Food and corn should be pursued.” The other

is a basic need of human beings. The demand for it increases due to growing
human population. In the year 2050,  the
human population will average to 9.7 Billion 
as projected by  the United
Nations Department of Economics and Social Affairs. Which theory  will win on the relationship of population to
resources over the next several decades?  According to Boserup,  “the
rate of growth of the food supply may vary, but it never reaches its carrying
capacity because every time that limit approaches, there is an invention or
development that causes the food supply to increase”. The agricultural  sector is one of the most innovative sectors.
In the advent of Green Revolution, modern inputs, tools and technologies were
introduced to increase land productivity. However, the increase in population
together with  modernization and
intensification puts a strain on the environment. Today, the expectation is
that new advances in agriculture particularly in biotechnology will increase
agricultural productivity to sufficiently feed a world population. Environmental
degradation due to intense food production is the reason why the term “sustainable
agriculture” emerged. It includes practices that meets the present needs of the
population without compromising the needs of the future generations.

Food security has been defined in the Philippine
Implementing Rules and Regulations of the Agriculture and Fisheries
Modernization Act (AFMA DA DAO 6 1998 Republic Act 8435) as follows:

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” Policy objective, plan and strategy
of meeting the food requirements of the present and future generations of
Filipinos in substantial quantity, safety and nutritional quality that meets
the desirable dietary requirements, ensuring the availability and affordability
of food to all, either through local production or importation, or both based
on the country’s existing and potential resource endowment and related
production advantages, and consistent with the overall national development
objectives and policies. However, sufficiency in rice and corn should be

The other two commonly used definitions of food security
comes from the United Nation’s Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and the
United States Department of Agriculture (USDA):

Food security exists when people have physical and
economic access to safe, acceptable and nutritious food to meet their  food preferences and dietary need for a  healthy and active life (FAO) while for the
USDA, food security for a household means access by all members at all times to
enough food for an active, healthy life. Food
security includes at a minimum: (1) nutritionally adequate and safe food are
available and (2)

 an  to acquire acceptable food in socially
acceptable ways i.e. without resorting to   stealing, scavenging, emergency food
supplies, or other coping strategies.

Food security refers to the availability of food and
one’s access to it. A household is considered food secure when its occupants do
not live in hunger or fear of starvation. According to the World Resources
Institute (WRI), global or per capita food production has been increasing
substantially for the past several decades. In simplest form, food security
means that all people have enough to eat at all times to have a healthy well-
being. As a concept, it can be applied in many levels- global, national,
household and individual.

In the early 1970’s several
political miscalculations, combined with droughts, raised concerns about
whether food security could be attained. Indeed the crises of the early 1970s
which resulted in high world grain prices led to an international conference in
1974 and the founding of the International Fund for Agricultural Development
(IFAD), and the World Food Council (WFC), and the FAO Committee on World Food
Security (WFS). Based on the Philippine Online Chronicles (2010), the Philippines was one of
189 countries that signed the Millennium Declaration in
2000.The Millenium Development Goals (MDGs)   are a set of eight time-bound, concrete and
specific goals aimed at significantly reducing, if not
eradicating, extreme poverty by 2015. However, based on Philippine Online
Chronicles (2010),  our country is not
only lagging in the elimination of poverty and hunger but has failed to achieve universal
primary education, reduce maternal deaths, and combat HIV and AIDS. Since the
span for MDG ended in 2015, countries adopted a new set of goals to end
poverty, protect the planet and ensure prosperity for all (United Nations,


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