Exceptional Children Chaper 7 Autism
Applied behavior analysis 
a scientific approach to designing, conducting and evaluating instruction based on empirically verified principles describing functional relations between events in the environment and learning.          Believe autism is amenable to change–  individualized
Examples of Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA)
          Discrete Trial Training          Picture exchange communication systems (PECS)          Peer mediated interventions          Errorless discriminating learning          Self-management strategies          Functional communication training          Naturalistic language strategies
Aspergers syndrome 
impairments in all social areas, particularly an inability to understand how to interact socially and appropriately          Mild end of autistic spectrum          Characteristics (repetitive and stereotype behavior, preoccupation with atypical things, pedantic speech, difficulty with motor activities)          Do not have general language delay          Most have average to above-average intelligence
Autism
  a neurobehavioral syndrome marked by qualitative impairments of social interaction and communication, and by restricted, repetitive, and stereotyped patterns of behavior.
Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) 
a group of five related developmental disorders that share common core deficits or difficulties in social relationships, communication, and ritualistic behavior; differentiated from one another primarily by the age of onset and severity of various symptom          Impaired social relationships, communication and language deficits, intellectual functioning, and unusual responsiveness to sensory stimuli are characteristics of autism spectrum disorders.          ASD refers to a related group of conditions that has also been known as pervasive developmental disorder (PDD).  
5 subtypes of Autism spectrum disorder (ASD)
           includes autistic disorder           Asperger syndrome          Rett syndrome           Childhood disintegrative disorder           Pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS)
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) defined by IDEA  
 Autism is a developmental disability affecting verbal and nonverbal communication and social interaction, generally before age 3, that adversely affects a child’s educational performance.
Autistic disorder 
 marked by three defining features, with onset before age 3;1.       Impaired social interaction2.       Impaired communication3.

       Restricted, repetitive, and stereotyped patterns of behavior, interests, & activities (e.g. persistently preoccupation with parts and objects)

Autistic savants 
people with extraordinary ability in an area such as memorization, mathematical calculations, or musical ability while functioning at the mental retardation level in all other areas          Very few persons have this ability
Intellectual Functioning
          40%-80% meet diagnosis criteria of mental retardation          10%-15% have “splinter skills” superior performance in one area that are unexpected compared to other domains of function
Characteristics of ASD
          Impaired social relationships          Communication and Language deficits- Many children with autism do not speak; echolia is common way of talking          Varying levels of intellectual functioning, uneven skill development          Unusual responsiveness to sensory stimuli          Insistence and sameness and perseveration (do it over and over again)          Ritualistic and stereotypic behavior          Aggressive or self-injurious behavior
Prevalence
          Recent estimateso   Autism occurs in as many as 30-121 in 10,000 peopleo   Serious increases since the 1970’s, or better defined          Boys are affected about 4 times more often than girlso   The lone exception here is Rett syndrome          Autism is the fastest-growing category in special education
Causes
          The cause of autism is unknown          There is a clear biological origin of autism in the form of abnormal brain development, structure, and/or neurochemistry          No evidence of childhood vaccinations causing autism
Screening
          Earlier diagnosis is highly correlated with dramatically better outcomes          Autism can be reliably diagnosed at 18 months of ageo   Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (CHAT)o   Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (M-CHAT)o   Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ)o   Autism Spectrum Screening Questionnaire (ASSQ)
Educational Placement
          Regular classroom          Resource Room and Special Classes
Uproven Interventions & Fads for ADS
          Facilitated communication          Secreterian Therapy- vitamin & Canadian drug
Diagnosis
          Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS)          Autism Diagnostic Interview- Revised          Autism Diagnostic Observation Scale- Generic          Asperger Syndrome Diagnostic Scale (ASDS)
Educational Approaches
          Early Intensive Behavioral Intervention          Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA)          Picture Activity schedule          Social Stories
Behavior trap
  power for contingencies of reinforcement, producing substantial and long-lasting behavior changes                Four essential features a.       Baited with irresistible reinforces into the trapb.      Low effort response necessaryin in students repertoire is necessary to enter trapc.       In side trap there are interrelated contingencies of reinforcementLong term because student shows few, if any, satiation effects.
Childhood disintegrative disorder 
shares characteristic autistic disorder, but does not begin until after age 2 and sometimes not until age 10; medical complications are common; one type of autistic spectrum
Discrete trial training (DTT) 
One-on-one sessions during which a routinized sequence of contrived learning trials is presented as teacher and child sit at a table an instructional format involving a series of three-part trials:a.

