Hrm an Emperical Study

Management has been by Mary Parker as “the art of getting things done through people. ” It can also be defined as the field of human behavior in which managers plan, organize, staff, direct, and control human, physical and financial resources in an organized effort, in order to achieve desired individual and group objectives with optimum efficiency and effectiveness. Human resources are a crucial sub – system in process of management.

This can be defined as the total knowledge, skills, creative abilities, talents & aptitudes of an elegant work force.HRM means employing people, developing their resources, utilizing, maintaining and compensating their services in with the job & organizational requirements. HRM is managing the functions of employing, developing and compensating H. R’s resulting in creating and developing human relations and utilization of H. R’s with a view to contribute proportionately to the organizational, individual & social goals.

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The term human resource can also be explained in the sense that it is a resource like any other natural resource.It does mean that the management can get and use the skill, knowledge, ability etc. , through the development of skills, tapping and utilizing them again and again. HRM aims at attaining the goals of the organization, individual and society in an integrated approach. “The term human resource refers to the total knowledge skills, creative abilities, talents and attitudes of an organization and work force, as well as the value attitudes and believes of the individual involves”.

————– LEON MEANING OF HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT:Terms used to denote human resource management are labor management, labor administration, labor management relations, employee relations, different industrial relations, personnel administration, personnel management, human capital management, human asset management human resources management and the like. The basic nature of distinction lies in the scope of coverage and evolutionary stage. In simple sense, HRM means employing people, developing their resources, utilizing, maintaining and compensating their services in tune with their job and organizational requirements.DEFINITIONS OF HRM: “Human Resource Management is that part of management process which is primarily concerned with the Human constituents of an organization. ” ————- E.

F. L. BREACH “Human resource management is the planning, organizing, directing and controlling of the development compensation, integration, maintenance and reproduction of human resource to the end, that individual, organizational, and social objectives of accomplished”.

——- EDWIN B FLIPPO EVOLUTION OF HRM:This learning module is divided into three classes and covers a brief history of American labor and the evolving function of human resource management. The first class is an overview of American labor history from the colonial period to the early 1900s. There was little actual HR management during this time, but it is important history that sets the stage for understanding the development of human resource management in the 20th century. The second class covers early labor unrest at the beginning of the 20th century; the Depression; World War II; and the post-war years of the 1950s.

In this time period, we see the rise of the industrial relations professional and the personnel administrator, forerunners of contemporary HR managers. The last session starts with the civil rights movement of the 1960s and ends with contemporary issues that continue to shape today’s HR management in its current strategic role. The Royal Commission on Labor set up from 1929 to 1931 to examine the situation recommended the appointment of labor officers and other changes.The suggested changes led to the bringing in of standardization and that was the first step toward introducing personnel management, Formation of trade unions, with close links with political leaders like Mahatma Gandhi (the Textile Labor Association in Ahmadabad was founded in 1920), also influenced the way industrial workers are managed.

This focus made an adequate number of employees available to the industry, disciplined the “rural” and “less educated workers” and implemented various legislations and settled disputes.At the same time there were progressive employers who on their own cared about the well being of the employees. Tata Steel in Jamshedpur, for instance, had introduced a series of welfare measures for workers much before it became mandatory by law. After India won independence in 1947, considerable changes happened in the personnel management approach of organizations.

The Post independence period encouraged a mixed economy as the growth model. Industrial organizations were broadly classified as the public sector (including the administrative arm of government) and the private sector.Public sector organizations were the largest employers and received huge investments. The Constitution of India had the objective of achieving a socialist society and various constitutional provisions supported protection to working class. Numerous legislations were introduced to protect workers. Along with industrialization, the trade union movement also grew in India.

The rapid growth of trade unions also catalyzed the development of personnel systems. The workers became more aware about their rights and it was increasingly difficult to exploit them.In the 1970s and 1980s typical HRM functions in organization included: (1) Personnel and administration, (2) Industrial Relation, and (3) Labor welfare. The prescribed and assumed role was “crisis driven” or “issue driven”.

This high level of union activism also led to the situation where the decision framework took a legal turn. The same period also saw the rise of managerial unionism, where non workers without formula union rights joined to form associations that acted as pressure groups. Managerial unions were able to exert an influence in the public sector and that called for attention to be given to managing the non-worker staff also.Though not widespread, the industry was also open to adopting tools and techniques that could help improving efficiency and productivity. For examples, 1961, with the full cooperation from the trade union, the Indian Aluminum Company Ltd.

