ethics
Understand the analytic/ synthetic distinction and relate it to Kant’s theory of morals.
1. Analytic- in is true by definition2. Synthetic- new information, not true by definition3. Synthetic apriori, this means that ethics is new information not true by definition which is based on reason.
What is the difference between acting from duty and acting according to duty? Understand the significance of the shopkeeper example.
Shop keeper who always gives exact change.

He does it because people wouldn’t come if he didn’t do it. he does it for the wrong reasons. He is acting according to duty. Acting from duty is if you gave exact change because it is the right thing.

What is the difference between acting from duty and acting according to duty? Understand the significance of the shopkeeper example.
Shop keeper who always gives exact change. He does it because people wouldn’t come if he didn’t do it. he does it for the wrong reasons.

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He is acting according to duty. Acting from duty is if you gave exact change because it is the right thing.

Understand the distinction between categorical and hypothetical imperatives and relate it to Kant’s theory of morals.
1. Categorical- an unconditional moral law applying to all rational beings and independent of all personal desires and motives2. Hypothetical- if you want y, do x
Understand the distinction between price and dignity and relate it to Kant’s theory of morals.
1. Price- placing value on something 2.

Dignity- above all price, there is no equivalent, cannot be traded off. Special importance. Cant be used for a means to an end.3. He wants people to act through dignity because people should never be used as a means to your end.

Be able to explain Kant’s demonstration of the categorical imperative (both versions) in relation to the four examples.

1. Suicide- you are consenting to using yourself as a means to your end . 2. Lying to get a loan- you are using someone merely as a means to achieve your ends3. Not developing talents- it is not futhering the end.4. not helping others- you aren’t using your talents to extend there end.
What is the Kantian view of punishment? How does it compare to the Utilitarian view? What would he think of the death penalty?
1.

You get punished because you did a crime based on the severity of crime. Utility does it to maximize utility. Loves the death penalty.

What are the defining characteristics of maxims?
Principle of volition
What are the three cause’s of quarrel in Hobbes’s state of nature?
1. Competition- attack for items2. Diffidence- attack because you think others will attack you3. Glory- enjoy attacking
iii. What aspects of human nature (I referred to them as “the recipe for war”) lead to violent conflict?
1. Natural equality- no one will not die. No one is completely dominate2. Conflicting desires- competition for resources leads to death3.

Forward- lookers- people care about future and want to live as long as they can4. Advantage of anticipants- either strike first or build up for when they attack. 5. Limited altruism- value your life over others

i. Why is morality in a foundational crisis? – explain the problem.
It is not well adjusted to the modern world
What is the Hobbesian Foole?
Fake like you are going to work with them then backstab them. Cheat.
Describe the Smith/Jones farm example.

Explain the role this example plays in Gauthier’s theory.

Is to show that working together helps. Take on efforts to show you wont cheat.
What is the original position – what role does it play in Rawls’s theory?
Everyone makes rules of law together behind a veil of ignorance so as not to tailor the rules to benefit themselves. He wants everyone to have an equal advantage.
What is the veil of ignorance – what role does it play in Rawls’s theory?
to insure impartiality of judgment, the parties are deprived of all knowledge of their personal characteristics and social and historical circumstances.

They do know of certain fundamental interests they all have, plus general facts about psychology, economics, biology, and other social and natural sciences

What is reflective equilibrium – what role does it play in Rawls’s theory?
We will bounce between principles and intuition until equilibrium is reached
Describe Rawls’s critique of Utilitarianism
It doesn’t take into account the distinction between individuals seriously. Clumps everyone together into a group.
What are primary goods – what role do they play in Rawls’s theory?
Primary good is a good that will benefit all no matter what plan you have. You need to know what to divvy up.
What is the Maximin Principle – what role does it play in Rawls’s theory?
Maximize the minimum as best you can. He believes no one should be much better off that anyone else. It is the rational thing to do.
What are the two principles of justice?
1.

Liberty- allow for equal rights for everyone2. Difference principle- social and economic inequalities are to be arranged so that they are both reasonably expected to be to everyones advantage, and attatched to positions and offices open to all.

Is there ever a time when Thomson views abortion as immoral – when?
Lady is going on vacation. She wants to look good so she gets an abortion.

What does Warren refer to as the Moral Community? Why is this significant? Pg 832
a. Have three and say fetus don’t meet any. b. Commication, reason, and emotion
Describe Regan’s rights-based view
Cant use things because its in your interest. Subject of a life criteria. Animals have that so you cant use them merally as a means to your end.
What is the general structure of the anti-specisist argument
Animals deserve the rights just like humans.

You include humans that lack characteriscs that animals have.

How does he get past the problems associated with the potentiality argument?
Argument invalid. Sidesteps by adding potentiality into beginning of argument.