The academic accomplishment of looked-after kids is dramatically lower than their equals. This thesis reviews literature in relation to the factors associated with low academic accomplishment and evaluates whether current policy in relation to the instruction of the looked-after population addresses the identified countries of hazard. Consideration was given to two chief stances in relation to the weaknesss of the attention system and the old life experiences of looked-after kids. Specific country ‘s of involvement was the impact on ill-treatment and disorganized fond regard in relation to educational attainment. This was associated with the high figure of kids within the attention system who have experienced ill-treatment and inconsistent attention from their biological parent ( s ) .
The intent of the reappraisal was to place if the demands of looked-after kids are met in current services and recommend betterments. The current counsel in relation to the publicity of looked-after kids appeared to pretermit the impact of old experience as a barrier to instruction. Where this is neglected in pattern there is grounds that a kid will go on to fight in a instruction scene. The importance of bettering the academic accomplishment of looked-after kids is linked to better life results.
1.1 Research Question
The purpose of this thesis is to research literature and research with respect to the factors that impact on the educational attainment of looked after kids ( LAC ) and what is the best manner to back up them through their instruction to cut down hereafter hazard.
“ It is by and large recognised that instruction is the key to societal integrating and that conversely, missing instruction carries a high hazard of long-run unemployment and societal exclusion ” ( Jackson, 2010 )
A looked after kid is defined as a kid who is under the statutory supervising of a local authorization. This includes all kids who are capable to a attention order ( Children Act 1989, subdivision 31 ) , interim attention order ( Children Act 1989, subdivision 38 ) or exigency protection order ( Children Act 1989, subdivision 44 ) . A kid can go looked after for a figure of grounds including disregard, maltreatment ( physical, emotional, sexual ) every bit good as due to household dislocation which has led to them being unable to stay in their place. In the UK there has been a steady rise in the figure of kids in attention since 2007 ( Graph 1 ) .
Graph 1: DfE: Children Looked After by Local Governments in England ( including acceptance and attention departers ) – twelvemonth stoping 31 March 2011
2010/2011 saw the highest figure of looked after kids since 1987 with 65,520 kids in attention on 31st March 2011 ( Department for Children, 2011 ) . As the figure of kids in attention addition the concern with respect to their results is going more of import than of all time. Due to their experiences and the impact these may hold, looked-after kids are arguably one of the most vulnerable groups in society ( Berridge, 2012 ) .
1.2 Duty of the Local Authority
When a kid becomes looked after the Local Authority becomes their ‘Corporate Parent ‘ and has parental duty to run into the demands of the kid including their educational demands. This is a responsibility under the Children Act ( 1989 ) ( as amended by the Children Act 2004 ) which states it is: –
“ The responsibility of a local authorization under subdivision ( 3 ) ( a ) to safeguard and advance the public assistance of a kid looked after by them includes in peculiar a responsibility to advance the kid ‘s educational accomplishment. “ ( Children Act, 2004 )
The UN convention on the Rights of the Child besides highlights the demand for instruction to be available and accessible to all kids, underscoring the importance of meeting specific demand to guarantee they run into their full potency. This identifies the significance of instruction on future results of a kid and how, in pattern, instruction should ever be considered a factor of importance. In the yesteryear, it can be argued, that this is non something that has ever been done. By disregarding the educational attainment of Looked-after Children, this group of kids begin maturity in an already disadvantaged place which can travel on to impact their full life.
1.3 Background information – Reappraisal focal point
There has been strong grounds for a figure of old ages that Looked-after Children are non expected to accomplish academically ( REFS ) . The UK Government has been describing Looked-after Children educational statistics since 2000 which has provided insight into the startling attainment spread between looked-after kids and their equals. In 2011 32 % of looked-after kids obtained 5GCSE ‘s at grade A*-C compared to 78 % of the general schooling population. While it is recognised that this is a considerable addition from 2007 ( 16.5 % ) it is acknowledged that the spread between attainment of looked-after kids and their opposite numbers has really widened from 44 % to 46 % . This indicates that although there has been betterment in footings of the figures, there is still a major difference with respect to consequences. This difference is reflected throughout proving from cardinal phase 1 proving up to GCSE. The publication of these consequences over the last 10 old ages appears to hold instigated a moving ridge of research concerned with why we seem to be neglecting our looked-after kids educationally every bit good as increasing political involvement. However, despite this increased involvement, there still appears to hold been small betterment with the spread looking to increase.
1.4 Current Positions
This thesis will research factors that have been identified to impact on the Education of Looked-after Children while besides sing what these findings could bespeak for Social Work pattern. There are presently a figure of different positions in footings what impacts on the educational attainment of Looked-after Children. The first position, and one that has historically been recognised by Local Authorities, is that it is the life experiences of the kid that impacts on accomplishment. There is a common consensus that looked after kids will execute less good academically than their non-looked after opposite numbers. It is understood local governments have accepted small or no duty for the educational failure of looked after kids and have alternatively blamed the deprived backgrounds of the kids ( McClung, 2008 ) . However, this would take to inquiry, what was being done to turn to the emphasis and trauma a Looked-after Child may hold suffered. There is significant grounds that injury and disregard in childhood will impact on a kid ‘s societal, emotional and behavioral development ( Schumacher et al, 2001 ; Hildyard et Al, 2002 ) . It would be naif to believe that these issues are resolved when a kid is removed from the state of affairs and attending must be given to the longer term effects of this. Specific attending will be placed on the impact of ill-treatment on instruction. It is besides recognised that ill-treatment in childhood can take to attachment issues and peculiar involvement will be placed on the consequence of hapless fond regard and educational experiences.
Attention must besides be given to the other common features of this group and how these may impact on their educational consequences. About a one-fourth of kids in the looked after system have a particular educational demand ( SEN ) compared to 3 % of overall school population ( Berridge, 2007 ) . Thought besides needs to be given to the high figure of societal disadvantages which are prevailing in this group such as poorness, unemployment, lone parenting, populating in disadvantaged country ‘s and how these can travel on to impact on development. These are all factors that must be taken into consideration when discoursing educational results as it is recognised that their combination can increase the hazard of underachievement.