Conducted a plant wide work study at its Alupurams, Kerala plant. This lead to defining the work output, staffing pattern, and productivity linked inventive scheme. The establishment of management training institutes and business schools like XLRI and the IIMs helped the industry to imbibe modern management principles and thought.It could be very well summarized that up the mid 80s human resources management in Indian organizations grew through various phases under the influence of the following factors: (1) A Philanthropic viewpoint about doing good to workers, (2) A legislative framework, (3) government policies, (4) Trade unions, (5) emerging trends / concepts in management and (6) Changes in the economy. By then, most organizations, business as well as non business had established separate departments to handle the personnel function, with senior level managers heading them. EVOLUTION OF HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT Table No. 1. 1: Evolution of HRM in India Period |Development status |Outlook |Emphasis |Status | |1920s-1930s |Beginning |Pragmatism of capitalists |Statutory, welfare, |Clerical | | | | |paternalism | | |1940s-1960s |Struggling for recognition |Technical, legalistic |Introduction of techniques |Administrative | |1970s-1980s |Achieving sophistication |Professional, legalistic, |Regulatory, conforming, |Managerial | | | |impersonal |imposition of standards on | | | | | |other functions.

| | |1990s |Promising |Philosophical |Human values, productivity |Executive | | | | |through people | | Source: P. Subba Rao, Human resources management, Himalaya publishers. NEED FOR HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT HRM helps a company to achieve its objective from time to time by creating a positive attitude among workers.

Reducing wastage and making maximum use of resources etc. Due to proper HR policies employees are trained well and this makes them ready for future promotions. Their talent can be utilized not only in the company in which they are currently working but also in other companies which the employees may join in the future. Healthy HRM practices can help the organization to maintain co-ordinal relationship with the unions. Union members start realizing that the company is also interested in the workers and will not go against them therefore chances of going on strike are greatly reduced. Effective HR practices teach individuals team work and adjustment.The individuals are now very comfortable while working in team thus team work improves. The company is also able to identify potential employees who can be promoted in the future for the top level jobs.

When this happens the number of people leaving the job will reduce as the will be satisfied with their job leading to decrease in labor turnover. Effective HR practices lead to higher profits and better performance by companies due to this the company achieves a chance to enter into new business and start new ventured thus industrial development increases and the economy improves. OBJECTIVES OF HRM: The primary objective of HRM is to ensure a satisfactory accomplishment of the objectives of an organization and of its employees.While framing the hrs . objectives of the organization, care is taken to consider the interest and needs of the employees and of employees goals. This is done by integrating the employee interest and the management interests with a view to achieve the objectives of the entire organization. The objectives are discussed in detail as follows: • SOCIETAL OBJECTIVES: • ORGANIZATIONAL OBJECTIVES: • FUNCTIONAL OBJECTIVES: PERSONNEL OBJECTIVES: employees it should stimulate every employee to achieve his potential. SIGNIFICANCE OF HRM: Human resources play a crucial role in the development process of modern economics.

Human resource in the nation’s wellbeing:A nation with abundance of physical resources will not benefit itself unless human resources will not benefit it unless human resources make use of them. In fact, human resources are solely responsible for making use of national resources and for the transformation of traditional economics into the modern and industrial economies. Human resource management also plays an important role in areas like <> <> <> NATURE AND SCOPE OF HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT People in any organization manifest themselves, not only through individual sessions but also through group interactions. When individual come through work place, they come not only with technical skills, knowledge, but also with their feelings, desires and motives.Attitude, values therefore, employee management in a organization does not mean management of not only technical skills, but also other factors of human resources. SCOPE OF HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT The scope of HRM is indeed vast.

All major activities in the working life of a wonder from the time of his or her entry into an organization until he or she leaves – come under the purview of HRM. Specifically, the activities included are – HRM planning, job analysis. FIGURE NO 1. 1: SCOPE OF HRM Source: P. Subba Rao, Human resources management, Himalaya publishers.

FUNCTIONS OF HRM: The functions of HRM can broadly classified into two categories viz. , FIGURE NO 1. 2: FUNCTIONSOF HRM [pic] Source: P. Subba Rao, Human resources management, Himalaya publishers.Managerial functions of personnel management involve planning, organizing, directing and controlling.

? PLANNING: It is pre-determined course of action. Planning is determination of personnel programmers and changes in advance that will contribute to the organizational goals . In other words it involves planning of human resources requirements, recruitment, selection, training etc. It also involves forecasting of personnel needs, changing values, attitudes and behavior of employees and their impact on organization. ? ORGANIZING: An organization is a means to an end. An organization is a structure and a process by which cooperative group of human beings allocates its tasks among ts member, identifies relationships exit between the specialized departments and the general departments as many top managers are seeking the advice of personnel manager.

