edifice, sensitiveness preparation, self-managed squads, and transactional analysis. The 3rd position explains group kineticss from the point of view of the internal nature of the groups. The formation of groups, construction, processes, and working are discussed in this position along with the consequence of groups on persons, other groups, and the complete organisation.

Dynamicss of Group Formation

Peoples form groups for assorted grounds. Different classical theories of groups try to explicate why people form groups.

The theory of proximity proposes geographical intimacy as the reason.The proximity theory provides a really basic account that people populating or working at topographic points located near to one another tend to organize groups. But the theory does n’t explicate the complexness of group formation. The balance theory says group formation consequences from the similarity of attitudes and values between people.Individuals with common involvements maintain their relationship by a symmetrical balance between their attitudes and common involvements.Another theory of group formation is the exchange theory. It proposes reward-cost results of interaction as the ground.

There may be several other economic, societal, and security grounds for the formation of groups. By going members of a group, persons fulfill their demand for association.

Assorted Types of Groups

There are formal and informal groups in organisations. Assorted groups exist within the organisation and they are of changing grades of formalisation. Groups in organisations are of assorted types based on the figure of members they have and the interactions between them.Formal Groups-A group formed by the organisation to carry through a specific undertaking is termed as a formal group. The organisation sets up a formal group and allocates undertakings and duties to different members with the purpose of accomplishing organisational ends.

Command groups and undertaking groups are illustrations of formal groups. A bid group is comparatively lasting in nature and finds representation in the organisation chart. Functional sections of organisations are considered as bid groups. Task groups, on the other manus, are formed for a specific undertaking and are impermanent in nature. They are dissolved after the undertaking is accomplished. After disintegration of the undertaking group, the members of the undertaking group continue as members of their several functional sections or bid groups with decreased responsibilities.Informal Groups-Unlike formal groups that are established by the organisation, informal groups are formed by the employees themselves.

The grounds for the formation of informal groups could be the demand for company, common involvements, growing, diversion, or support. There are two types of informal groups – friendly relationship groups and involvement groups. Members of friendly relationship groups have a affable relationship with each other, common involvements and are similar in age, cultural heritage, positions, etc. They like each other ‘s company and want to pass clip together. Interest groups are formed to form an activity and are impermanent in nature. Informal groups chiefly satisfy the societal demands of members. In add-on to formal and informal groups, Fred Luthans classified groups into little and big, primary and secondary, alliances and mention groups, in-groups and out-groups.

Small groups have merely a few members who can interact face-to-face, while in big groups, the figure of members is high and personal interaction between members low. Primary groups have a few members with similar values and truenesss. Secondary groups have a big figure of members with common values and beliefs but they do non frequently interact because of the big size of the group. Alliances are created for a peculiar intent and do non hold a formal construction.

Membership groups are groups in which members are registered. Mention groups are groups to which people wish to belong like, for illustration, a esteemed nine. In-groups have members who portion values of a society prevalent at a point of clip, whereas out-groups have members who do non portion those values.

Phases of Group Development

Before the 1960s, it was believed that groups were formed in a specific sequence but it was subsequently realized that they do non follow a standard form of development. Established theoretical accounts of group development are the five-stage theoretical account and the punctuated equilibrium theoretical account.

The Five-Stage Model

Harmonizing to the five-stage theoretical account of group development, all groups pass through the forming, ramping, norming, executing, and recessing phases.

The continuance of each phase varies from group to group and some groups do non go through through all the phases. This theoretical account became popularin the mid-1960s.


This is the initial phase of group formation where members try to place acceptable behavior ina group. The members try to model their behaviour so every bit be a portion of the group.


In this phase, dissensions about leading among members may give rise to other struggles. By the terminal of this phase, a comparatively clear hierarchy of places in the group emerges.


This phase of group development enhances a sense of chumminess in members through the development of close relationships. A common set of outlooks for behaviour in the group is the result of this phase.


In this phase, members of the group exhibit committed public presentation to accomplish ends defined in the norming phase.

This is the last phase for lasting work groups.


This is the last phase for impermanent groups such as undertaking groups or commissions formed to carry through a certain undertaking. After this phase, the groups cease to be.

While some of the members may experience happy about the achievements, others may be depressed that they will lose friends after the group disperses.The effectivity of groups is supposed to increase through the phases. But this does non ever go on and some groups may discontinue to be without go throughing through all the phases while some other may non follow the sequence of phases given in the five phase theoretical account. In fact, group effectivity depends on complex factors.

Group Processes

To understand group behaviour, group procedures such as communicating forms, power kineticss, behaviour of the leader, struggle within the group, etc. should be understood clearly.The societal idleness construct explains the differences in the public presentation of groups. Group processes should advance synergism wherein the public presentation of the group is more than the amount of single public presentations.

The ‘social facilitation consequence ‘ has an influence on public presentation of groups. Harmonizing to this, there is a difference in the public presentation of persons when undertakings are performed in private and when performed in forepart of others. The group processes can be effectual if the undertakings are planned harmonizing to the comfort degrees of people.


  • Workgroups are the basic resource for the societal individuality of people. The group’s behaviour has an impact on its members ‘ public presentation at work and their behaviour in life.

  • Groups are of varied nature such as formal and informal. There are many theories suggesting the grounds for group formation. Propinquity theory, exchange theory, and other theories give different grounds for the formation of groups.
  • Phases in group formation are explained through two theoretical accounts for group development.

    They are the five phase theoretical account and the punctuated equilibrium theoretical account.

  • The construction of a group helps in understanding the behaviour of its members. Variables such as formal leading, functions, norms, group position, size and composing affect the operation of groups.
  • Group undertakings are characterized by degrees of complexness and mutuality. Procedures which go on in a group are communicating, behaviour of the leader, struggle, and power kineticss. They have an influence on group behaviour.


Many group activities have a demand for diverse skill sets. If the members of a group have different accomplishments and cognition degrees, they can all work together efficaciously. Many researches have besides proved that even if struggles arise due to the diverse composing of groups, the public presentation is good. Demographic factors such as age, gender, educational degree, race, etc.

act upon the public presentation of a group. Peoples stay together in groups if they have common properties ; otherwise, they prefer to go forth the groups as troubles in communicating and /or battle for power or other struggles may originate. Therefore, the composing of the group should be balanced so as to cut down the negative effects of diverseness.