The 2nd position provides grounds that the hapless educational accomplishment of looked after kids is more related to failings within the attention system ( Jackson, 1999 ) . Maxwell et Al ( 2006 ) identified the four principal causes for the educational under accomplishment of looked after kids as arrangement instability, hapless school attending, deficiency of sufficient support and encouragement within arrangement and deficiency of equal support with emotional, mental and physical wellness and well- being. These factors place the answerability for hapless public presentation with the attention system as it is implied that these are country ‘s that could be addressed. Could it be possible that the deficiency of acknowledgment in footings of the weaknesss of the attention system could be why it seems that this is a state of affairs that has been overlooked for a figure of old ages?
The inquiry whether the attention system is at mistake or have the effects of neglect/trauma the kid have suffered and old life experience ‘s been underestimated may be excessively simplistic ( Berridge, 2012 ) as this implies that is mistake lies merely with one or the other. It is hard to believe, with the frequently traumatic and deprived experiences of Looked-after Children, that this does non significantly impact on their results. However, it is acknowledged that it remains duty of the local authorization to turn to these issues as their corporate parent, supplying support and intercession based on each single kid ‘s demands to heighten chances ( Department for kids schools and households, 2010 ) . When sing the impact of being in attention on the kid it is of import to see what is in topographic point to turn to the troubles a kid may hold and if these are missing it becomes clear that the resources available are clearly non making plenty to back up these kids.
Thought must besides be given to the instruction system and the answerability they have in guaranting that a kid receives the instruction that they are entitled to. It appears historically that the instruction system has taken duty for the results of looked after kids.
Taking into consideration the identified research findings in relation to factors that impact the instruction attainment of looked after kids the reappraisal will travel on to analyze the current counsel, Promoting the Educational Achievement of Looked after Children ( Department for kids, schools and households, 2010 ) and place if these factors have been addressed sufficiently or are there countries of failing that are outstanding. The value of this reappraisal is the recommendations may potentially better the educational results for Looked-After Children.
The reappraisal of policy will take to place if there are struggles of moralss for practicians taking into consideration the HCPC codifications of pattern ( 2012 ) . It is hard to believe that societal work practicians are non seting the demands of their service users foremost, but there may be limitations in footings of the counsel they are following and the outlooks of their employer. It is widely agreed that Social workers are presently restricted by the sum of bureaucratism in their work ( Munro, 2011 ) hence, it will be of involvement to detect if this is an country where the specific counsel is more of a hinderance instead than a aid. When sing this attending must besides be placed on the current economic place and cuts in resources which are out of practicians custodies. The reappraisal includes primary research, secondary research and policy that have been produced in relation to this subject.
2 Purposes and Approach
2.1 Search Strategy
The hunt scheme for the literature identified has included academic hunt engines utilizing the undermentioned hunt footings: – Disregard and Educational results, Education and Care, Looked after kids and Education, Attachment and instruction.
With respect to text contained in Northumbria University ‘s library aggregation I used the NORA hunt engine utilizing the same hunt footings. This allowed for farther beginnings of information and was besides used to direct me towards other appropriate writers and journal articles.
The inclusion standard for this hunt was that the articles were journal articles, written in English published between January 1990 to July 2012. Although the purpose of this literature reappraisal includes an scrutiny of the current system and counsel in England I did non except research from other states as this information would let an apprehension of general tendency for looked after kids. This literature provided an penetration into the impact and results of Looked-after kids which I was so able to use to the UK specifically.
Following the hunt of electronic databases I was able to place some of Diaries ( NAMES ) that had published a figure of articles so I moved on to look at these specifically and consistently. I to boot searched articles and mention lists to place and farther pieces of work that would fit my hunt standards.
I searched online relevant Government sections and voluntary administrations ( Bannardo ‘s and NSPCC ) for information with respect to policy, counsel and information/statistics and the media to derive an penetration into their perceptual experience of the attention system and instruction. The information was all published and in the public sphere.
3 Factors known to impact on Education
Before looking specifically at the factors that impact the instruction of looked-after kids it is of import to derive an apprehension of factors that are known to impact on instruction of the general population. This gives acknowledgment to the fact that looked-after kids are portion of the general population and their looked after position is merely one component of them. This will supply a context when look intoing the results of looked-after kids.
In 2009 the Department for Children, Schools and Families ( 2009 ) published a study “ Interrupting the nexus between disadvantage and low attainment: Everyone ‘s concern ” , to place factors that were impacting the educational spread of persons with the purpose to better experiences from those deemed in higher hazard groups. The accent was the importance of educational accomplishment and bettering future life results. The study highlighted the nexus between societal disadvantage and educational accomplishment.
The DCSF ( 2009 ) identified that attainment spreads were linked to the kid ‘s household background ( Social Factors ) , their single features and educational factors. It is recognised that these factors are frequently linked and compound on another in footings of results ( Diagram 1 ) .
Diagram 1: This theoretical account indicates the links between single, societal and educational factors
It is widely reported that a assortment of societal factors can impact educational experiences. This includes parent educational background and experiences, household income, demographic characteristics. In footings of familial impacts it was recognised that parental accomplishment and their ain outlook of their kid ‘s attainment was important to the kid ‘s ain aspirations and outlooks. Burgess et Al ( 2001 ) found that household had the strongest influence with respect to educational result and there were important links between educational accomplishment and household background. It has besides been established that there is a positive correlativity between parental business, parental attainment and degrees of accomplishment in their kids. Furthermore, kids who come from places where there are 2 parents tend to achieve at higher degrees ( Youth Cohort Study, 2005 ) . This leads to increased hazard with respect to kids who live in individual parent households.
The academic accomplishment of parents is an of import characteristic in relation to the results of their kids. Children who have parents who are professionals and are educated to at least A flat criterion are less like to underperform than kids who parents have everyday businesss, are unemployed and/or have no educational makings. This has been corroborated in the work of Smyth and
McCabe ( 2000 ) who have determined that the consequence of societal background is evident in relation to both the degree of instruction reached and academic public presentation at assorted phases within the educational system.