? DIRECTING: This direction is an important managerial function in that it helps in building sound industrial and human relations besides securing employees contributions. Coordination deals with the task of blending efforts in order to ensure a successful attainment of an objective. ? CONTROLLING: Controlling also involves checking, verifying and comparing the actual with the plans, identifying deviations, if any, and adjusted to pre-determined plans and standards through control.Auditing training programmed, analyzing labor turnover records, directing morale surveys, conducting separation interviews are some of the means for controlling the personnel management function ? PROCUREMENT FUNCTION: The first operative function of personnel management is procurement. It is concerned with procuring and employing people who possess necessary skill, knowledge and aptitude. Under its purview you have job analysis, manpower planning, recruitment, selection, placement, induction and internal mobility. ? DEVELOPMENT: It is the process of improving, molding, changing and developing the skills, knowledge, creative ability, aptitude, attitude, values and commitment based on present and future requirements both at the individual’s and organization’s level. ? MOTIVATION AND COMPENSATION:It is a process which inspires people to give their best to the organization through the use of intrinsic (achievement, recognition, responsibility) and extrinsic (job design, work scheduling, appraisal based incentives) rewards ? MAINTENANCE: It aims at protecting and preserving the physical and psychological health of employees through various welfare measures.

? INTEGRATION FUNCTION: This tries to integrate the goals of an organization with employee aspirations through various employee-oriented programmed, like redressing grievances promptly, instituting proper disciplinary measures, empowering people to decide things independently, encouraging a participative culture, offering constructive help to trade unions etc. ? EMERGING ISSUES:Effective management of human resources depends on refining HRM practices to changing conditions. Hence it is needed to look at other important issues that can motivate people to give their best in a dynamic and ever-changing environment. NEED OF THE STUDY • To know the Recruitment and Selection of employees in the BSNL • To get an idea about the recruitment and selection procedure conducted in BSNL. • To study the effectiveness of Recruitment and Selection procedure in BSNL. • To know what are the ways BSNL is adopting for recruiting employees. • To analyze recruitment and selection policy and compare with actual recruitment and selection BSNL SCOPE OF THE STUDY • The study has been conducted to understand the position of theIndustry and various functional areas of the company and their operations. • It extends to the whole Organization and it covers corporate office, and different departments of BSNL, Vijayawada • It covers workers, Clerical Staff, Officers, Jr.

Management, Middle Management and Senior Management cadre • The scope of the study is largely depending on the policies and practices of BSNL to analyze recruitment and selection policies of the organization. • To suggest any measures for the improvement of Recruitment and selection process. OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY The study is undertaken with following objectives • The main objective is to study the recruitment and selection process in BSNL To identify the recruitment and selection process implementation in BSNL • To gain the practical knowledge about recruitment and selection. • To study the various dimensions and determine the concept of employee recruitment and selection in BSNL • To understand how other factors are influence employee recruitment and selection. • To know the attitude of people during the time of recruitment and selection • To structure the Recruitment policy of company for different categories of employees • To provide a systematic recruitment and selection process.

. METHODOLOGY OF THE STUDY SOURCES OF DATA The methodology used to collect the data in the organization is from two sources: ? PRIMARY SOURCES:It Include the respondents from whom the required information was gathered directly and emphasis was laid on their opinion. Data was obtained through regular interaction with the functional heads and the employees. SAMPLE OF THE STUDY: The sample size was taken as 50 the respondents were Employees of BSNL Vijayawada.

The data was collected through questionnaire, which consists of 20 questions. The questions are personally asked and opinions were noted down so as to get immediate feedback. The methodology used for the study is as follows: • Questionnaires • Observation Data regarding the study has been collected by the questionnaires and observations. ? SECONDARY SOURCES: :These were the company manuals, Intranet search and the existing Recruitment manual with the help of these two data sources all the findings, conclusions and suggestions have been derived. PLAN OF THE STUDY My project is concerned with the study of Recruitment and selection at Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited, Vijayawada. CHAPTER – I: Introduction to HRM, Need, Scope, Objectives, Research & Methodology, Plan of the study, Period of the study, Limitations. CHAPTER – II: Industry profile with respect to world and India, Growth, economy Contribution, Major players, Mile stones, SWOT analysis. CHAPTER – III: Company profile establishment, growth, organizational chart, Achievements, major milestones.

CHAPTER – VI: Theoretical frame work, Introduction to subject, Introduction to Concept . CHAPTER – V: Data Analysis & Interpretation.CHAPTER – VI: Findings & Suggestions. Bibliography, Annexure. PERIOD OF THE STUDY My project was undertaken for a period of 45 days from 05th April 2011 to 15th may 2011at BHARATH SANCHAR NIGAM LIMITED, Vijayawada. LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY ? The study is conducted only in BSNL, Vijayawada. ? Due to the lack of time the research could not be made more detailed.

? Due to confidentially of some information accurate response was not revealed by some of the respondents. ? Some of the replies of the respondents may be biased. ? Employees had marked the answers in questionnaires which may be socially incorrect irrespective of their actual feelings.

