HDFS 2010 Exam #4
What % of deaths in middle-aged Americans are due to cardiovascular disease?
Silent Killer Signs of Cardiovasular Disease? (3)
High blood pressureHigh blood cholesterol Atherosclerosis (build-up of plaque in coronary arteries)
Symptoms of cardiovasular disease? (What is the #1 Symptom?)
Heart Attack (#1!)Angia Pectoris (pain in chest)Arrhythmia (irregular heartbeat)
How many die of heart attacks before reaching the hospital? (Hint: %)
Accomodation of the eye- ability to focus and maintain an image on the retina (sharp decline between 40-59; leads to difficulty viewing close objects) Size of pupil shrinks and lens yellows- limits ability to see in dim light and color discrimination 
Estimated 14% of American adults between ages 45-64 have hearing loss (sometimes heredity; age-related declines) Typically starts with loss at high frequencies MENS hearing declines earlier (30s) and at a faster rate than womens (50s)
PHYSICAL CHANGES: MIDDLE ADULTHOOD Weight and Body Dimensions-Middle-Aged Spread(3) 
Slowed metabolism  Increase in body fat and loss of lean body mass Affects torso mostly- Women get a rounder figure: weight goes to waist- Men in upper back and upper abdomen
PHYSICAL CHANGES: MIDDLE ADULTHOOD Weight and Body Dimensions-Bone Mass and Density(2) 
Gradual loss in bone mass and density makes bones weaker  Begins in late 30s and accelerates in 50s (esp. in women)
PHYSICAL CHANGES: MIDDLE ADULTHOOD Weight and Body Dimensions-Height (2)
Disks in spinal column move closer Shrinkage in height averages about 1/2 inch every decade 
CHANGES IN REPRODUCTIVE FUNCTIONING: Climacteric-Definition?Nature of Climacteric?Concludes with? 
Midlife transition in which fertility declines Gradual changes over 10 year period (perimenopause); drop in production of estrogen; cycles become shorter and irregular Menopauge- the cessation of menstration and of reproductive capactiy 
MENOPAUSE: TimingWhen does it typically begin?Key factor in timing?What also affects timing?NOT affected by?
Typicall between 50-55 (52 is average) GENETICS as a key factor Lifestyles also affect timing (smoking linked to earlier onset) NOT affected by age at first period, race, height, or number of children 
MENOPAUSE: Hormonal Changes?[Physical]
Reduction in female sex hormones leads to decreased skin elasticity and loss of calcium in bones  Hot flashes; night sweats; weight gain; headaches; muscular fatigue; strain 
  Is menopause a crisis?
1. Estrogen only= for women who have had hysterectomy  2. Estrogen + Progestin= for women with an intact uterus 
What is HRT believed to do?
reduce risks of heart disease and osteoporosis and relieve some symptoms 
Early evidence to support benefits of HRT:
hormone regimen is associated with reduced “bad” cholesterol and increased “good” cholesterol 
a large, randomized clinical trial supported by the National Institues of Health 
What were the finding of WHI?(3)
(compared with women taking the placebo, after 5 years): – increase in breast cancer- increase in strokes- increase in heart attacks 
What were some concerns with WHI?(3)
Were the results accurately reported? There were no differences in number of deaths There was substantial benefirts for some women
Why did both WHI studies fail?
Study 1: stopped early because the risks outweighed the benefits Study 2: also eventually asked to stop