Fisheries fish trade is the most important indirect

have always played a very significant socio-economic role in many countries and
communities, as a subsistence produce, fish is a vital resource towards poverty
reduction and food security for most poor households (FAO 2010). Income
generated from the fisheries sector or through fish trade is the most important
indirect contribution to food security, in sub-Sahara Africa, fishing and fish
related employment provides both part-time and full-time jobs to 6 and 9
million people, respectively. There are about 43.5 million fishers in the
world, and there are at least four other people associated with each fisher in
fish-related jobs, including processors, traders and small-scale operators, thus,
the fishing industry supports over 170 million people with income (FAO 2002).

 In 2006, fisheries and aquaculture produced a total of 143.6
million tonnes of fish (FAO 2009), 81.9 million tonnes from marine capture
fisheries, 10.1 million tonnes from inland capture fisheries, 31.6 million
tonnes from inland aquaculture and 20.1 million tonnes from marine aquaculture.
China is by far the largest producer of fish, producing 51.5 million tonnes of
fish in 2006, 17.1 million tonnes from capture fisheries and 34.4 million
tonnes from aquaculture (FAO 2009).The Asia–Pacific region dominates both
fisheries and aquaculture, particularly in terms of the number of people
working in theses Ectorsh1 : 86% of fishers and fish farmers
worldwide live in Asia, with the greatest numbers in China (8.1 million fishers
and 4.5 million fish farmers) (FAO 2009). Asia is also a major producer of
fish, accounting for 52% of the world’s wild caught fish, while aquaculture in
the Asia–Pacific region accounts for 89% of world production by quantity and
77% by value (FAO 2009).


One of the most difficult challenges
facing commercial fish producers is the constant balancing act required to
maintain a stable relationship among the water, fish, and microscopic flora and
fauna in their pond systems. In nature, where densities of fish and other
living organisms are low, complex ecological systems maintain this delicate
balance to prevent explosive shifts in populations and the negative effects
that they can have on the total systems. In commercial fish production ponds,
however, natural carrying capacities are greatly exceeded, and a heavily laden
artificial ecology is established among the various organisms and the
environment in which they live (Brunson
et al. 1994).

The nutritional benefits of fish
and fish oil consumption on human health, including the prevention of cancer,
diabetes and heart diseases, have been well established, as public awareness
about the health benefits of fish consumption continues to increase, the global
demand for aquatic foods is also expected to continue to rise (Gina 2009;
Heidarsdottir et
al. 2010).


2.2. Using of algae as a supplement to enhance the
nutritional value of formulated feeds

Using feeds in aquaculture
(sometimes referred to as aquafeeds) generally increases productivity. However,
to maximize cost-effectiveness, it is particularly useful in small-scale
aquaculture to utilize locally available materials, either as ingredients (raw
materials) in compound aquafeeds or as sole feedstuffs. There is also a vital
need to seek effective ingredients that can either partially or totally replace
marine ingredients as protein sources in animal feedstuffs generally, in
particular in aquafeeds (Hasan and Chakrabarti 2009).

Algae have been part of the human
diet for thousands of years, based on archaeological evidence from 14,000 yBP
in Chile (Dillehay et al. 2008) and early written accounts (e.g., in China, 300
A.D.; in Ireland, 600 A.D.; Newton 1951; Tseng 1981; Aaronson 1986; Turner
2003; Gantar and Svircev 2008; Craigie 2010 ). In North America, the Tsimshian
First Nations’ people named the month of May for the time of year when they
harvested the important food crop of Pyropia. 
More contemporaneously, the global harvest of sea-weeds in 2013 was
estimated at US $6.7 billion, and over 95 % was produced in mariculture, with
China and Indonesia being the top producers (FAO 2015).

In addition to macroalgae, some
microalgae are cultivated for foods and food additives (Fournier et al. 2005;
Gantar and Svircev 2008; Chacón-Lee and González-Mariño 2010; FAO 2016h2 ). The FAO (2014) estimated that 38
% of the 23.8 millionth of seaweeds in the 2012 global harvest was eaten by
humans in forms recognizable to them as seaweeds (e.g., kelps, nori/laver), not
counting additional consumption of hydrocolloids (e.g., agars, alginates, and
carrageenan) used as thickening agents in foods and beverages. Human
consumption of algal foods varies by nation, with Japanese diets representing a
re-cent (2010–2014) annual per capita consumption ranging from 9.6 (2014) to
11.0 (2010) g macro algae day?1 (MHLW 2014).

Overall, the trend towards
increasing nutritional demand for algal products on a global basis stems from a
greater focus on health and wider use of food additives. In addition to their
nutritional value, algae increasingly are being marketed as functional foods or
B nutraceuticals; these terms have no legal status in many nations but describe
foods that contain bioactive compounds, or phytochemicals, that may benefit
health beyond the role of basic nutrition (e.g., anti-inflammatories, disease
prevention; Bagchi 2006; Hafting et al. 2012).

The path from algal research to the
launching of new food products or dietary supplements is strongly affected by
industrial, regulatory, and nutritional considerations (Borowitzka 2013 and
Finley et al. 2014). The widespread interest in algal foods and/or their
functional food potential is evident in numerous recent reviews (Warrand 2006;
MacArtain et al. 2007; Kulshreshtha et al. 2008; Bocanegra et al. 2009; Cottin
et al. 2011  ; Pangestuti and Kim 2011  ; Stengel et al. 2011  ; Cornish et al. 2015; Hafting et al. 2015).

Many studies report the potential nutritional or
bioactive content of different algae but many fewer studies quantify the
bioavailability of nutrients and phytochemicals from algal foods. Our purpose
is to review and assess what is known about different food components (i.e.,
proteins, polysaccharides, lipids, vitamins, minerals, and anti-oxidants,
potential toxicants) in the context of improving knowledge about the efficacy
of algal foods. There are rich opportunities for phycologists to collaborate
with other scientists and clinicians in this emerging field from algal B
prospecting to defining nutritional value, bioaccessibility, and subsequent
bioactivity, to the design and construction of mid-large cultivation systems
for production of commercial-scale product


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