The study is conducted only for 45 days ? The questionnaire is in closed indent due to this the accurate information is not possible to collect. TELECOMMUNICATION INDUSTRY ORIGIN OF TELEPHONE INDUSTRY: Alexander Graham Bell patented the first Telephone instrument capable of practical use in 1876. This method was used in the first commercial instrument developed by Bell in 1876. In 1878, the first telephone exchange was established at New Haven. In 1880, two Telephone Companies viz. The Oriental Telephone Company Ltd. and The Anglo-Indian Telephone Company Ltd. approached the   Govt.

of India for permission to establish Telephone Exchanges in India.The permission was however refused on the grounds that the establishment of Telegraphs was a Government monopoly and that the Government itself would undertake the work in the event of sufficient demand. By 1881, Govt. of India changed their earlier decision and license was granted to the original Oriental Telephone Company Limited of England for opening Telephone Exchanges at Calcutta, Bombay, Madras, Karachi and Ahmadabad. 28th January, 1882, is a Red Letter Day in the history of Telephone in India.

On this day Major E. Baring, Member of the Governor General’s Council declared open the Telephone Exchange in Calcutta, Madras and Bombay. The exchange at Calcutta named “Central Exchange” was opened at third floor of the building at 7, Council House Street.On 30-06-1882, the Central Telephone Exchange had 93 numbers of subscribers.

On 1899, The Central Tele-phone Exchange was shifted to   1, Council House Street. The   management of the Oriental   Telephone Company was   subsequently taken over by Bengal Telephone Company Limited. The telephone system in the city remained under management of Private Company till 1941 when all the shares of the Private Company were purchased by a Public Enterprise. The capital expenditure involved in this deal was   Rs117 LAKHS only.

Indian Posts and Telegraphs Dept. In 1985, Indian P ; T was bifurcated and the control of Telephone has been transferred to Dept. of Telecom.

On 01-10-2002, the telephone system of Calcutta came under Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited (BSNL) along with all other circles except the city of Delhi and Mumbai which are under Mahan Nagar Telephone Nigam Limited (MTNL). Telecommunication is one of the most essential infra-structure requirements of the modern life. The telegraph brought the new method of rapid communication, probably the most remarkable feature we like in the rapidity of communication. Started over 150 years ago, it has spread in many ways the telephones, the wireless, mobile data, internet, broad band, video etc. , nothing has changed the world more during these 150 years than this astonishing change in the method of communications.The telegraph was the first step in the direction; let us therefore honor the telegraph as the herald of new age .

The telecommunications industry is at the forefront of the information age-delivering voice at ever increasing speeds and in an increasing no. of ways. TELEPHONE INDUSTRY IN WORLD WIDE: On 24 May 1844, Samuel Morse sent his first public message over a telegraph line between Washington and Baltimore, and through that simple act, ushered in the telecommunication Barely ten years later, was telegraphy available as a service to the general public. In those days, however, telegraph lines did not cross national borders.

Because each country used a different system, messages had to be transcribed, translated and handed over at frontiers.Given the slow and unwieldy nature of this system, many countries eventually decided to establish arrangements which would facilitate interconnection of their national networks. However, because such arrangements were managed by each country at a national level, setting up telegraph links often required a huge number of separate agreements. In the case of Prussia, for example, no less than fifteen agreements were required for the link between the capital and the frontier localities bordering other German States. The continuing rapid expansion of telegraph networks in a growing number of countries finally prompted 20 European States to meet to develop a framework agreement covering  interconnection.On 17 May 1865, after two and a half months of arduous negotiation, the first International Telegraph Convention was signed in Paris by the 20 founding members, and the International Telegraph Union (ITU) was established to facilitate subsequent amendments to this initial agreement. Today, some 145 years later, the reasons which led to the establishment of ITU still apply, and the fundamental objectives of the organization remain basically unchanged. TELEPHONE INDUSTRY IN INDIA: The sprawling posts and telegraph department occupied a small corner of public works department in 1851.

Dr. William O. SHAUGHNESSY has pioneered telegraph and telephone in India.The telegraph department during 1854-57 comprised a superintended of telegraph with three deputy superintendent at Bombay, Madras and Peru in Burma. Mr. Dr.

William was the first superintendent of electric telegraphs in India and later became the director general. On 15th Feb 1888, the Indo-European telegraph department was merged with the Indian telegraph department. Later the postal department and the telegraph department were amalgamated under a single director.

DEPARTMENT OF TELECOMMUNICATIONS (DOT): The telecommunication board consisted of the secretary who was the chairman with members like finance, department, personal and technology. The commission was constituted in 1989.The department in 1986 recognized the telecommunication circles with the secondary switching areas as basic units. This was implemented in a phased manner Bombay and Delhi telephones were separated to create the new entity called Mahan agar telephone Nigam limited (MTNL). On 1st October 2000, department creates BHARATH SANCHAR NIGAM LIMITED (BSNL), a new entity to operate services in different parts of the country as a public sector unit.

Along with the revolution in manufacturing and supply of telecom equipment’s, came the era of privatization of services all over the world. The govt. of India has changed its policies to permit the entry of private operates to meet the increasing demands and to bring healthy competition in business of telecom.

