In this article, we will speak about the construct of Jean Piaget ‘s theory on cognitive development and we will use this theory onto a celebrated individual, Abraham Lincoln. The content of this article has been divided into three subdivisions. The first subdivision Acts of the Apostless as an debut to this article and discusses briefly Lincoln ‘s and Piaget ‘s background. The 2nd subdivision of this paper provides elaborate accounts on Piaget ‘s theory of cognitive development. Application of Piaget ‘s theory onto Lincoln ‘s life will be the concluding subdivision of this paper. In add-on, we will be utilizing other theories besides Piaget ‘s. These theories include Erik Erikson ‘s psychosocial phases, Albert Bandura ‘s societal acquisition theory, every bit good as Sigmund Freud ‘s depth psychology theory.
Piaget ‘s theory on cognitive development was among the few theories that have stood the trial of clip with small unfavorable judgment from his fellow psychologists ( Fleming, 2004 ) . What ‘s more surprising is that Piaget started off non as a psychologist, but as a life scientist ( Fleming, 2004 ) . Piaget ‘s first two doctor’s degrees were PHD on the survey of natural scientific discipline and the survey of doctrine ( Fleming, 2004 ) . However, Piaget possesses acute involvement on a assortment of topics that may or may non be related to the two doctor’s degrees mentioned antecedently. Among his involvement was his involvement on the “ wherefore ” and “ hows ” kids come up with inaccurate replies ( Fleming, 2004 ) . It was this involvement that compelled Piaget to work on his theory on cognitive development and eventually he came up with his cognitive development theory ( Fleming, 2004 ) .
Born in the twelvemonth 1809 on February 12, in Hardin County, Kentucky, Abraham Lincoln was boy to Thomas Lincoln and his married woman, Nancy Hawks Lincoln ( Abraham Lincoln, 20013 ) . He had two other siblings ; his older sister, Sarah Lincoln, and his younger brother who died at birth, Thomas Lincoln ( Abraham Lincoln, 2013 ) . In 1816, Abraham, along with his whole household moved to Spencer County, so Perry County in 1816, Indiana ( The young person of Abraham Lincoln, n.d. ) . Nancy died in the twelvemonth 1818 due to tremetol when Abraham was nine old ages old and his male parent remarried with Sarah Bush Johnstan in the twelvemonth 1819 ( Abraham Lincoln, 2013 ) . The relationship between Abraham and Sarah was surprisingly, a close 1. Harmonizing to Abraham himself, he had formal educational for merely a twelvemonth and he self-taught himself everything subsequently ( Abraham Lincoln, 2013 ) . In 1834, Lincoln ‘s political engagement started when he was appointed as a member of the Whig Party by the Illinois province legislative assembly ( Abraham Lincoln, 2013 ) . He subsequently married Mary Todd in the twelvemonth 1842 and was father to four kids ( Abraham Lincoln, 2013 ) . Following that, he embarked on a journey of political struggles and on the 6thof November, 1860, Abraham Lincoln was eventually voted as the 16th President of the United States ( Abraham Lincoln, 2013 ) . After that, he fought to stop bondage and with the 13th amendment, he freed all bondage in the twelvemonth 1865 ( Spielberg, 2013 ) . Unfortunately, Abraham Lincoln was assassinated in Ford ‘s Theater by John Wilkes Booth on 1865 April 14 ( Abraham Lincoln, 2013 ) .
Sensorimotor is the first phase of Piaget ‘s cognitive development theory ( Rogers, 1977 ) . This phase occurs during early childhood from the clip of birth till the baby is about two old ages old. During the sensorimotor phase there will be a rapid cognitive growing in the babies. An baby ‘s cognition begins with their centripetal perceptual experience and motor action. ( Rogers, 1977 ) The sensorimotor phase can be divided into six sub-stages. Round reaction is the first sub-stage in the sensorimotor phase. This sub-stage is from birth to one month, during which the baby understands his milieus based on his congenital automatic actions ( Rogers, 1977 ) . The 2nd sub-stage is known as primary round reaction, which is for babies form one to four months. During this sub-stage babies begin to detect the interesting reaction received and so they tend to continuously reiterate their actions ( Rogers, 1977 ) .
Secondary round reaction is the 3rd sub-stage, which is from four to eight months twelvemonth old babies. At this sub phase babies are more likely to prosecute with their environment ( Rogers, 1977 ) . They still have the demand to continuously reiterate their actions through a procedure of test and mistake ( Rogers, 1977 ) . Coordination of reactions is the 3rd bomber phase that an baby goes through between the first eight to twelve months of his or her life ( Rogers, 1977 ) . During this phase, babies are able to organize two or more round reactions to acquire a coveted consequence ( Rogers, 1977 ) . During this phase babies have a better apprehension of their environment and they besides realize certain specific qualities in their milieus.