       An antecedent stimulus (e.g. flashcard with “2+2= ?”)b.      Student response (e.g.

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“four”)c.       Feedback (reinforcement for correct response; ignoring or correcting an incorrect response; and providing and a response prompt or ignoring nonresponses

Double-blind, placebo-controlled study 
 procedure used to control for expectancy effects by subjects and bias by researchers in studies evaluating the effects of a treatment or intervention          Have found no significant differences on any measure of language, behavior, or autism severity after treatment
Echolalia
  repetition of what other people have said as if echoing them; characteristic of some children with delayed development, autism, and communication disorders          About 50% of children with autism are mute, they do not speak but they humor occasionally utter simple sounds
Facilitated communication (FC)
a type of augmentative communication in which a “facilitator” provides assistance to someone in typing or pointing to vocabulary symbols– Unproven intervention
Joint attention
a social communication skill in which two people interact with their shared environment in the same frame of reference. (e.

g. child looking or turning head or eyes in the direction that someone is pointing)          Common deficit in young children with ASD

Pervasive developmental disorders-not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS) 
children who meet some but not all the criteria for autistic disorder are often diagnosed as having (PDD-NOS)          Boundaries of PDD-NOS are not well defined          Included in the autism spectrum disorders
Pica 
 a form of self-injurious behavior in which the person ingests nonnutritive substances (e.g. dirt, rocks , sticks)          Some children with autism engage in pica          Exhibited by some persons with moderate and severe mental retardation
Rett syndrome   
a distinct neurodevelopmental disorder of childhood characterized by normal early development followed by the loss of purposeful use of the hands, distinctive hand movements, slowed brain and head growth, gait abnormalities, seizures, and mental retardation          Begins between 5 and 30 months          Affects mostly females          Included in autism spectrum disorders
Social stories 
intervention for teaching social skills through stories accompanied by pictures depicting social situation from viewpoint of the student          An educational approach
Stereotypy
          A pattern of persistent and repetitive behaviors such as rocking the body when in a sitting position, twirling around, flapping the hands at the wrists, or humming a set of three or four notes over and over again          Some children with autism exhibit this
Benefits of Intensive, behaviorally based early intervention  
helped some children with autism learn communication, language, and social skills so that they have been able to succeed in general education classroom
Visual supports 
encompass a wide variety of interventions that involve visual cues and prompts
Picture activity schedules
are used to increase independence in selecting and carrying out a sequence of activities in the classroom for students with autism
Social stories
explain social situations and concepts, including expected behaviors of the persons involved, in a format understandable to an individual with ASD          Several studies have reported improvement of children’s behavior after systematic exposure to social stories
five strategies essential for providing effective education for young children with autism in inclusive classrooms
1. Teaching communication and social competence2.

using instructional strategies that maintain the class’s natural flow3.  teaching and providing opportunities for independence4. building a classroom community that includes all children 5.  promoting generalization and maintenance of skills  

providing systematic instruction in imitation skills
Teaching communication and social competence to students with autism in the general education classroom includes planning opportunities for students with disabilities to interact directly with typically developing peers
Using instructional strategies that maintain the class’s natural flow includes
using naturalistic teaching procedures and using different cues and prompts to ensure that each child receives adequate support.
Allowing every child to have a turn and play a role
Building a classroom community that includes all children involves using activities that will engage children with a large range of abilities