This document is not meant to be a substitute for a formal laboratory report. The Lab Report Assistant is simply a summary of the experiment’s questions, diagrams if needed, and data tables that should be addressed in a formal lab report. The intent is to facilitate students’ writing of lab reports by providing this information in an editable file which can be sent to an instructor. Purpose What is the purpose of this exercise?
To give me the ability to be able to identify the major tissues in the human body and state the location of the tissues in the body. Are there any safety concerns associated with this exercise? If so, list what they are and what precautions should be taken. As always make sure to have a clean working area and wear any protective equipment necessary for the experiment. Exercise 1: Epithelial Tissue Data Table 1: Epithelial Tissue Observations| TISSUE TYPE| OBSERVATIONS| Simple Squamous| Single layer of cells very thin and flat. Simple Cuboidal| Single layer of cells shaped like cubes| Simple Columnar (stomach)| Single layer of cells but they are tall like columns| Simple Columnar (duodenum)| Single layer of cells that are tall like columns but they looked to have cilia on top of the cells| Stratified Squamous (keratinized)| Multiple layer of cells they are flat and kind of look like scales. This particular cell seems to have a rougher surface. | Stratified Squamous (non-keratinized)| Also a multiple layer of cells that are flat and look like scales but unlike the keratinized the surface appears smooth. Pseudostratified Ciliated Columnar| Looks to be single cells squished together in kind of a column form. They also have cilia attached to them. | Transitional| Large and round cells| Stratified Cuboidal (online)| Multiple cells in the shape of a cube or square. | Stratified Columnar (online)| Multiple layer of cells in standing upright like columns. | Questions A. Why is the study of histology important in the overall understanding of anatomy and physiology?
Histology is important when understanding anatomy and physiology because you must understand the structure and functions of all the tissues when you are studying the organs and systems of the body. B. How are epithelial tissues named? They are named based on their arrangement and shape. C. Why are some epithelial tissues stratified? Because they have multiple layers in order to withstand wear and tear. D. Unlike squamous cells, cuboidal and columnar cells have large, open cytoplasm. Which functions of epithelial tissue are supported by having such big cells?
Cuboidal and Columnar are large round cells that allow the cells to slide or move past each other. It also allows the tissue to stretch. E. Look at the following drawings and identify each type of epithelial tissue: | 1. Simple Squamous| | 2. Simple Columnar| | 3. Pseudostratified Ciliated Columnar| | 4. Stratified Cuboidal| Exercise 2: Connective Tissue obseRvations Data Table 2: Connective Tissue| Tissue| Amount and Shape ofCells| Amount ofMatrix| Are there fibers? If so,are they parallel orscattered? Mesenchyme (online)| Looks like a star | one| scattered| Aerolar (online)| Loose cells surrounded by a gel type substance| one| no| Adipose (online)| Modified areolar tissue| Small amount| | Dense Irregular (online)| Irregularly arranged, scattered around the tissue| One| | Reticular| Multiple rectangular in shape| One | Scattered| Dense Regular: Tendon| Multiple they look like long stretched out columes | extracellular| Parallel| Hyaline Cartilage| Multiple circular in shape, spread out over an area not really close together| extracellular| | Elastic Cartilage| Appears to be yellow and surrounded by the matrix| One| Parallel| Fibrocartilage| Tightly packed together cells elongated | extracellular| Thick fibers| Compact Bone| Hard and calcified| one| scattered| Human Blood| Red and white lots inside fluid circular in shape. | multiple| | Questions A. What is the primary function of connective tissue? They protect, support and bind together the other tissues of the body. B. What the shape of the cells in a particular type of tissue tell about the function of that tissue?
The different types of shapes of cells tells us what its particular function is. Cells with cilia on them tend to help with moving objects around, like the kind found in the respiratory tract. Stratified squamous tissue helps protect the body from cuts and scrapes. C. What is matrix? Why do some tissues have more matrix than others? The matrix provides support, protection and binds together with other tissues and organs of the body. Some tissues have more matrix because the cells and fibers are loosely packed together. D. What do collagen fibers provide? The fibers allow tissues to be flexible while providing additional strength and stability. E.
Tendons, ligaments and cartilage have limited blood supply. Explain how this might affect the ability of these tissues to heal after an injury. Without good blood supply the tendons, ligaments and cartilage do not have the support of the white cells to clot or form new tissue. The process thus takes much longer for the tendons, ligaments and cartilage to heal. Sometimes there is the possibility that they will never heal. Exercise 3: Muscle Tissue obseRvations Data Table 3: Muscle Tissue| Muscle| Shape and Arrangement of Cells| Str ia tions Present? | Skeletal| Elongated cells stretched out or spread out| yes| Smooth| Flat and stretched out almost look like the pseudo type of cells.
They look like multiple layers but are just tightly packed together,| no| Cardiac| Spread out and look rectangular or cube like| no| Questions A. What kind of muscle would you find in the stomach? Smooth muscle. B. How is smooth muscle structure different from that of skeletal and cardiac muscle? Because it is designed to stretch and extend. C. Why is skeletal muscle voluntary? Because it is under voluntary control from the brain. D. What is unique about cardiac muscle? Cardiac muscle is a series of cells that work together as one and respond to electrical impulses that allow the heart to beat. It is unique because it is only found in and around the heart. Exercise 4: Nervous Tissue obseRvations
Make a sketch of the neuron as seen in your microscope slide and label the following: Cell body, nucleus, cell processes and neuroglia. Questions A. What is the function of nervous tissue? Nervous tissue is designed to send electrical messages and signals to the central nervous systems regarding changes in the environment surrounding the body or within the body itself. B. Why are the cell bodies of neurons elongated into cell processes? These cells have long projections that extend outward so that they may send and receive messages. C. If all nerves respond to stimuli, why cannot eyes “hear” sound and ears “see” light? A single nerve can only stimulate and fire off the electrical impulses.
It is up to the brain to interpret the message it is being sent. D. How is a nerve different from a neuron? A nerve is a group of neurons bunched together. A single neuron stimulates and receives messages. Conclusions Explain the purpose of these exercises and why studying histology is important to the understanding of how the human body functions. To be able to identify and locate the different types of tissue as well as describe their functions. Each different type of tissue contributes to the function of the body as a whole unit, thus we must understand these different types of tissues if we are to understand the proper functions of the body as a whole.