The 5th bomber phase is known as the third handbill reaction which is for babies between 12 to 18 months. During this sub phase babies develop new behaviors through assorted test and mistake techniques ( Rogers, 1977 ) . An active experimental and geographic expedition of their environment and milieus is normally carried out during this period. The last sub phase is when the baby is 18 months old. During this sub phase babies do non utilize the test and mistake method any longer ( Rogers, 1977 ) . They are able to get symbolic figures to stand for objects or event in their milieus. At this point babies have started off with mental representations of their milieus instead so it based merely on their actions ( Rogers, 1977 ) .
One of the cardinal experiments conducted by Piaget for an baby in the sensorimotor phase is the survey of object permanency. Object permanency means cognizing the object is still at that place even if it is hidden ( Santrock, 2011 ) . This requires the baby to travel through mental operations of the object. ( Rogers, 1977 )
The 2nd phase of Piaget ‘s theory of cognitive development is called the preoperational phase ( Santrock, 2011 ) . Children will travel through this phase in the age of two to seven. Children in this phase start to link the outer centripetal information with their physical action ( Santrock, 2011 ) . For illustration, when kids see an object of involvement, they will likely seek to pull it out if they have a pencil. Children start to talk in this phase ; they try to state the words that they heard at the beginning, so they speak like a normal individual after practising it every twenty-four hours.
Children in this phase are still unable to execute operations yet, therefore the term preoperational ( Santrock, 2011 ) . Piaget provinces that operation is a mental procedure which allows kids to things mentally ( Santrock, 2011 ) . For illustration, if a individual is able to work out a mathematical job, such as add-on and minus, by work outing in his head ; so he is executing operation. Preoperational idea is the beginning of believing what single is already making. Preoperational thought can be divided into two sub-stages and they are the symbolic map sub-stage and the intuitive idea sub-stage ( Santrock, 2011 ) .
The first sub-stage of preoperational idea is the symbolic map sub-stage ( Santrock, 2011 ) . Children will travel through this sub-stage in the age of two to four ( Santrock, 2011 ) . Children are able to scrabble of things in this phase and they are larning new things rapidly. However, although the kids learn new things rapidly, egoism and animism in this phase limits their learning advancement ( Santrock, 2011 ) .
The intuitive idea sub-stage is the 2nd sub-stage of preoperational idea and they go through it at the age of four to seven ( Santrock, 2011 ) . Children in this phase get down to oppugn on everything and seek for replies. They are funny on everything that they have contact with such as seeing a certain object for the first clip.
Concrete Operational Phase
The 3rd phase of Piaget ‘s cognitive theory is concrete operational phase ( Santrock, 2011 ) . This phase occurs when the kid is between 7 to 11 old ages old. In this phase, kids can believe more logically and have better apprehension of mental operations when confronting concrete state of affairss ( Flavel, 1963 ) . Despite their development on understanding more logically, kids of this concrete operational phase are yet able to understand abstract ( Santrock, 2011 ) . The taking grounds shows that animism and egoism reduces during the concrete operational phase, although there are leftovers that can be found in subsequently maturity ( Santrock, 2011 ) .
An of import accomplishment adapted by the kids is being able to sort or split things into different sets or subsets during the concrete operational phase every bit good as to see their interrelatedness ( Santrock, 2011 ) . For illustration, suppose Samantha is taller than David, but David is taller than Jeremy. The concrete operation kid can place that Samantha besides taller than Jeremy. Furthermore, kids are able to see things in different facets and understand the procedure is reversible. For illustration, the kid can place that his or her male parent is besides an uncle, a brother and boy in the household. The kid can understand the relationship in the household tree. However, concrete operation kids needs concrete elements in order to place the interrelatedness between different elements ( Santrock, 2011 ) .
Besides that, kids who have reached the concrete operational phase are besides capable of seriation, which is the ability to order stimulations along a quantitative dimension ( Santrock, 2011 ) . For illustration, Emily is asked to set up the block in a line. She will take the shortest block and arrange it until the agreement was completed.
Formal Operational Phase
Past the age of 10, kids aged 11 or 12 are known to be subjected to Jean Piaget ‘s last phase of his theory of cognitive development, the formal operational phase ( Day, 2002 ) . The formal operational phase is a phase where kids are get downing to be able to understand abstract significances ( Fleming, 2004 ) . Children of this phase, unlike the kids of old phases, are able to understand syllogism such as, “ A is bigger than B and C is smaller than B ; therefore A is bigger than C ” through verbal presentation.. The kids of this phase are besides known to be less egoistic than the old phases ( Fleming, 2002 ) . Hence, as the kid gets older and develops into grownup, their egoism lessenings and they become less self-focused.
In add-on, kids who think in a formal operation mode are able to believe scientifically every bit good as conjure hypotheses and use these hypotheses into specific state of affairss or jobs ( Day, 2002 ) . The consequence obtained through experiments by using the hypotheses will let the kids of this phase to bring forth a decision on their experiments or jobs ( Day, 2002 ) .
Children of the formal operational phase have besides achieved logical logical thinking ( Day, 2002 ) . For illustration, the kids are given the premises “ giants are smaller than mahimahis ” and “ mahimahis are smaller than Carassius auratuss ” in a trial. Concrete operational phase kids will reason that the facts were incorrect and that accepting it would be hard for them. However, kids who are already believing in a formal operation mode will reason that giants are smaller than Carassius auratuss despite cognizing that the facts are wrong. This is because kids in formal operational phase are able to separate factual statement based on their credibleness and are non easy influenced by the “ concrete ” content of the statement ( Day, 2002 ) . Formal operational phase is a complex cognitive map that continues on into maturity and continues to develop as one matures and increases their cognition ( Day, 2002 ) .