The entry of private operators in operation of telecom services has been allowed since 1994. The private operators are bringing the competition in the form of: Most important of all, a better visible and recognizable customer care to attract more and more customers towards them to expand their business. OBJECTIVES: Administration of laws with respect to any of the matters specified in this list namely; NEW TECHNOLOGIES AND NEW SERVICES OFFERED BY BSNL New technologies which have been introduced are ;; CONTRIBUTION TO ECONOMY: The contribution of Indian telecom sector to the growth of India’s economy is immense. It is directly contributing more than 1. % GDP of the country, has a multiplier effect on growth because of connecting the people and business around it. This was stated today by the Minister of State (Communication ; Information Technology) Guru das Kamet in Mumbai. The Indian telecom Industry is the 2nd largest wireless market in the world with a total wireless subscriber base of 435 million at present; it is targeted to reach 771 million by 2013.

In addition to this, India has nearly 37. 66 million landline subscribers. India has one of the cheapest cell phone rates in the world. “Connecting rural India” for both voice and data connectivity is the main target of India’s telecom industry.Expressing satisfaction over the fact that the 74% of new wireless subscribers are now coming from our rural areas as compared to 42% from urban, the Minister said that we also mandated the Government owned telecom providers to accelerate rural broadband wireless deployment this year.

MAJOR PLAYERS: There are three types of players in telecom services: ? BHARATI AIRTEL Retained its leading position among telecom service providers and posted a growth of five per cent to end 2009-10 fiscal with revenues of Rs38,800 corer (Rs388 billion) . The companies is structured into four strategic business units – mobile, TELE MEDIA, enterprise and digital TV. ? BHARAT SANCHAR NIGAM LIMITED (BSNL) Saw a drop in its revenue for the second consecutive year to post Rs30,240corer (Rs302. billion), a drop of 14 per cent, even though it retained the number two position among telecom players. BSNL offers both fixed line and mobile services with broadband connections. ? VODAFONE ESSAR The Indian subsidiary of VODAFONE GROUP, VODAFONE ESSAR recorded 13. 7 per cent growth to emerge as the third largest player with revenue of Rs23,200 corer (Rs232 billion). ? RELIANCE COMMUNICATIONS Reliance ADA Group’s flagship company, Reliance Communications reported a negative growth of 3.

5 per cent with revenue of Rs22,130corer (Rs221. 3 billion). ? IDEA CELLULAR IDEA CELLULAR is part of the ADITYA BIRLA Group and has bagged fifth position with a revenue of Rs11,390 corer (Rs113. 9 billion)IMPORTANT EVENTS AND MILESTONES IN THE HISTORY OF TELECOMMUNICATIONS TABLE NO 2. 1: MILE STONES IN TELEPHONE INDUSTRY |November |1850 |The first Experimental Electric Telegraph Line was started between Calcutta and Diamond | | | |Harbor.

| |October |1851 |The Line completed and opened for East India Company’s traffic. | |April |1852 |Dr. O’Shaughnessy report on successful working of the experimental Line landed before the | | | |Bengal Govt. |November |1953 |Construction started of 4,000 miles of telegraph lines connecting Calcutta and Peshawar in | | | |the north via Agra and Bombay through SINDWA Ghats, Bombay and Madras in the South as well | | | |as OOTACAMUND and Bangalore. | |October |1854 |The first Telegraph Act enacted. | |February |1855 |Electric telegraph opened to public traffic. | | |1857 |The ‘Mutiny’.

| | | |Electric Telegraph saved India’ – Dalhousie. | | |1858 |First Indo-Ceylon cable laid | |January |1865 |First Indo-European telegraph communication effected. | |1867 |A new cable laid between India and Ceylon. | | |1871 |International Telegraph Conference at Berne and Rome. | |October |1872 |Interference to Telegraph Working by Magnetic Storm. | | |1873 |Duplex Telegraphy introduced in India between Bombay and Calcutta | | |1873 |Indigenous manufacture of cables for river crossing by Telegraph Workshops, ALIPORE. | |August |1875 |The first Private Telephone line supplied by the Telegraph department. |August |1877 |Indian Telegraph Department erected telegraph line between | | | |Srinagar and ALIPORE on behalf of the Maharaja of Kashmir.

| | |1878 |For the first time (except the first year) the receipt of the Indian Telegraph Department | | | |exceeded the expenses, netting a surplus Of Rs. 182,128. | |July |1880 |I.

T. D. transferred responsibility of the Ceylon Telegraph System and offices to the Ceylon | | | |Government. |November |1881 |License’s granted to Private Companies to operate Telephone Systems at Madras, Bombay, | | | |Rangoon, Calcutta. | |January |1882 |Opening of telephone exchange at Bombay. | | | |Upper Burma Campaign – I. T.

