he structure of a battery is simple. It’s consist of two electrodes, an electrolyte, and a separator. The two electrodes are located at each end of the battery, with the cathode connecting to the positive end and anode to the negative. The electrolyte that sits in between the electrodes contain negatively charged ions and the separator does exactly what its name suggests- it separates the anode from the cathode. The batteries close the circuit, converting chemical energy into electrical energy, traveling out from the cathode and into the anode again. This whole process is a chemical
reaction between atoms in the electrode and ions in the electrolyte.
The reason batteries break down under extreme temperature can be explained by the Arrhenius equation, which states that higher the temperature, the faster a chemical reaction will take place. That’s why in hot summer days, people’s phone ion is usually in red. The same thing happens in a cold environment: the battery life is also short because of the slowed chemical reaction cannot keep up with the electrical requirement of the phone, therefore they produce less and less current until eventually they run out. The easy way to best preserve a battery would just to keep it in a dry place at room temperature.