Family income and want has besides been linked to hapless accomplishment. Nicaise ( 2000 ) demonstrates that the poorest kids fail and that big Numberss of them end up in the least good executing schools and that through their school experiences they score highly low in footings of numeracy and literacy. It has besides been determined that they leave school with few makings ( Nicaise, 2000 ) . The barbarous circle of societal exclusion so continues, because uneducated immature people become the first victims of unemployment and poorness ( Nicaise, 2000 ) .
An account for the lower academic accomplishment of kids from lower categories could be that working category parents have different values on instruction or hold different outlooks of it. Whilst it is acknowledged that the bulk parents want the best for their kids, working category parents may non automatically anticipate certain results in the same manner that in-between category parents do based on their ain experiences ( British Social Attitudes Survey, 2004 ) . Working category parents may hold less personal cognition, fewer accomplishments and ability to back up their kids efficaciously. This may besides impact the aspirations of the kid due to the environment the kid lives missing a function theoretical account within their immediate households who have succeeded in instruction ( DCSF, 2009 ) .
In regard of Individuals ‘ Features, DCSF ( 2009 ) were able to set up that underperforming students were disproportionately from lower societal categories and were thought to acquire caught in a rhythm of underperforming. It was besides determined that there was a gender spread between male childs and misss but that there was really small fluctuation when gender and societal category were considered in concurrence. There was besides a nexus between cultural groups in relation to accomplishment. Children who had Chinese and Indian cultural backgrounds performed at a higher degree than all other cultural groups.
There are a figure of educational fortunes that can increase the hazard of hapless results. This includes the type of school the kid attends, low degrees of attending and exclusion. School is the chief meeting topographic point for kids from different societal backgrounds and for many kids it is their first experience of socialization – or of exclusion and struggle ( Nicaise and Smyth, 2000 ) .
Attitudes and beliefs are developed and learnt from influences in person ‘s lives from household, instructors and the community. As attitudes to instruction are frequently learnt from a parent or community, it is a concern that this may go a rhythm of underachievement based on low outlooks. In a universe where instruction is progressively of import to open doors into future life chances, if the outlook to accomplish academically is n’t at that place, so doors are closed for a scope of future experiences which would profit persons, their households and community as a whole. This highlights the importance of raising aspirations through support, resources, and services for those who we know are most at hazard and in historically difficult to make groups.
It must be recognised that these country ‘s impact persons otherwise but it is widely agreed that they compound each other and make a downward impact on instruction.
There is grounds that the looked-after kids are normally from deprived backgrounds where these factors are outstanding. The DCSF ( 2009 ) study highlighted the utmost societal disadvantage are frequently linked to the grounds the kid entered the attention system. Within the DCSF ( 2009 ) study it was determined that kids from deprived backgrounds were more likely to hold particular educational demands and which correlates with the high figure of Looked-after kids that have SEN.
While it is recognised that the grounds kids come into attention vary greatly and it is understood that each state of affairs is alone in its ain manner by deriving an apprehension of the educational hazards of the general population, it is possible to increase the degree of understanding into the possible grounds why Looked-after kids may confront increased barriers to education based on their background and fortunes. This sets the place of looked after kids in context and demonstrates the demand to analyze their experiences further. The balance of this reappraisal concentrates on research and literature sing the educational accomplishment of looked-after kids.
Introduction to Looked After Children
It is hard to generalize what we know about the looked after population and
it is recognised that the population is a extremely heterogenous group in footings of their features. Childs who are in attention vary from new born babes to adulthood and therefore it must be acknowledged that when discoursing research it is based on immature people who have suffered common experiences while recognizing no two state of affairss will be the same ( Hare and Bullock, 2006 ) .
Despite the difference in experience there is grounds that there is a correlativity between factors that are widely understood to impact on instruction and the backgrounds of Looked-after kids. We know that a high figure of kids when come ining attention have experienced want, poorness, deficiency of educational aspiration, deficiency of parental supervising, anti-social behavior and other behavioral jobs. It is recognised that these state of affairss heighten hazard with respect to results.
These experiences although single to each state of affairs are recognised to specifically lend to educational results. Children in attention have frequently been exposed to environments that have been damaging to their development and due to this can impact on their accomplishment and results even when they have been removed from the attention of their parents. The reappraisal will travel on to look at the impact of life experiences before attention in more item.
Experiences prior to Care
It has been discussed how there are a figure of societal factors that are common to the kids in the attention system and how these may impact on Education. This reappraisal will now discourse the scope of demands of kids in attention based on their anterior experiences and how this can impact on their educational experiences.
The fortunes and experiences of kids come ining attention are varied can be categorised under the scope of classs of demand ( see chart 2 ) .
( Chart 2: Classs of Need ( DfES, 2011 ) .
These statistics provide an penetration into the grounds that kids are brought into attention which enables the chance to concentrate on the most common characteristics. In 2011 62 % of kids were looked after due to mistreat or pretermit.
It is recognised that there are a figure of factors than can take to the increased hazard of kids enduring this sort of ill-treatment. These include rearing issues such as early parentage, hapless rearing accomplishments, parental mental health/substance maltreatment, domestic maltreatment, societal isolation and poorness ( Black et al, 2001 ; Schumacher et Al, 2001 ) . It has already been identified that these are common experiences of looked after kids but it is besides recognised that non all kids who experience this suffer ill-treatment or become looked after. Where instances reach this point it is recognised that the kid has suffered relentless disregard or important injury which has led to them being unable to stay in the attention of their parent ( s ) .
Due to the old experiences and the prevalence of kids come ining attention due to enduring neglect and/or maltreatment, the impacts of ill-treatment on results must be considered in footings of development and the impact of this on educational attainment. Despite it being impossible to reflect the single fortunes and impact of each instance, in pattern consideration must be given to grounds based research and findings to back up professional opinion with respect to accomplishing the best results for the kid.
What is ill-treatment?
