Freshfish is a highly perishable product due to its biological composition. The maincause of deterioration is the activity of typical spoilage seafoodmicroorganisms (Gram and Dalgaard, 20 02; Haard, 1992), provoking loss ofessentially fatty acids, fat-soluble vitamins and protein functionality, pro ductionof biogenic amines, and formation of off-odors ( Fraser and Sumar, 1998; Gramand Dalgaard,20 02; Gram and Huss, 1996 ).
In packaged foods, growth and survival of common spoilage and pathogenicmicroorganisms such as Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli Salmonella,Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Campylobacter, Clostridiumper fringens,Aspergillusniger, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae are affected by a variety ofintrinsic factors, such as pH and presence of oxygen or by extrinsic factors associatedwith storage conditions, including temperature, time, and relative humidity(Singh et al . , 2003; Lòpez –Malo et al . , 2005; Rydlo et al . , 2006 ).Microbialgrowth and metabolism is a major cause of fish spoilage which produce amines, biogenic amines such as putrescine, histamine and cadaverine, organic acids, sulphides, alcohols, aldehydes and ketones with unpleasant and unacceptable off-flavors (Dalgaard et al., 2006; Emborg et al ., 2005; Gram and Dalgaard, 2002).
These phytochemicalsshow antimicrobial properties by raising concentrations after pathogeninfection and contribute to healing by lignification of damaged zonesWang,2015).Thesmell, taste, freshness, absence of specific microorganism, size andcomposition are the most factors for determining the marine productionquality(Connell,2002). Microbial spoilage leads to serious health risk to consumers.So, material with antioxidant and antibacterial activity is useful toimprove quality, increase shelf life andalso prevent unnecessary economic losses (Yin2003). In the global food industrytoday, ‘natural’ is a powerful force as there is increasing resistance atregulatory and consumer levels against chemical food preservatives (Agatemor C , 2009). Many studies have evaluated the antimicrobialactivities of several plant extracts, including rosemary (Cadun et al . 2008),oregano (Atrea et al .
2009), thyme (Kykkidou et al . 2009), cinnamon (Ojagh etal . 2010a) and creosote bush (Mendez et al . 2011). In these studies, fishfillets were exposed to plant extracts and the result demonstratedantimicrobial activities of the plant extracts against foodborne pathogens(including Enterobacter aerogenes, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi andStaphylococcus aureus ), plus exten-sion of the shelf life of the fillets.
Films incorporated with cinnamon EO have been reported to extend the shelf-lifeof rainbow trout during storage at 4 °C for 16 days, mainly by retarding themicrobial growth and lowering the lipid oxidation (Ojagh et al., 2010).Polyphenols interact with microbial membraneproteins, enzymes and lipids, thereby altering cell permeability and permittingthe loss of protons, ions, and macromolecules (Fung et al., 1977; Bajpai etal., 2008).
Polyphenols that can cross the bacterial cellular membrane areactive against enzymes and proteins (Lopez-Malo et al., 2005). They could alsointerfere with membrane function (electron transport, nutrient uptake, protein,nucleic acid synthesis, and enzyme activity) (Bajpai et al.
, 2008) and interactwith membrane proteins, causing deformation in structure and functionality(Fung et al., 1977).TheCh + C (chitosan (Ch) coating enriched with cinnamon oil) coating on the fishsamples was to enable the good quality character-istics to be retained longerand to extend the shelf life during the refrigerated storage (Seyed et al 2009).Incorporationof essential oils into chitosan films or coatings may not only enhance thefilm’s antimicrobial and antioxidant properties but also reduce water vapourpermeability and slow li-pid oxidation of the product on which the film isapplied (Yanishli-eva, Marinova, Gordon, & Raneva, 1999) .Theeffects of a tea polyphenols (TP) dip treatment on quality changes of silvercarp (Hypophthalmicthys molitrix) during iced storage were examined over aperiod of 35 days.
TP (0.2%, w/v) solution was used for the dip treatment. Theresults indicated that the effect of the TP dip treatment on the fish sampleswas to enable the good quality characteristics to be retained for longer and toextend the shelf life during the iced storage.
(fan etal 2007)Essential oils also display an antimicrobialrole by interfering with and destabilizing the operation of the phospho-lipidbilayer of the cell membrane, enzyme systems, and genetic material of bacteria(Burt, 20 0 4; Solomakos, Govaris, Koidis & Botsoglou, 2008). gelatin inthe form of coating enriched with cinnamon oil is suitable for the preservationof rainbow trout fresh fillets and to efficiently maintain the quality attributesto an acceptable level during storage. (Ghasem 2011).Theantibacterial properties of EOs have been long recognized, the recent interestin alternative naturally derived antimicrobials has lead to a renewedscientific interest in these substances. Many in vitro studies report a highefficacy of EOs against food-borne pathogens and spoilage bacteria(Smith-Palmer et al.
, 1998; Hammer et al., 1999; Elgayyar et al., 2001; Dormanand Deans, 2002)They found that the essential oil of cinnamonwas the most effective. Moreover, (Gupta et al. 2008) found that 1.25% (v? v)cinnamon oil was very effective against Bacillus sp. , Listeria monocytogenes,Escherichia coli and Klebsiella sp., also Rhizomucor sp.
amongst the fungi.Among the EOs from various aromatic plants, thyme oil has increasingly gainedthe interest of research groups as a potential natural antimicrobial andantioxidant agent. The antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of thymeessential oil (EO) have been studied ”in vitro”, using various model foods (Burt, 2004; Holley & Patel, 2005), as well as commercial food products,such as seafood (Goulas & Kontominas 2007; Harpaz, Glatman, Drabkin, &Gelman, 2003; Mejlhom & algaard, 2002 ) beef (Skandamis, Tsigarida, &Nychas, 2002), pork (Ismaiel & Pierson, 1990 ) etc.The effect of the turmeric extract (T),shallot extract (Sh), and their combination (T + Sh)on the fish samples were toenable the good quality characteristics to be retained longer and to extend theshelf life during the refrigerated storage. (Pezeshk et al. 2011). (A) (B) Changesin total viable counts (A) andpsychrophilic total counts (B) of silver carpfillets Without and with different percentage of grape pomace extract (0, 2 and4%) during chill storage. ( source : Hasani et al 2015)Recently,hasani et al (2015 ) reported that antimicrobial activity of natural grapepomace extract.
The control and the treated fillets were analyzed periodically for microbiological (TVC andPTC). The results revealed that the addition of grape pomace extract has a positive effect on the sensory quality ofsilver carp fillets by retaining properquality characteristics for a longer time and extends their shelf life duringchill storage fig. A and fig. B .