D. helps in providing communications for swift advance | |October |1885 |Introduction of Quadruples telegraphy and copper wire for transmission. | | |1886 |Copper wire for transmission between Bombay and Madras Instead of iron wire.

| |1887 |Facilities afforded to Indian Meteorological Service for communicating ‘Storm Signals’ to | | | |all places. | | |1888 |Post Office and Telegraph Department combined as quasi- commercial departments. | |January |1889 |Death of Dr. O’Shaughnessy at Southern. | | |1892-95 |Construction and control of Telegraph System of Kashmir State  by I. T. D. | | |1895-96 |Phonograms introduced for the first time at Bombay and         Calcutta.

| | |1902 |First wireless telegraph station established between Sugar Islands and Sand heads. | |1903 |Field Telegraphs for Sikkim, Tibet. | | |1903 |Reorganization of Superior Establishment in Telegraph. Departmental Wireless Telegraph | | | |introduced. | | |1904 |Wireless Telegraph introduced between Elephant Point and Amherst.

| | |1905 |Control of Telegraph Department transferred from P. W. D. to    Commerce and Industry | | | |Department, except for matters connected with Buildings and Electricity. | |1906 |Baudette system introduced between Calcutta and Bombay, and Calcutta and Rangoon. | |August |1907 |Central Battery working of telephones was first introduced in Kanpur.

| |December |1907 |Women signalers employed for the first time. | | |1907-08 |Wireless Telegraph working between Diamond Islands and       Port Blair were successful | | | |during the nights of cold weather. | | |1908 |Wheatstone working between London and Calcutta, Madras and Rangoon. | |1909 |Wireless Telegraph Traffic  was maintained with ships at-sea from Calcutta stations at | | | |Diamond Island, Table Island, etc.

| |April |1910 |Birth of Technical Branch as a separate organization for dealing with the technical matters| | | |under Electrical Engineer-in-Chief. | |December |1910 |Telegraph Department awarded a gold medal in the United Provinces Exhibition held at | | | |Allahabad. | |1910-11 |Introduction of Circle Scheme in the department and decentralization.

| | |1912-14 |Amalgamation of Postal and Telegraph Department under a   single Director-General. | | | |Reversion of control of  P&T again to P. W. D. | | |1913-14 |First automatic exchange at SHIMLA with a capacity of 700 lines with 400 actual | | | |connections.

| | |1914-18 |Production of war materials by Workshops. | |April |1919 |Lady operators employed in SHIMLA Exchange. | |1920 |Madras-Port Blair route for Wireless Telegraph opened. | |May |1921 |Recurrence of Magnetic Storm after a period of 50 years. Telegraph Traffic in south India | | | |interrupted. | |August |1921 |National Cash Registers introduced in Calcutta C.

T. O. for the first time. | | |1921 |A continuous wave transmitter for wireless telegraphy replaces . The spark transmitters. | | |1921 |Introduction of R. A. X.

at Poona. | |1922 |Department erected a line for Tibetan Government from Giantess to Lhasa. | | |1923 |Long distance dialing (90 miles) introduced between Lahore and Lyallpur. | | |1923-24 |152 questions relating to Department were asked and answered in the Legislative Assembly. | | |1924 |Floods and cyclone interrupted Telegraph Traffic throughout India. | |1st April |1925 |Accounts of the Department re-constituted on the basis of a full-fledged commercial unit.

| | |1925-26 |Conversion of Delhi Manual system to Auto System.Deluxe telegrams for greeting messages | | | |with foreign countries introduced. | |23rd July |1927 |Radio-Telegraph started working between U. K. and India. The beam station at Quirke and | | | |DHOND opened by Lord Irwin and greetings exchanged with the King of England. | |May |1933 |Radio-Telephone communications between England and India     opened by India Radio and | | | |Cable Communication Co. Special Trunk Exchange was installed at Quirke.

|December |1936 |Indo-Burma Radio-Telephone service started functioning between Madras and Rangoon. | | |1936-37 |Use of Trunk Lines for broadcasting program introduced. | | |1937 |Burma and Aden Telegraph Systems, which were a part of      Indian Telegraph System, | | | |separated. | | |1937 |Deluxe Telegram with foreign countries introduced. | | |1938-39 |Construction of short wave and medium wave wireless telegraph receivers in a number of | | | |stations and direction finding stations at Gaya and Allahabad. | |1940 |Introduction of ‘Urgent Private Inland Trunk Calls’. Overseas Telephone Service | | | |temporarily suspended due to war conditions.

| | |1942 |Bombay Australian wireless Telegraphic service inaugurated. | |February |1942 |Bombay-China Wireless Service inaugurated. Training center at Calcutta transferred to | | | |Jabalpur. | | |1942 |The Bombay Telephone Workshop was taken over by the I. T. D.

| |1943 |The Jabalpur Telegraph Workshop started. | | |1943 |The Bombay, Calcutta and Madras Telephone Systems were taken over by I. T. D. | | |1942-47 |Telecommunication Development Scheme came into operation. A  | | | |Telecommunication Development Board was set up. | |August |1944 |Bombay-New York Wireless Telegraph Service was commissioned into service. | |September |1944 |Second civilian outlet to U.