Maltreatment is characterised by all signifiers of physical and emotional maltreatment, sexual maltreatment, disregard, and development that consequences in existent or possible injury to the kid ‘s wellness, development or self-respect ( NSPCC, 2011 ) . This can be displayed in a scope of behaviors from a health professional in footings of non run intoing the kid ‘s demands and harming a kid. It is recognised that maltreated kids face a scope of hazard factors known to impair development ( Schumacher, Slep and Heyman, 2001 ) .
Linked to the societal experiences of looked after kids, it is recognised that the hazard of ill-treatment by and large increases in relation to adverse fortunes ( Meadows et Al, 2011 ) which can include state of affairss in relation to the kid, grownup, household or wider societal and economic environment. Chronic Poverty, attention giving-deficits, homelessness and parental abnormal psychology are all associated with disregard ( Pelton, 1994 ) . The experience of ill-treatment can impact a kid ‘s physical and mental wellness, school public presentation and societal interactions ( NSPCC, 2011 ) . This reappraisal will concentrate on the impact of ill-treatment on development and how this can impact on educational results.
Maltreatment and Education
There is a significant sum of research that has found that ill-treatment is associated with lower academic accomplishment ( REFS ) . Kurtz et Al ( 1993 ) conducted a survey that investigated the academic public presentation of physically abused, neglected and non-maltreated kids. They found that both groups of abused kids ( physically abused and neglected ) achieved significantly lower consequences for linguistic communication ( p & lt ; .0082 ) and maths ( P & lt ; .002 ) compared to the non-maltreated group. This type of consequence has been found in subsequent research from kids runing from babyhood to adolescence ( Hildyard and Wolfe, 2002 ) . In detecting grounds for the lower academic accomplishment of abused kids, it poses the inquiry with respect to how the specific impacts of disregard and maltreatment have been linked to hapless educational results.
A history of disregard from a immature age has besides been found to impact IQ which may hold a important impact on the educational ability of immature people. Gowen ( 1993 ) found that kids who received unequal attention scored lower one IQ measures. A longitudinal survey conducted by Perez et Al ( 1994 ) supports these happening when they compared 413 persons who had been maltreated in childhood with 286 non maltreated kids. The proving that gathered informations on IQ and reading ability was carried out about 20 old ages after the maltreatment had taken topographic point. They found that those who had been maltreated in childhood scored significantly less, with a average mark of one standard divergence less than the non-maltreated group.
Consideration must be given to the restrictions of this survey and it is of import to see extra factors that may hold impacted on these consequences and should be controlled in future research. For illustration there grounds that the gender of persons may impact consequences as Erickson et Al ( 2002 ) found that ignored male childs are more likely to hold lower IQ tonss than misss which may hold impacted on Perez et Al ( 1994 ) consequences as the control for gender was non indicated in the abused or non-maltreated group. We besides know that traditionally the looked-after system has ever held a marginally higher figure of male childs ( House of Commons, 2012 ) .
Despite non commanding for all conducive factors the consequences of Perez et Al ( 1994 ) and Gowen ( 1993 ) supply some grounds of the possible long permanent impact of ill-treatment in footings of intelligence degree. This indicates the disadvantage this group of kids may confront when it comes to education prior to come ining attention. However, it is of import to recognize that this is non ever the instance and that single experiences and a kid ‘s ain resiliency in the face of hardship lead to individualized impact.
Gowen ( 1993 ) besides identified that a history of disregard can besides foretell jobs in expressive and receptive linguistic communication due to their old experiences of limited interaction with their health professionals. This can be a barrier when organizing relationships and drama with equals which can travel on to impact on societal behavior. There is grounds that ignored kids tend to be socially withdrawn ( Hildyard and Wolfe, 2002 ) . This is supported in a survey by Crittenden ( 1992 ) who compared the equal interactions of ignored, abused, abused and ignored, marginally maltreated and non-maltreated pre-school aged kids. The survey found that ignored kids tended to more stray during drama and more inactive and withdrawn with their female parents compared to the other groups. These consequence ‘s support the work of a figure of surveies where findings revealed ignored kids were more stray and engaged in fewer societal interactions than that of other kids ( Erickson et al, 1989 ; Egeland and Sroufe, 1981 ; Cameras and Rappaport, 1993 ) . The deficiency of societal interactions and battle non merely impacts on how a child develops socially but besides on their ability to larn and derive apprehension of the universe around them.
Egeland ( 1991 ) found that ignored kids had trouble get bying with the societal demands of school. It is apprehensible that without the ability to develop and prolong effectual support webs, a kid will fight with the emphasis and outlooks of school life. There are besides deductions of ill-treatment in footings of behavior both in and out of the schoolroom. It is recognised above that kids, as a consequence of disregard can expose a scope of behavioral troubles. These types of behavior may include attending seeking behavior. Research provides grounds that an experience of long term ill-treatment increases the hazard of being socially riotous in the schoolroom due to miss of boundaries and attending seeking behavior ( Howe, 2005 ) . There is besides grounds that ignored kids may endure from these peculiar behavior jobs throughout life, giving grounds to the longer term impacts of disregard. Research has shown that kids who are exposed to hapless household direction patterns are at greater hazard of developing behavior upsets and anti-social behavior. It is recognised that these behaviors can be a barrier to instruction as they non merely deflect the kid from concentrating on larning but they will non be tolerated in mainstream instruction taking to exclusion and/or referrals to alternate educational proviso.
A kid with unmet demands may expose a scope of troubles which can impact on behavior. In my ain pattern experience I have learned ne’er to undervalue the impact of traumatic experiences and how a kid may be affected by them longer term. As a practician it is of import to be equipped with relevant research and theory to be able to derive an apprehension of how state of affairss can impact on an person. This information can so be used to bring forth grounds based intercession to back up and authorise the service user.
