Exceptional Children: Chapter 8
Aphasia 
  loss of speech functions; often, but not always, refers to inability to speak because of brain loss          Loss of ability to process and use language          Most prevalent causes of language disorders in adults, often occurring after a stroke
Articulation disorder   
abnormal production of speech sounds          Treatment: discrimination and production activities
Augmentative and alternative communication (AAC)
   a divers set of nonspeech communication strategies and methods diverse set of nonspeech communication strategies and methods to assist individuals who cannot meet their communication needs through speech; includes sign language, symbol systems, communication boards, and synthetic speech devices.
Cleft palate   
a congenital split in the palate that results in an excessive nasal quality of the voice.  Can often be repaired by surgery or a dental appliance
Cluttering 
   a type of fluency disorder in which speech is very rapid, with extra sounds or mispronounced sounds; speech may be garbled to the point of unintelligibility; compare to stuttering
Communication  
 the interactive exchange of information, ideas, feelings, needs, and desires                ASHA def– an impairment in the ability to receive, send, process,and comprehend concepts of verbal, nonverbal, and graphic symbols systems                IDEA def– a communication disorder, such as stuttering, impaired articulation, a language impairment, or a voice impairment that adversely affects a child’s educational performance
Functions of communication
          Narrating          Explaining/ informing          Requesting          Expressing
Communication involves
          A message          A sender who expresses the message          A receiver who responds to the message
Communication disorder  
an impairment in the ability to receive, send, process, and comprehend concepts or verbal, nonverbal, and graphic symbols systems…disorder may be evident in the processes of hearing, language, and/or speech
Dialect  
a variety within a specific language; can involve variation in pronunciation, word choice, word order, and inflected forms.
Dysarthia
  a group of speech disorders caused by neuromuscular impairments in respiration, phonation, resonation, and articulation
Expressive language disorder  
  a language impairment that interferes with the production of language; contrast with receptive disorder
Fluency disorder  
a speech disorder characterized by atypical rate, rhythm, and repetitions in sounds, syllables, words, and phrases; see stuttering, cluttering          Treatment: behavioral principles and self-monitoring
Grapheme 
  smallest level of written language that corresponds to one phoneme; e.g., the graphem t represents the phoneme/t/
Language  
 a system (formalized code) used by a group of people for giving meaning to sounds, words, gestures, and other symbols to enable communication with one anther.          Can be vocal, non vocal symbols
Five dimensions of language
          Phonology          Morphology          Syntax          Semantics–     pragmatics
Language disorder  
impaired comprehension and/or use of spoken, written, and/or other symbol systems
Language disorders
          children who have difficulty understanding language have a receptive language disorder (very important, receptive problem is more difficult to deal with          children who have difficulty producing language have an expressive language disorder          communication differences are not disorders      Treatment: vocabulary building, naturalistic interventions
Characteristics of Communication Disorders
          Speech and sound errors (deals with speech not language)o   Distortionso   Substitutionso   Omissionso   Additions          Articulation disorders o   A child is physically unable to produce a given sound          Phonological disorderso   A child has the ability to produce a given sound and does so correctly in some instances but not others          Fluency disorderso   Stuttering and cluttering are examples of fluency disorders          Voice disorderso   A phonation disorder causes the voice to sound breathy, hoarse, husky, or strainedo   Resonance disorders are hypernasality or hyponasality          Language impairmentso   An expressive language impairment interferes with production of languageo   A receptive language impairment interferes with understanding of language
Prevalence
          About 2.5% of school-age children receive special education for speech and language impairments          19% of all children receiving special education services are served in this categoryo   The second largest disability category under IDEA          Nearly twice as many boys as girls have speech impairments          Children with articulation and spoken language (expressive not receptive) problems represent the largest category of speech-language impairments
Causes of Language Disorders
          Cognitive limitations or mental retardation          Hearing impairments          Behavioral disorders          Environment deprivation          Aphasia
Causes of Speech Disorders
          Cleft palate          Paralysis of the speech muscles          Absence of teeth          Craniofacial abnormalities          Enlarged adenoids          Traumatic brain injury          Dysarthia
Identification and Assessment of Communication Disorders
          Communication disorders are usually first identified by teacher observations          Evaluation componentso   Case historyo   Physical examinationo   Articulation testo   Auditory discriminationo   Phonological awarenesso   Vocabulary and overall language development testo   Language sampleso   Observation in natural settingsNormal Development of Speech and Language          Most children follow relatively predictable sequences in there acquisition of speech and language o   Birth to 6 months: communication by smiling, crying, and babblingo   7 months to 1 year: babbling becomes differentiatedo   1 to 1.6 years: learns to say several wordso   1.6 to 2 years: words “spurt” beginso   2 to 3 years: talks in sentences, vocabulary growso   3 years on: vocabulary grows          Knowledge of normal language development can help determine slower language developement
Morpheme 
  the smallest element of a language that carries meaning
Morphology 
  refers to the basic units of meaning in a language and how those units are combined into words
Phoneme
   the smallest unit of sound that can be identified in a spoken language.  The English language has 45 phonemes or sound families
Phonological disorder  
a language disorder in which the child produces a given sound correctly in some instances but not at other times          Treatment:  discrimination and production activities
Phonology 
  refers to the linguistic rules governing a language’s sound system
Pragmatics 
  refers to the rules that govern how language is used in a communication context
Receptive language disorder  
a language disorder characterized by difficulty in understanding language; contrast with expressive language disorder
Semantics 
  refers to the meaning of language
Speech 
  the oral production of language used to communicate using breath and muscles to create the specific sounds of spoken language
Four related processes that produce speech
          respiration: breathing that provides power          phonation: production that provides power          resonation: sound quality shaped by throat          articulation: formation of recognizable speech by the mouth
Speech impairment  
speech that “deviates so far from the speech of other people that it1.       Calls attention to itself2.       Interferes with communication3.       Provokes distress in the speaker or the listener
The three basic types of speech impairments
           Articulation disorders           Fluency disorders          Voice disorders
Stuttering 
   fluency disorder of speaking marked by rapid-fire repetitions of consonant or vowel sounds, especially at the beginning of words; prolongations; hesitations; interjections; and complete verbal blocks; compare to cluttering
Syntax 
  the system of rules governing the meaningful arrangement of words in a language
Voice disorder  
abnormal production and/or absence of vocal quality, pitch, loudness, resonance, and/or duration, which is inappropriate for an individual’s age and/or sex
Educational Placement Alternatives for Communication Disorders
          The vast majority of children with speech and language impairments are served in regular classes           Some examples of service delivery models:o   Monitoringo   Pullouto   Collaborative consultationo   Classroom-basedo   Separate classroomo   Community-basedo   combination