Abraham Lincoln ‘s life analysis
Lincoln ‘s life has been an extraordinary one and many have debated that he was the best president who has served the people of the United States. His achievements in get rid ofing bondage and unifying the Union are no little efforts. In this subdivision, we will use non merely Piaget ‘s cognitive development theory, but besides theories of other psychologists.
His resistance towards bondage could hold been influenced by his male parent, Thomas Lincoln. Thomas Lincoln would frequently go to a Baptist church with his household and this church happened to be a church that opposed bondage ( The young person of Abraham, n.d. ) Abraham Lincoln ‘s resistance towards bondage could really good be originated from his male parent ‘s vocal belief towards anti-slavery. This could be related to Albert Bandura ‘s societal acquisition theory. Albert Bandura ‘s societal larning theory provinces that an single observes others and through their observation, they learn and adapt to these specific behaviors ( McLeod, 2011 ) . Thomas Lincoln acts as his boy ‘s theoretical account and Lincoln, as a kid, imitated his male parent ‘s belief on anti-slavery. Hence, Abraham reflected on Thomas ‘s behavior on anti-slavery and shortly took on that anti-slavery behavior upon himself.
Besides that, I believe that Lincoln ‘s well-bonded relationship with his stepmother, Sarah, shows that he has already achieved concrete operation believing at the age of 10. After his ma has passed off, his male parent remarried a few months subsequently. Lincoln, already at the concrete operational phase, is able to believe logically and ground the possibility that his stepmother may be able to supply love and attention merely as Nancy, his biological female parent had. Besides, egoism lessenings in the concrete operational phase. Hence, Abraham concerns less of his ain demands for his female parent ‘s attention and thinks more about his male parent ‘s demands for a married woman ‘s love.
Another feature of Abraham that we can utilize and use Piaget ‘s theory on it ; is his seemingly addition belief against bondage. This could demo that egoism decreases as you progress from early childhood to maturity and subsequently on. Abraham ‘s resistance towards bondage started merely because his male parent opposed bondage. As Abraham gets older, he started believing much more logically and critically. This made him much more cognizant of the subjugation the inkinesss had and he started his battle towards liberating bondage.
Based on Piaget ‘s theory of cognitive development his cardinal thought of adaptation can be applied in Abraham Lincoln ‘s life. Adaption is when one adapts to their environment through adjustment and assimilation. Around the 1830 ‘s Abraham Lincoln got a license to pattern jurisprudence from the Illinois Supreme Court. This cognition helped him in implementing the 13th commandment. He was able to convert many people to back up the 13th commandment. ( Spielberg, 2012 )
The 4th phase of the psychosocial theory by Erik Erikson is industry vs. lower status. It states that during this phase if a kid is motivated or encouraged by a parent or instructor they develop a sense of pride in their achievements and abilities. In Abraham Lincoln ‘s earlier old ages he was ever encouraged by his stepmother, Sarah Bush Johnston, to read. Even though Sarah was n’t educated, she ever motivated him to read and hold a better instruction.
Besides that, the 6th phase of Erik Erikson ‘s psychosocial theory, familiarity vs. isolation can be related to Abraham Lincoln ‘s early maturity old ages. This phase suggests that people will develop near and committed relationships. If it is successful the individual will experience secure, whereas if the relationship is less committed, the individual would more likely suffer from solitariness. Based on a documental done on Abraham Lincoln ‘s life, it stated that Abraham Lincoln ‘s first love, Ann Rutledge, passed off at the age of 22. She suffered from enteric fever and her decease led Abraham Lincoln into depression. ( House, 2013 )
Sigmund Freud ‘s psychoanalytic theory of personality has a constituent know as superego. Superego is suppresses the Idaho and helps the self-importance behave in a morally mode. Based on the research done, Abraham Lincoln came from a really spiritual household. Abraham Lincoln and Mary Todd knew each other and got engaged. Abraham Lincoln got cold pess and broke the battle off. After 18 months apart friends brought Abraham and Mary back together and the undermentioned twenty-four hours they got married. There was an premise that they had an intimate relation with each other, therefore the ground their matrimony was rushed and less liberate. ( House, 2013 )
In decision, we have discussed about the construct of Jean Piaget ‘s theory on cognitive development and we applied assorted theories onto Lincoln ‘s life. We must emphasize that the chief theory for this paper is Piaget ‘s theory of cognitive development. However, the mentions that we used to get information on Abraham Lincoln are non reliable and these mentions may or may non be accurate. We conducted our Abraham Lincoln ‘s life analysis based on the bulk information that is similar in multiple mentions. Although all of our accounts and premises for explicating Lincoln ‘s life are non proved or investigated, but all these theories helped us to derive a deeper penetration into Lincoln ‘s life experience.