When sing the impact of old experiences on looked after kids it is of import to recognize the consequence of emotional and physical injury can hold in organizing fond regard to parents/care givers and the impact of attachment theory on development and behavior. The term ‘Attachment ‘ in relation to attachment theory can be defined as a bond between an person and attachment figure ( Wilson et al, 2008 ) . It is imperative to admit that despite the fortunes of the child/young individual come ining attention and that separation from household will be a nerve-racking and traumatic clip, it is the kid ‘s experience of a health professional supplying a safe and unafraid environment that is discussed in attachment theory. It is of import non to confound the fond regard theory bond in footings of love and fondness but alternatively it focuses on the unconditioned map of advancing protection and security ( Prior and Glaser, 2006 ) .
Using attachment theory proposed by Bowlby ( 1969 ) it is possible to derive penetration into what a kid demands from their parents and the impact of an unavailable health professional in babyhood can hold both in the short and long term. As Domasio et Al ( 2001 ) reflected ;
“ When the caregiving relationship is persistently compromised so excessively is the future life of the kid ”
Attachment theory provides a theoretical model that enables us to analyze and measure relationships across the whole life span with the belief that the fond regard experiences in babyhood will consequence development into adolescence and maturity.
Bowlby ‘s ( 1969 ) original survey examined how babies use their primary health professional as a beginning of comfort and safety. As this appears to be an natural behavior displayed by babies, Bowlby ( 1969 ) believed that the behavior was biologically influenced and had evolved to protect the baby. When the baby is faced with a state of affairs that causes feelings of hurt it is assumed that the baby will seek protection from its primary health professional. When a health professional is antiphonal to an baby ‘s needs the fond regard enables the security for the baby to research the environment safe in the cognition that the health professional remains accessible ( Liebert and Liebert, 1998 ) . This ability to research while safe in the cognition that the health professional is available to comfort and protect in times of fright or hurt enables the baby to develop their apprehension of the universe.
Original fond regard theory is criticised as it seems to concentrate on the relationship between the baby and the female parent based on an automatic maternal fondness. The statement is that fond regard is non biologically based in this manner, but more based on the individual who is able to run into the specific demands of the baby and the subsequent bond that is created. It is now strongly acknowledged that there may be a figure of attachment figures the baby may utilize as a unafraid base such as a male parent or sibling, so attachment theory should non be limited to one individual but expression at the environment of the kid ( Field, 1996 ) .
Another factor to see when believing about fond regard are that there are single differences with respect to the ability of utilizing primary health professional as a secure base and the impact if this is non available. This introduces the construct of different fond regard manners. Ainsworth, Blehar, Waters & A ; Wall ( 1978 ) developed a scheme for measuring the manner of fond regard utilizing the “ unusual state of affairs ” experiment where they observed babies reactions when left in the presence of a alien for a brief period. From these observations Ainsworth et Al ( 1978 ) identified four types of fond regard forms ; procure fond regard, insecure fond regard which included ambivalent and avoidant fond regard manner and disorganised fond regard.
When a kid is firmly attached it is expected that when left for a period of clip there would be marks of hurt at the loss of their secure base, but happy and forgiving upon the health professionals return. Those who form a secure fond regard use the primary health professional as a secure base. The cognition that there is a unafraid base to return to if there was anything that caused emphasis allows the baby to research its environment in comfort and develop their ain apprehension of the universe. As the baby matures, the geographic expedition becomes more adventuresome as the baby is internally cognizant that they have the support of the health professional, irrespective of whether the health professional is physically present.
Ambivalent, avoidant and disorganised fond regard forms are characterised as being insecure fond regards. When there is absence of a unafraid fond regard there is a inquiry over the security and dependability of the health professional. This impacts how the infant reacts to being separated from them and how they are able to research as there is undependability of the health professional being able to protect them. An insecure fond regard indicates that the demands of the kid are non being met by the health professional ( Schofield, 2002 ) . When an baby is populating in an environment where there is a deficiency a health professional ( s ) as they are unavailable or unwilling to supply security and protection so it is likely that a kid will develop an insecure fond regard and be unable to research. Where a kid has been unable to organize a unafraid fond regard with a health professional due to maltreatment, it is recognised that there is possible to organize a disorganized fond regard. This is due to the inconsistent response from the health professional which makes it impossible for the kid to develop organized responses to state of affairss. Research has evidenced that there is links between hapless parenting and disorganized fond regard increasing hazards for deprived hereafter results ( Zeanah et al, 2003 ) .
A feature of ill-treatment is where a parent is unable to supply a safe and unafraid environment for their kid or is the beginning of fright. Children who have suffered ill-treatment have been found to expose higher frequences of insecure fond regard ( Crouch and Milner, 1993 ; Wolfe, 1993 ) . Attachment theory gives us an apprehension of how these experiences may hold impacted on the person ‘s life and behavior ( Bowlby, 1980 ) . If a health professional is non available to protect the babe or is the beginning of fright, the babe becomes deregulated and in order to last must happen a manner to cover with their feelings – this can be the start of showing “ hard ” behavior ( Hughes, 2002 ) .
The grounds in regard of the impact of insecure fond regards can non be disregarded in relation to the educational experiences of looked-after kids. There are a scope of behaviors that have been linked to insecure fond regards. During early childhood, this type of fond regard has been linked to aggressive projecting behavior ( Moss et al, 1996 ) . The deficiency of a unafraid fond regard may impact on the kid ‘s ability to hammer a sense of individuality or develop trust and empathy. Consideration much besides be given to the injury of attachment breaks and how these behaviors can be exhibited while in the attention of their parent ( s ) and besides following remotion. Hodges et Al ( 1999 ) Observed how the behavior of kids who have been taken into attention has been likened to serious injury.
Attachment and Education
Insecure fond regard is recognised to negatively impact on a kid ‘s development but how does this consequence a kid ‘s instruction? Due to the frequently helter-skelter backgrounds of looked-after kids it is impossible to dismiss the impact of attachment troubles. Parental inaccessibility is a common characteristic within the disregard and maltreatment group which is compounded by the eventual remotion of the kid from their place. This can travel on to take to a figure of troubles the kids experience during their clip in school.
