Final Exam Cards Infancy/Toddlerhood, Early Childhood
chromosomes
the structures on which genes reside
DNA
a double helix consisting of two back bones, like a twisted ladder, whose rungs are made up of chemical combinations; THE BASIS OF CHROMOSOMES
Genes
the portion of DNA that encodes specific genetic information
Some teratogens include:
Alcohol and Cigarettes
Teratogens
agents that cross the placental barrier and cause or increase the incidence of physical malformations and behavioral and cognitive deficits
Infants are exhibiting a CIRCULAR REACTION when they…
stumble onto a new experience caused by their own motor activity, and they try to repeat the event over and over again
OBJECT PERMANENCE
The understanding that objects continue o exist even when they are out of sight
deferred imitation
The ability to remember and copy the behavior of a model who is not immediately present
underestimated infant capabilities.
Recent research on sensorimotor development suggests that Piaget:
short-term memory and long-term memory
Elements of the information-processing theory include
Which of the following behaviors appear to predict intelligence in an infant?
habituation-dishabituation to visual stimuli and performance Piagetian object permanence tasks
According to research by Eleanor Gibson, which of the following two letters would young children have the MOST difficulty telling apart
p & q; Young children have special difficulty discriminating letters that are mirror images of one another
Palmar grasp
Spontaneous grasp of adult’s finger
Babinski
When the sole of foot is stroked, the toes fan out and curl
Tonic neck
Infant lies in “fencing position”
Moro
In our evolutionary past, may have helped infant cling to mother
Helps infant find the nipple
Rooting
Research on the sense of smell indicates that
can discriminate all but a few sounds of any human language
Because the visual system is not yet well-developed, __________, or fineness of discrimination, is limited in newborn infants
visual acuity
Erikson’s theory, the conflicts of toddlerhood are resolved favorably when parents
provide suitable guidance and reasonable choices.
attachment
The strong, affectionate tie that humans feel toward special people in their lives is known as
clearcut attachment
Nine-month-old Maxwell becomes very upset when his mother leaves him with his babysitter. He is MOST likely in Bowlby’s __________ phase of attachment.

ambivalent attachment
A child who seems to avoid interaction with their parent/caregiver exhibits
Two-year-old Hannah offers her brother her favorite blanket when he falls down and skins his knee. Hannah is demonstrating signs of
empathy
Research on child care in infancy has found that
child care quality has a greater impact on social and cognitive development than family characteristics
Two-year-old Jonathan is a difficult child. His parents respond with positive interactions, maintain close involvement with him, and work to establish a stable home environment. What outcome could be predicted for Jonathan?
His difficult behavior will decrease with age
The prefrontal cortex is involved in which behavior?
complex cognitive behaviors
_____ is the most common long-term childhood disease.
asthma
According to Piaget, which of the following does not reflect preoperational thinking?
It is based on logic
The recognition that two equal quantities of matter remain equal even if the matter changes shape reflects:
conservation
The tendency to attend more to outcomes rather than the process that produced the outcomes is referred to as:
Static thinking
When Tricia gives her mother her stuffed animal because her mother is sad, Tricia is exhibiting:
egocentrism
True or False: Vygotsky believed that children used private speech as a mechanism to help them learn
True
A child who has a script for making paper dolls recognizes:
the sequencing of events.
Metacognition refers to
the awareness of memory and the monitoring of memory performance.

Felicity, a 5-year-old, asks her father what he is thinking. Felicity is showing evidence of:
having a theory of mind
Younger children have difficulty with long term memory because:
they do not use strategies to process information.
Using the structure of a sentence to provide cues about the meaning of a novel verb is referred to as:
Syntactic bootstrapping
A child who says, “I goed to school today” is illustrating
overregularization
Four-year-old ERin’s beliefs about her abilities and capacities define her:
self-concept
low self-esteem reflects a combination of:
low worthiness and low competence.
A complete understanding of gender reflects a child’s:
Gender Identity
Conflicts between young children are most likely to occur over
having a possession taken away
Aggression that is used for a specific purpose is referred to as:
Instrumental aggression
When 4-year-old Sheri felt sorry for her younger sister who was crying, Sheri was experiencing:
Sympathy
Parents who use power assertion as a disciplinary method are more likely to have children who:
Are compliant with their parents
Permissive Parents are:
low in demandingness and high in responsiveness
Playing along side but not with other children is called:
Parallel Play
Which demonstrates higher thinking capabilities?
A child pretending her dolly is combing her hair
Jenny says, ” Jimmy fall down on his trike.

” Her mother says, “Yes, Jimmy fell down.” Mother is

Recasting
Which of the following is an example of associative play?
Jessie and Joe decide to get some PlayDoh and make things. Jessie makes some animals and Joe makes some cars