K. , Delhi and London Wireless Telegraph Service inaugurated. | |1947 |India was represented at the important Atlantic City International Radio Conference.

| | |1947 |Direct Telephone link to Kashmir and Assam. | | |1947 |The late SARDAR Patel launched JALAPRABHA on Telephone Carrier Channel and Wireless. | |1st June |1949 |Introduction of Hindi telegram in DEVANAGHARI script. | |December |1949 |‘Own Your Telephone’ Scheme inaugurated. | | |1949 |Wireless Station commenced functioning at Srinagar. | |1949-50 |State Merger Scheme; the P&T gradually took over the respective State  P&T  Systems.

| |January |1950 |India-Afghanistan Wireless Telegraph Service inaugurated. Radio-Telephone Service between | | | |India and Nepal inaugurated. | |May-June |1950 |Coastal Wireless Stations at KARWAR, RATNAGIRI and Mangalore started. | |October |1950 |The Wireless Telephone Service between Indonesia and India opened. | |November |1950 |Private Priority Telegram introduced.

| |1950 |‘Own Your Telephone Exchange’ Scheme began to operate. | |December |1950 |‘Telegraph Wires (Unlawful possession) of 1950, Act was passed By Parliament. | |March |1951 |The First Asian Games held at Delhi was conveyed by a direct Radio telephoto service | | | |between India and Japan. Innovation of Radio-Telephoto Service. | |December |1951 |Launching of S.

S. JALAPUSHPA of SCINDIA Steam Navigation Company at Vizagapatam by SHRI | | | |N. V.GADGIL from Bombay through telegraph circuits. Wireless Telegraph link to Thailand. | |June |1951 |Wireless Telegraph link to Moscow.

| |July |1951 |Wireless Telegraph and Telephone link to Egypt. First Toll Cable: Delhi-Ghaziabad. | |September |1951 |Wireless Telegraph and Telephone link to Iceland. | |Mar/Aug |1952 |Wireless Telephone link to Iran/Japan. | | |1953 |12 channel carrier systems introduced.

| | |1953 |First Automatic Exchange in Calcutta.Telex Service in Bombay. First 12-Channel Carrier | | | |Systems. Introduction of Frequency Modulation. Mechanization of Telephone Revenue | | | |Accounting. | |November |1960 |First subscriber trunk dialing route commissioned between Kanpur and Luck now | |December |1965 |First microwave route between Calcutta-Alanson opened | |February |1967 |First crossbar-local exchange commissioned at MAMBALAM – MADRAS.

|December |1967 |First crossbar trunk automatic exchange out into service at Madras | |March |1975 |First PCM system between city and ANDHERI telephone exchanges commissioned in Mumbai. | | | |‘Advanced Level Telecom Training Centre’ commenced training activities from Delhi to be | | | |eventually shifted to its own campus in Ghaziabad. | | |1976 |Installation of SPC gateway telex exchange and introduction of International Subscriber | | | |dialed telex service.

First Digital Microwave System introduced in Calcutta Junction | | | |network. | |1978 |Introduction of Press Bulletin Service (PBS). ‘Telecommunications’ | | | |Consultants India Limited’ set up in the   public sector to provide | | | |Consultancy services in telecommunications. | | |1979 |First optic fiber system for local junction commissioned at PUNE. | | |1980 |First satellite earth station for domestic communications established at SECUNDERABAD | | | |(U. P. | | |1981 |TROPO scatter system link between India and U.

S. S. R.

inaugurated. | | |1982 |First SPC electronic digital telex exchange commissioned at Bombay. | | |1983 |First SPC analogue electronic trunk automatic exchange commissioned at Bombay. | | |1984 |‘Centre for Development of Telemeters (C-DOT) was established as a society for development| | | |of digital switching system.

| | |1985 |First Mobile Telephone Service introduced at Delhi. | | |First Radio Paging introduced in Delhi. | | |1986 |‘MAHANAGAR TELEPHONE NIGAM LIMITED’ and ‘VIDESH SANCHAR NIGAM LIMITED’ were established.

| | |1987 |First digital coaxial 140 Mb/s between Ahmadabad and Rajkot commissioned. | | |1988 |International gateway packet switch system commissioned at Bombay. | | |1991 |I-Net exchange commissioned.

| | | |Immersed coastal earth station at ARVI to provide maritime communication. | | |Voice Mail Service (VMS) introduced in Delhi. | | |1994 |Announcement of National Telecom Policy. | | | |Cellular telephone service started in Calcutta and Delhi. | | | |Internet service provided by VSNL. | | | |ISDN service started commercially. | | |1995 |The “Telecom Regulatory Authority of India” was set up. | | | |Wireless in Local Loop (WLL) telephone system introduced in MTNL Delhi.

| | |Indo – Nepal Optical Fiber link Commissioned. | | | |Basic Telecom Services opened for private competition. | | |1998 |New ISP Policy was announced. | | |1999 |New Telecom Policy. | | | |DOT is separated into two organs- DTS and DTO. | | |2000 |Telecom disputes, settlement and Appellate Tribunal was established. | | | |National Long Distance Service opened for private competition.

| | |Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited is born. | | |2001 |Convergence Bill to promote, facilitate and develop the carriage and content of | | | |communications tabled in the Parliament. | | | |Policy for GMPCS service has been announced. | | | |Policy for PMRTS has been announced. | | | |Policy for UMS was announced. | | |2002 |VSNL came under private management.

| | |International Long Distance Service opened for private competition. | | | |Internet telephony was started. | Source: http://www. cci. in/pdf/surveys_reports/indias_telecom_sector.