In footings of the impact of attachment breaks on instruction, Kobak et Al ( 2001 ) conducted a survey which considered the consequence of attachment breaks on terrible accommodation jobs. Kobak ( 1999 ) defined attachment break as being prolonged and unplanned separation that impacts on the kid ‘s position of their health professional ‘s handiness. For this research the groups of males ( 9-11years old ) were separated into groups based on their hazard for accommodation troubles and categorised harmonizing to the badness of major separations from their biological female parent. It was found that kids with the most terrible emotional perturbations had besides experienced the most important health professional breaks. The behaviour displayed from those kids had meant that they are no longer able to stay in mainstream instruction and are placed in particular instruction proviso. Disruptive behavior is frequently a cardinal index of terrible emotional perturbation where aggression and ill will is frequently aimed at instructors and equals. This behavior besides impacts on the kid ‘s ability to concentrate, react to train and associating to equals ( Mattison et al,1992 ) .
It is of import to recognize that the experience of insecure fond regard does non merely impact the behavior of an person but besides impacts on interaction and the ability to organize relationships with others ( Howe and Fearnley, 1999 ) . These troubles can the travel on the affect how the kid performs and adapts to school life. Often, emotionally neglected, kids will hold learned from their relationships with their primary health professionals that they will non be able to hold their demands met by others. This can impact a kid ‘s ability to accept heat or aid from others. The consequence of this behavior may do instructors and equals non to offer aid or support, hence reenforcing the negative outlooks of the ignored kid ( Erickson and Egeland, 2002 ) . Lynch and Cicchetti ( 1992 ) instead found that kids who had experienced attachment breaks were more likely to seek aid from instructors in a manner that was deemed inappropriate or dependent. They found that this type of attending was nerve-racking for instructors and led to less supportive interactions. Although these research workers have identified differing types of behavior towards instructors, both acknowledge that kids who have had insecure fond regard seek attending from instructors but exhibiting attending seeking behaviors in a different manner.
The impact of the teacher-pupil relationship based on emphasiss may impact how the instructor views the kid and their behavior. For illustration, Koback et Al ( 2001 ) acknowledge that a restriction of their survey was reliant extensively on instructors ‘ study of the student. They felt that this may hold been impacted by the instructor holding a full consciousness of the kid ‘s background and experiences which led to low outlooks of the kid ; nevertheless, it may besides hold been affected by the instructor ‘s relationship with the kid based on how the behavior made them experience.
An extra impact of insecure fond regard within school is linked to troubles in societal interactions with equals. This can be exhibited in the signifier of missing in assurance of societal accomplishments which can impede constructing relationships ( Goldman and Salus, 2003 ) . This battle can take to the single happening the outlook of societal interaction within schools as nerve-racking and therefore impact the kid ‘s ability to get by with the school environment.
Early fond regard theory focused to a great extent on fond regard in babyhood stoping in pubescence ( Field, 1996 ) , nevertheless, there is now back uping grounds that the effects of early fond regard can now act upon a life-time ( Howe, 2011 ) . Despite the cognition of the possible important impact of insecure fond regard, it is of import to recognize when using Attachment theory to persons that it is based on persons experience by garnering information from a scope of available beginnings and that premises are non made. Howe et Al ( 1999 ) cautioned that when utilizing attachment theory in pattern that consideration must be given to back up that the service user may necessitate in a non-judgemental manner as single state of affairss may take to different issues that need turn toing. There is a hazard when premises are made and intercession is non appropriate that this will take to certain outlooks of the service user ‘s behavior. When these premises are made the service user may carry through these outlooks, irrespective of whether these are of a negative or positive nature ( Belsky and Cassidy, 1994 ) . However, unsurprisingly there is grounds that a high per centum of service users within societal work who have experienced insecure fond regards at some point in their life ( Howe et al, 1999 ) . As a societal worker, there is a duty to be cognizant of this and guarantee that intercession and support has a holistic attack and appropriate for the single demands. The developmental issues that can be caused by insecure fond regard can increase single service user ‘s is exposure hence there is an focal point when working with those persons on publicity of healthy development and edifice healthy relationships. Iwaniec and Sneddon ( 2001 ) found that when there is appropriate support and intercession positive alterations can be made.
When garnering information about the life of the kid it is imperative that a thorough apprehension is gained with respect to do and consequence of behavior. This will non merely give the workers the cognition they require to place and implement the most appropriate support but will besides let for other bureaus involved, such as the school, derive an understanding with respect to why the kid may hold troubles within school. This information besides enables the kid to derive an account of their ain behavior and why they may happen it hard to command. In mainstream instruction it is indicated that these behaviors are besides misunderstood, which leads to troubles within mainstream schools. The purpose of instruction is to be inclusive to all. However, it is argued that this does non take the important experiences, injury and support demands of looked-after kids into consideration. There are a high degree of exclusions of looked after kids from mainstream instruction. From a societal work position, this leads to consideration of the kid confronting yet another rejection but consideration must be given to the position of the instruction system and instructors involved.
Care and Education Factors
As it has been identified, the anterior experiences of kids before come ining attention have a important consequence on how the kid develops and their behavior. It is recognised while reexamining this that kids cope with injury otherwise and some are more resilient than others. The intent of the attention system is to turn to the single demands and back up the kid through their instruction with the purpose of bettering on the factors that have antecedently impeded their educational experience. Practice considerations must be given to the impact of old experiences on development but it is of import to guarantee that this does non get the better of the service user by holding a lower outlook of them but enables intercession to be based on the demands of the person. In relation to this it is important to analyze the current system and how these demands are presently assessed and services provided. In the UK there is a legal duty for parents to guarantee that their kids attend school from the age of 4-16 ( REF Education Act ) . When a kid is taken into attention, the local authorization takes on duty as the corporate parent. As the corporate parent of Looked-after Children it is the local governments ‘ statutory responsibility to guarantee that this is provided. Historically it appears that the outlook of educational accomplishment in LAC was low and that small importance or research had been focused on this country ( Roy and Rutter, 2006 ) .
