Exam
Concerete Operational
6 or 7-11 or 12begin to use logic to organize thoughts, are aware of other’s thoughts as different from their own and demonstrate conservation of number
Conventional Morality
Older elentary kidsGood boy/good girl-make decisions based on what actions will please others, concern about relationships, consider others perspectives and intentions when making decisions Law and Order-people look to society as a whole for guidance about right and wrong, rules are needed for society to run smoothly, it’s their duty to follow the inflexible rules.
Erikson 1
InfancyTrust v. MistrustFailure to thrive babies
Erikson 2
1-2Autonomy v.

shame and doubt

Erikson 3
2-6Initiative v. guilt
Erikson 4
6-12industry v. inferitority
Erikson 5
AdolescenceIdentity v. Role confusion
Erikson 6
Young AdultIntimacy v.

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isolation

Erikson 7
Middle AgeGenerativity v. stagnation
Erikson 8
Retirement Yearsintegrity v. despair
Formal Operational
11 or 12-adulthoodhave the ability to think about abstractions (math,algebra). This student can work with and conceptualize variables.
Postconventional
Rarely before collegeSocial Contract-recognize that rules represent a contract among lots of people about the right way to act, useful to maintain general order and protection, flexibility to change if no longer useful to societyUniversal Ethical Principle-hypothetical stage few ever reach, strong inner calling to violate own ethical principles
Preconventional
Punishment-Avoidance/Obedience-Preschool, obey rules set by power, do what’s best for themselves, don’t want to do the “wrong” behaviorExchange of Favors-realize others have needs, try to satisfy those if the others are met, define right and wrong primarily in consequences of themselves.

Preoperational Stage
2-6 or 7language takes off, but children exhibit preoperational egocentrism. This stage is characterized by a lack of conservation.
Seach for identity 4
Identity achievementafter a period of moratorium, the adolescent has emerged with a clear choice of occupation and a commitment to set of beliefs
Search for identity 1
Identity DiffusionNo commitment to career or belief system. No serious or systematic path of discovery yet
Search for identity 2
ForeclosureNo firm personal commitment has been made, choices have been made based on parents or other influence
Search for identity 3
MoratoriumNo strong commitment to career or set of beliefs but exploring…possibly identity crisis
Sensorimotor Stage
Birth-2schemes are based on what children do and see
Vygotsky: Five
Have students work in groups to perform complex, multifaceted tasks
Vygotsky: Four
Provide support, scaffolding
Vygotsky: One
Encourage students to talk themsevles through difficult tasks; use mnemonic devices, etc.
Vygotsky: Seven
Give young children time to practive adult roles and behaviors through play
Vygotsky: Six
Engage students in adult activities that are common in their culture
Vygotsky: Three
Present tasks students can do with assistance.
Vygotsky: Two
Provide cognitive tools