Heritage management system was introduced in 2013 by UNESCO to provide a comprehensive management model that can further protect world heritage’s outstanding universal values and enhance their benefits to their host societies. This system is comprised of 3 elements, 3 processes and 3 results. Although the management system is applicable for both natural and cultural resources, this report is going to analyze the management of cultural heritage, specifically Hashima Island with reference to the UNESCO’s heritage management system.
1.1. Three elements:
According to Managing Cultural World Heritage Manual published by UNESCO, the 3 elements are comprised of legal framework, institutional framework and resources. These 3 elements create a foundation for the following processes and in turn determine the results.
1.1.1. Legal framework:
Legal framework is the mandate that empowers people and organizations to act. It defines what constitutes heritage and criteria for its conservation and management, usually by means of legislation (UNESCO, 2013). Article 1 of the Convention defines cultural heritage as a “monument”, a “group of buildings” or a “site” which can be man-made or a combined work of human and nature (UNESCO, 1972). With respect to this definition, Hashima island can be classified as either “group of building” or “site” because this natural island was the largest coal mining site at the time and hosted several high-rise concrete apartment buildings.
There are a number of legislative instruments established to protect the sites, ensuring their integrity and continuity. There are 2 main legislative instruments that act as the guidelines for the protection, conservation and management of the Hashima Island. The first one is the Law for the Protection of Cultural Properties which is applicable for non-operational sites (UNESCO, n.d). This law is the main mechanism to regulate the management of Hashima Island. Any change to current state of the island must be made with reference to the law and permitted by the national government. The second document that regulates the conservation of Hashima Island is the General Principles and Strategic Framework for the Conservation and Management of the Sites of Japan’s Meiji Industrial Revolution: Kyushu-Yamagachi and Related Areas. This framework was established upon the partnership among Japanese regional governments to control the conservation and management of operational sites as well as non-operational sites such as Hashima Island.
Apart from conservation criteria, legal framework also determines the criteria for presentation of Hashima Island’s OUVs. According to Article 5 of the Convention, Nagasaki government is required to present Hashima Island’s OUVs in a way that is effective and appropriate for the region (UNESCO, 1972). With respect to that, Nagasaki government support private tourism companies to operate several guided tours to the island with narrators explaining history and the significance of Hashima Island. Additionally, using the latest the technology advancements, Gunkanjima Digital Museum can impressively present Hashima Island’s OUV by re-generating its landscape and liveliness during its prime. Moreover, according to the Convention, Nagasaki government also need to adopt a general policy which can incorporate the role of Hashima Island into the life of the community as well as to make the protection of it a fundamental program of the city (UNESCO, 1972). Furthermore, it is important that national or regional centers for training in the presentation of cultural heritage, specifically Hashima Island, be established nation-wide (UNESCO, 1972).
1.1.2. Institutional framework:
Institutional framework is the organizational set-up that sets out the operational structure and working methods that allow actions to be taken (UNESCO, 2013). With the partnership among Japanese government for establishing the General Principles and Strategic Framework for the Conservation and Management of the Sites of Japan’s Meiji Industrial Revolution: Kyushu-Yamagachi and Related Areas, Japan’s Cabinet Secretariat is responsible for the implementation of the aforementioned general principles and strategic framework (UNESCO, n.d). Cabinet Secretariat established the National Committee of Conservation and Management, and Local Conservation Councils to monitor the implementation of the framework (UNESCO, n.d). The National Committee of Conservation and Management includes representatives Nagasaki government agencies who are able to give insights into the current state of Hashima Island and thus provide advice and make decisions regarding the overall management of the island. The Local Conservation Councils are made up of heritage experts Nagasaki government agencies and private companies. The Councils’ role is to ensure that Hashima Island is conserved and managed in accordance with the conservation management plans. Additionally, they are the mechanism that engages Nagasaki community in the conservation, management and presentation of Hashima Island. An Industrial Heritage Expert Committee has also been established to provide additional conservation and management advice (UNESCO, n.d). In addition, there has been agreements made between the private companies Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Nippon Steel & Sumitomo Metal Corporation and Miike Port Logistics Corporation and the Cabinet Secretariat to strictly conserve and manage their cultural heritage sites (UNESCO, n.d).
18.104.22.168. Human resources:
Main workforce for the management and conservation of Hashima Island is local people and volunteers from other parts of the country. The source of personnel can also come from international organizations that provide support in heritage protection and conservation such as the World Heritage Fund (WHF). WHF is the Fund for the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage of Outstanding Universal Value. This fund is founded with a purpose of assisting the conservation and management of world natural and cultural heritage on numerous aspects. Therefore, it can assist the management of Hashima island by sending experts, technicians and skilled labor that has been properly trained in cultural heritage conservation and management. Moreover, WHF can also help Nagasaki government train staff and specialists at all levels in identification, protection, conservation, presentation and rehabilitation of the cultural heritage.
22.214.171.124. Financial resources:
Financial resources to support the conservation and management of Hashima Island can come from various sources. Nagasaki government generate income directly on site by collecting entrance fee for every tourist arrival on Hashima Island; they charge 300 Japanese yen per adult visitor and 100 yen per child. The Nagasaki government is responsible for funding the daily conservation and maintenance of the Hashima Island. If substantial funding is required, they can apply for national government which, in general, provides a 50% contribution (UNESCO, n.d). The Japanese Government has set up a tax incentive scheme to encourage private companies to fund the conservation and management of component parts (UNESCO, n.d). Additionally, the Japanese Funds-in-Trust for the Preservation of UNESCO World Heritage was also established in 1989 by the Japanese government to support the conservation of cultural heritage not only in Japan but also in other countries. Besides governmental funds, stakeholders of Hashima Island can also apply to international fund such as WHF. WHF Committee may provide financial support in the form of low-interest or interest-free loans which can be paid on a long-term basis, or even grants of non-repayable subsidies.
126.96.36.199. Intellectual resources:
Intellectual resources for cultural heritage conservation and management refers to the principles of conservation (UNESCO, 2013). Hashima Island is managed accordingly to the General Principles and Strategic Framework for the Conservation and Management of the Sites of Japan’s Meiji Industrial Revolution: Kyushu-Yamagachi and Related Areas. This framework entails 13 basic principles for the conservation and management of Hashima island as well as other heritage in the list, as following (1) Partnership-based approach, (2) Clarifying the role of the stakeholders, (3) Holistic approach, (4) Global approach, (5) Flexible design of conservation methods, (6) Precautionary risk analysis, (7) Integration with regional and local plans, (8) Sustainable conservation and management, (9) Involvement of local communities, (10) Handing over the associated knowledge to the next generation, (11) Feedback cycle for better conservation, (12) Capacity building, (13) Transparency and accountability (UNESCO, n.d).