6 or 7-11 or 12begin to use logic to organize thoughts, are aware of other’s thoughts as different from their own and demonstrate conservation of number
Older elentary kidsGood boy/good girl-make decisions based on what actions will please others, concern about relationships, consider others perspectives and intentions when making decisions Law and Order-people look to society as a whole for guidance about right and wrong, rules are needed for society to run smoothly, it’s their duty to follow the inflexible rules.
InfancyTrust v. MistrustFailure to thrive babies
shame and doubt
2-6Initiative v. guilt
6-12industry v. inferitority
AdolescenceIdentity v. Role confusion
Young AdultIntimacy v.
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Middle AgeGenerativity v. stagnation
Retirement Yearsintegrity v. despair
11 or 12-adulthoodhave the ability to think about abstractions (math,algebra). This student can work with and conceptualize variables.
Rarely before collegeSocial Contract-recognize that rules represent a contract among lots of people about the right way to act, useful to maintain general order and protection, flexibility to change if no longer useful to societyUniversal Ethical Principle-hypothetical stage few ever reach, strong inner calling to violate own ethical principles
Punishment-Avoidance/Obedience-Preschool, obey rules set by power, do what’s best for themselves, don’t want to do the “wrong” behaviorExchange of Favors-realize others have needs, try to satisfy those if the others are met, define right and wrong primarily in consequences of themselves.
2-6 or 7language takes off, but children exhibit preoperational egocentrism. This stage is characterized by a lack of conservation.
Seach for identity 4
Identity achievementafter a period of moratorium, the adolescent has emerged with a clear choice of occupation and a commitment to set of beliefs
Search for identity 1
Identity DiffusionNo commitment to career or belief system. No serious or systematic path of discovery yet
Search for identity 2
ForeclosureNo firm personal commitment has been made, choices have been made based on parents or other influence
Search for identity 3
MoratoriumNo strong commitment to career or set of beliefs but exploring…possibly identity crisis
Birth-2schemes are based on what children do and see
Have students work in groups to perform complex, multifaceted tasks
Provide support, scaffolding
Encourage students to talk themsevles through difficult tasks; use mnemonic devices, etc.
Give young children time to practive adult roles and behaviors through play
Engage students in adult activities that are common in their culture