Introduction to the Care System
It seems as though the historically the attention system ‘s purpose may hold been run intoing basic and safety demands of the kid by taking them from an environment where they were placed at hazard. It is recognised that although this is an indispensable portion of the attention system, this should non be the lone focal point on attention proviso. The historical purpose to run into physiological and safety demands may bespeak how historically other countries have been undervalued and neglected or outlooks may hold been low. It is evident when reexamining current policy guidelines and statute law that there have been important alterations in the attention system over the old ages with the increased accent on the attention system to supply the kid with a nurturing environment to back up the kid to make their best potency. Despite this, it is still the instance that being in attention reduces a kid ‘s life opportunities. Jackson ( 2008 ) highlights the exposure of this group in her findings of the immature people who have been in province attention as the most likely to endure hapless results including early parentage, wellness jobs, depression and criminalism.
Giving attending to the increasing figure of kids in attention it is appropriate to reexamine current attention system and its purposes. There are a figure of different types of attention scenes for kids ( see graph. ) The Majority of kids are in surrogate arrangements. The purpose of a surrogate arrangement is to supply a nurturing environment for the kid to develop. It is imperative when supplying attention to a kid to supply stableness. Due to old experiences and possible impact of insecure fond regard of a big proportion of this group it is the duty of the attention system to supply the attention that was missing in their household environment.
Types of Care
( DfE: Children Looked After by Local Governments in England ( including acceptance and attention departers ) -year stoping 31 March 2011 )
With 74 % of immature people populating in surrogate attention consideration must be given to the type of attention that kids receive and what research has found to back up the best type of environment for a kid to boom. The Social Exclusion study ( 2003 ) identified the following 5 cardinal issues impact on the instruction of Looked- after kids: –
Exclusion/time out of instruction
Insufficient support with instruction
Carers non equipped to supply sufficient support.
Lack of support with emotional, mental or physical wellness and wellbeing.
It is recognised that surrogate attention provides the most stable environment for a immature individual and if they are non moved, they are more likely to accomplish academically. The ground for this is Foster Care provides the kid with the puting most like a household where person is able to back up them with their instruction. It is acknowledged that where kids perform good academically there has been at least one individual who has championed them throughout their school calling. This support and input appears imperative non merely harmonizing to research but besides from service user feedback. Banardo ‘s ( 2005 ) conducted a survey into their service user views on attention and the responses indicated that immature people felt that they would make better if they received encouragement by all professionals around them, non merely their Foster carers.
Roy and Rutter ( 2006 ) conducted a survey on the impact of attention continuity on early reading accomplishment spliting two groups of looked after kids based on a scope of factors. One group had experienced discontinuity in their long term institutional attention environment, and the other had experienced high degrees of continuity within a surrogate household. The groups were matched for age, gender and household histories and compared with a group of matched control kids to guarantee that these differences did non impact the consequences and allowed the focal point to be on the type of attention received. The survey found high degrees of inattention and over activity in the group who had been in long term institutional attention which has been linked to jobs in early reading. When the research workers analysed their consequences they concluded that non merely is the type of attention experiences linked to holds in reading but instruction can be significantly impacted if the attention giver does non put importance of support on instruction. As a high proportion of looked after kids are done so in a Foster attention, it is considered that this environment should go on to the nurturing place life required. It is recognised that this piece of research was conducted on a little graduated table and that there have been alterations since as it was conducted prior to the specific responsibility within the Children Act ( 2004 ) in relation to educational accomplishment of looked after kids to guarantee that instruction is a focal point during all types of arrangement. However, it is besides galvanizing when it is considered that this research is merely 6 old ages old and anterior to this there have been coevalss that have non received the support and encouragement needed to make their possible.
It has been identified by research ( REFS ) how of import stableness is for Children in attention. However, despite this ( STATS ) of kids more arrangement. Stein ( 2005 ) indicated there are important effects of traveling arrangements due to the kids ‘s old experience in their old household scenes. This includes ill-treatment, instability and household rejection. Where the attention system does non supply a stable arrangement for a kid there is a hazard of farther impact on their emotional wellbeing due to farther rejection ( Smith, 2008 ) . These experiences can intensify the already insecure fond regards made and do it hard for the kid to develop healthy relationships for the hereafter. So where the attention system should be back uping and run intoing the kid ‘s demands, what they are potentially making is doing farther harm. The impact of trouble forming and keeping relationships may impact on the kid ‘s opportunities to develop societal, restricting their employment and friendly relationship chances taking to isolation and restricting societal competency ( Smith, 2008 ) . Ritchie ( 1996 ) found interpersonal troubles in kids who had experiences multiple arrangement moves.
When sing the impact of arrangement moves on instruction, consideration is given to traveling schools. Flectcher- Campbel and Archer ( 2003 ) conducted a survey of 377 immature people and found 73 % of the group had experienced at least 2 secondary schools during their clip in attention. It is recognised that this is a little sample, nevertheless, the findings are refering and lead to sing the impact of a figure of school moves has. There are the practical impacts of traveling schools but besides consideration demands to be given to the impact of farther interruptions in friendly relationships and fond regards, every bit good as any alterations in course of study which increases the work load ( Smith, 2008 ) . This shows how, a system in topographic point to back up and run into the demands of immature people may really be holding the opposite consequence when neglecting to supply stableness.
Ritchie ( 1996 ) found that kids who were placed in surrogate attention or who had multiple health professionals had interpersonal jobs which impacted on how they were able to associate to instructors, other grownups and equals within an educational scene. It is understood that the degree of support a kid needs varies and it must be acknowledged that there are a figure of kids in the attention system that do travel on to accomplish despite the impact of their old fortunes and with the support of the system. However, unluckily, there are a greater figure of kids who are affected by their experiences before and during attention. It is the duty of the attention supplier and the Local Authority to run into the single demands of each kid and recognize the support that is required.
From the information above it appears that there are some alterations that could be made within the attention system to back up immature people in their instruction. However, it is recognised that this is non entirely the duty of the attention system and the Education system besides have an of import supporting function. To back up a immature individual in instruction a multi-agency attack is required so all professionals involved are cognizant of the kid ‘s demands and how best to react.
