Exxon one of the biggest multinational oil and

Exxon
Mobil Corporation

The
Exxon Mobil Corporation is one of the biggest multinational oil and gas
corporation in the world. Formed on November 30th 1999 with its
headquarters based in Irving, Texas the Exxon Mobile Corporation is the largest
descendant of John Rockefeller oil empire. It was formed after a merger of the
standard oil company of New Jersey, which is known as Exxon, and the standard
oil company of New York, which is now known as Mobil (Hasemyer, 2015).
The Exxon Mobil Corporation has a very detailed organizational structure that
features a well-documented code of ethics and business conduct. The ethic’s
policy defined in the Exxon Mobile Corporation are simply to comply with all
the government laws, rules and regulations. Even though the Exxon Mobil
Corporation is successful it is not however immune to controversies with the
most notable instance being the Exxon Knew campaign and alleged human rights
violation in Indonesia. The Exxon Knew campaign according to their social media
account was a move that was meant to discredit them. The Exxon Knew campaign
which was globally known as #ExxonKnew was a social media phenomena created by
environmentalists that was meant to make the Exxon Mobil take responsibility on
the ensuing climate change.

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As
earlier mentioned Exxon Mobil has been embroiled in a number of controversies
most of which are centered on climate. Exxon Mobil has over the years been
charged for having a hand for climate change cover and also on misleading the
public on climate change. Research that has been conducted by various
environmental organizations has shown that ExxonMobil is one of the top
greenhouses emitters to the environment. The ExxonMobil Corporation has a very
interesting history in regards to climate change. From the early 1970’s,
ExxonMobil has funded numerous activities that included research, lobbying,
advertising, and grant making which were later revealed as effort by the
industry leader to purposely delay the widespread acceptance and action on
global warming (Friedman, 2007). These efforts lead to what is now
known as climate change denial. In the early 1980’s the ExxonMobil is to have
said to have funded organizations which were critical to the Kyoto Protocol and
which were meant to derail the public from the opinion that the burning of
fossil fuels was responsible for the large emissions of greenhouses gases. They
went further by enlisting their own researchers that included their own
academic collaborators who further went on to conduct their own research and
then published their own research papers supporting climate change denial (Farrell,
2015). Even though there were reportedly few scientists who were working
for ExxonMobil that were able to realize the effects of burning fossil fuels
into the environment their comments were not taken into keen by the executives
in the company (Hasemyer, 2015). One such document was one of
ExxonMobil researcher by the name of Black who at the time was a senior
scientist in the Research and Engineering division in ExxonMobil Corporation.
At that time Black raised concern on the burning of fuels to the environment
and he addressed this concern to the company’s executives. His effort was
unsuccessful.

In
the modern day there have been many advancements in the industry and particularly
when it comes to technology. In the modern day there is a wide acceptance on
the unwinding effects that have been caused by global warming as a direct
resultant of human activities such as the burning of fossil fuels. There has
been a positive output that has been attributed to the rise and the emergence
of social media. Social media has over the recent years put ExxonMobil under
the spotlight which is good since the impact that has been generated with
social media has prompted such firms to be accountable (Schwartz, 2016).
Such phenomenal can be witnessed in the incentives that have been prompted in
the social sites like the popular hashtag #ExxonKnew that prompted a lot of
conversation online on the activities of the ExxonMobil Corporation. Through
the rise of social media many lobby groups were able to document the misdeeds
that were staple in the ExxonMobil Corporation. One such incident is document
by the events that unfolded in 2016. In 2016, two independent researchers from
Harvard were able to review nearly 200 documents and public statements that
were entirely based on the organizations research on climate change. The team
of independent researchers found ExxonMobil Corporation to be capable for
misleading the public on the effects of global warming. The research was
conducted by Naomi Oreskes, who is a professor of the history of the science,
and Geoffrey Supran, who is a postdoctoral fellow (Schwartz, 2016).
They both collaborated to release a peer-reviewed paper which was first
published in the Environmental Research Letters and later published in the New
York Times paper in the Opinion Article section. It was the publish in the New
York Times that gathered all the media and social media attention creating a
trend that sought for the ExxonMobil Corporation to take responsibility for
climate change. These in turn led to trickle down effects that are
characterized with numerous court battles and faceoff between the corporate
giant and environmental lobbyist. One particular issue that is raised in the
subsequent conversations after the reveal by the New York Times newspaper was
the fact that the ExxonMobil Corporation was aware of the rising amount of
carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and that the further knew that the emission of
carbon dioxide into the atmosphere was a likely prospect to cause global
warming (Song, 2015). It was due to this argument that raised the
global trend #ExxonKnew online. These sentiments are further supported by the
fact that in the year 1982 there was an internal report that was released to
the ExxonMobil management that highlighted the consequences of climate change
which could in the long run have a catastrophic effect and that if allowed to
continue it would have an irreversible effect to the environment. The report
further states that the ExxonMobil Corporation opt to formulate a climate model
and reduce on fossil consumption. The study from the research were seen not be
acted upon and the research were relatively unknown to the outside side as the
contents of the research were seen to be kept under wraps.

The
move by the ExxonMobil Corporation to promote climate change denial in the
1970’s through to the 1990’s can be compared by the move by the Big Tobacco
Corporation to keep the relation between tobacco and cancer under wraps.
However the many advancements in the various fields over the years have put the
truth on such issues on the limelight. Various publishers and social media have
played the role to ensure that the mass public is made aware of such issues as
they often affect the population on a larger scale (Farrell, 2015).
Through the expose by the New York Times, the ExxonMobil has been put under
scrutiny as clearly shown through the various legal tussles and social media
campaigns such as the #ExxonMobil campaign. The aftermath of the Expose has seen
the ExxonMobil Corporation undergo various changes in their organizational
structure. The Corporation tried to reduce the damage that was caused by the
article published by the New York Times by issuing a statement that clarified
the position of the big oil company when it came to climate change (Song,
2015). Even though the ExxonMobil Corporation have somehow managed to
sail through the legal process without having a major dent in its financial and
operational capacity they however endured charges over conspiracy. Another
event that characterized the ExxonMobil knew campaign was the internal wrangles
between the executives and the shareholders with more than two thirds of the
firm’s shareholders passing a motion in which it required the ExxonMobil
Corporation to annually produce a climate change report which was in contrast
to the executive’s wishes. However the firm has since taken an incentive to
clean up its name by employing several environmentalist into its board to gain
the public trust.

Another
well-known ethical issue is human rights violation in Indonesia by Exxon
Mobil.  Members of military units that provided
security for their gas extraction
and liquefaction project in Aceh are said to abuse local villagers. The
villagers accuse them of murder, torture and other types of abuse. The company
did not want to take liability for this actions as it is said they were never a
result of a specific intention. However a federal appeals court stated that
Exxon Mobil was not immune from responsibility. This events gathered
international attention. In 2015 federal court decided that the case may
procced in US court because the claims sufficiently “touch and concern” the
United States. Although, the lawsuit is still in progress there is hard
evidence of unethical issues in the company.

In
conclusion, Exxon Mobil is a global oil empire that is known for hiding from
responsibility for their unethical actions which could have been at any given
time stopped by the executives, but they usually prefer to ensure their
profits. However, they are starting to give more attention towards public
trust. Regaining this trust may be a long and difficult process considering the
number of organizations that are closely observing activities of the company,
but since somebody is watching there is a smaller risk that Exxon Mobil will
take part in unethical actions in the future.

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