.With the figure of impacting issues that have been identified in relation to the experiences and demands of looked-after kids it would be rather easy to put the duty entirely at the societal workers door. But when taking a holistic attack to a kid and any support and intercession required, all who are involved have a duty to guarantee that the best service is provided. Although the responsibility within the Children Act ( 2004 ) does non include school, counsel makes it clear that schools are closely involved with the instruction planning and agreements. Schools have an built-in portion to topographic point non merely in footings of instruction but besides in footings of support. They have contact with kids on a day-to-day footing and are hence the best beginning of professional cognition that can be used to place what a kid would profit from educationally. Teaching is a profession where focal point is on back uping a kid to larn. To back up a traumatised kid to larn it is imperative that instructor ‘s demands to understand what a kid has experienced and the extra support that may be required ( Kellie-Smith in Archer et Al, 2003 ) . It has already been acknowledged that Looked-after kids are more likely to be excluded from instruction. This is progressively linked to their behavior. Schools have a duty to guarantee that all kids in their attention are having an equal instruction and it seems that the behavioral challenges of Looked-after kids are frequently excessively much to for a mainstream school to get by with.
It is recognised that along with the duty of placing the demands of a looked after kid, a instructor is besides in a place which has to see the demands of a whole category. When looking at the representative per centum of looked-after kids within a school comprising of a little minority the duty of the teaching staff may be inclined towards the bulk of students ( Jackson and Sachdev, 2001 ) . There may be struggle about what class of action would be best for the kid and what would profit the category. This is linked to the behavior that have been identified antecedently that may be hard to incorporate in a mainstream school and the break that this can do. It is acknowledged historically that a high figure of looked after kids are more likely to be placed in pupil referral units ( Galloway, 1994 ) and allocated to particular demands schools even if their troubles were deemed less serious than their equals ( Gordon et al, 2000 ) .
The job with taking kids from mainstream instruction is the alternate instruction can frequently exacerbate bing jobs ( Harker et al, 2004 ) . It is besides evidenced that determinations to except kids may strictly be in a reaction of non being able to get by with the kid but it is wondered what is really attempted to back up the kid or if it is a instance of strictly go throughing the duty to another supplier. During pattern I have worked with a immature individual who has antecedently been excluded from mainstream instruction. He felt the behavior was expected of him and there was no support or boundaries from instructors. Due to exclusion he was so out of instruction for a period where his behavior became more out of control. This leads to inquiry of the impact of exclusion every bit good as the deficiency of support when this does go on.
Teachers themselves have identified the disputing behavior of Looked-after kids as the most hard component of covering with kids in attention ( Fletcher-Campbell et Al, 2003 ) . Teacher ‘s attitudes towards kids in attention and their subsequent behavior has been identified by kids who are looked-after as impacting on how good they do in school. Service user feedback gained from Banardo ‘s ( 2005 ) found that kids in attention felt that instructors attitudes impacted on their public presentation. Those who performed better described holding a instructor who did non handle them as different and who had an apprehension of their demands and offering unnoticeable aid. The debut of the practical school caput is hoped to offer kids that support in footings of an understanding figure who will defend for them as required. It is recognised that overall, kids in attention require support and understanding during their clip in school and non to hold premises made based on their yesteryear or current fortunes.
There is apparent historical struggle between the work of societal workers and schools. Although both are services to advance kids ‘s ability and well-being, societal workers are better equipped to cover with kids who display debatable behaviors and besides to hold an apprehension of why those behaviors are at that place, whereas a instructor ‘s precedence is the educational accomplishment of the kid but besides giving consideration to the wider impact on others in the category. To be able to work in a multi-agency manner, both must be understanding and considerate of the others perspective to make a joint program. When sing the conflicting precedences of kids ‘s services and the instruction supplier it is necessary to see the force per unit areas that have been placed by the local authorization and cardinal authorities. With the force per unit areas of conference tabular arraies and coverage of consequences specific to looked-after kids, instructors may experience unable to back up the kid to make the criterion that is required. It is considered that this force per unit area may exacerbate the state of affairs and take the school to ‘give up ‘ . There have been a figure of undertakings focused on the instruction of looked after kids such as Equal Chances ( REF ) , Taking attention of Education ( REF ) that have reported the demands and alterations required to better the instruction experiences of looked after kids. It has been highlighted on the importance of all bureaus involved working together. However, it is recognised that the execution of the alterations was a battle when sing the division between societal attention and instruction services which led to them being unable to work jointly due to their viing precedences ( Harker et al, 2004 ) . There have been huge betterments within multi-agency working between instruction and kids ‘s services over the last few old ages with the purpose of back uping looked-after kids within instruction. Berridge et Al ( 2008 ) besides reported that professionals are working better together in footings of increased communicating and affair. Both carers and kids in the looked-after system have reported the input of societal worker interceding with other professionals as highly valuable ( The Centre for Excellence and Outcomes in Children and Young People ‘s Services, 2009 ) .
After looking at the impact of experiences/individual factors, the influence of the attention system and instruction system it is apparent that there is a wealth of information that has identified possible factors that influence the instruction of Looked-after kids. However, despite this knowledge the attainment spread between Looked-after kids and their equals does non look to be contracting. The inquiry from this is where and why are we still traveling incorrect and what is non being addressed in support and counsel.
Current Guidance and Policy
This reappraisal has so far considered the person, attention and instruction factors that may impact on the educational accomplishment and has been able to place the followers: – ( see Diagram 2 ) .
Diagram 2: Factors that are linked to the cause of low academic accomplishment
There is grounds that these some of these factors ( low outlooks, instability, and deficiency of individualized support ) can be present anterior to come ining attention and during attention. From this grounds it is now possible to look into the counsel and policy produced to better the educational experience of looked-after kids and if these meet the demands of this specific group and turn to the demands that have antecedently been identified as a barrier within the attention system.
It has been widely reported by the Government over the last decennary that there is a galvanizing the attainment spread between looked-after kids and their non-looked after opposite number