The TRAI’s functions are recommendatory, regulatory and tariff setting in telecom sector. Telecom Disputes Settlement and Appellate Tribunal (TDSAT) came into existence in May, 2000; TDSAT has been empowered to adjudicate any dispute. ? . Between licensor and a licensee ? Between two or more service providers. ? Between a service provider and group of customers. ? Hear and dispose of appeal against any direction, decision or order of TRAI. TRAI? s mission is to create and nurture conditions for growth of telecommunications in the country in manner and at a pace, which will enable India to play a leading role in emerging global information society.

One of the main objectives of TRAI is to provide a fair and transparent policy environment, which promotes a level playing field and facilitates fair competition. In pursuance of above objective TRAI has issued from time to time a large number of regulations, orders and directives to deal with issues coming before it and provided the required direction to the evolution of Indian telecom market from a Government owned monopoly to a multi operator multi service open competitive market. SWOT ANALYSIS OF INDIAN TELECOM INDUSTRY FIGURE NO 2. 1: SWOT ANALYSIS OF INDIAN TELECOM INDUSTRY[pic] Source: http://www. cci.

in/pdf/surveys_reports/indias_telecom_sector. pdf STRENGTHS:WEAKNESS: OPPORTUNITY: THREATS: BHARAT SANCHAR NIGAM LIMITED ORIGIN: BSNL then known as the Department of Telecommunications had been a near monopoly during the socialist period of the Indian economy. During this period, BSNL was the only telecom service provider in the country. MTNL was present only in Mumbai and New Delhi.

During this period BSNL operated as a typical state-run organization, inefficient, slow, bureaucratic, and heavily unionized. As a result subscribers had to wait for as long as five years to get a telephone connection. The corporation tasted competition for the first time after the liberalization of Indian economy in 1991.Faced with stiff competition from the private telecom service providers, BSNL has subsequently tried to increase efficiencies itself. Dot veterans, however, put the onus for the sorry state of affairs on the Government policies, where in all state-owned service providers were required to function as mediums for achieving egalitarian growth across all segments of the society. The corporation (then Dot), however, failed to achieve this and India languished among the most poorly connected countries in the world.

EVOLUTION OF BSNL BSNL is the back bone of communication sector in our country. Bharat Sanchar Nigam limited is India’s largest communication service provider (CSP). reviously known as DOT: whom it was under federal govt. control, and it became a corporation in 2000. Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited formed in October ,2000,is world’s 7th largest telecommunications company providing comprehensive range of telecom services in India: wire line, CDMA mobile, GSM mobile, Internet broad band, carrier service, MPLS-VPN,VSAT,VOIP services, etc. within a span of five years it has become one of the longest public sector unit in India. BSNL operates across the length and breadth of India (accept the metropolitan cities of Mumbai and New Delhi which is managed by MTNL) and commands over 40million land lines and 18 million mobile subscribers.

Since its operation in October, 2000, BSNL has been actively providing connections in both urban and rural areas and the efficiency of the company has drastically improved from the day when one hand to wait for years to get a phone connection in even hours. BSNL has installed quality telecom network in the country and now focusing on improving it, expanding the NET WORK, introducing new telecom services with ICT applications in villages and winning customer’s confidence. Today, it has about 47. 3million line basic telephone capacity, 4million WLL capacity, 20. 1million GSM capacity, more than 37382fixed exchanges, 18000 BTS, 287 satellite stations, 480196 RKM of Microwave NET WORK connecting 602 Districts, 7330 cities/town and 5. 5 lakes villages.BSNL is the only service provider, making focused efforts and planned initiatives to bridge the Rural-urban digital divide ICT sector. In fact there is no telecom operator in the (company) country to beat its reach with its wide NET WORK giving services in every nook and corner of country and operates across India except Delhi & Mumbai.

Whether it is inaccessible areas of satin glacier and north-eastern region of the country . BSNL serves its customers with its wide bouquet of telecom services. BSNL is numerous Uno operator of India in all services in its license area.

The company offers wide ranging &most transparent tariff schemes designed to suite every customer .BSNL cellular service, cell one, has more than 17. 8million cellular customer, garnering 24percent of all mobile users as its subscribers . that means almost every fourth mobile user in the country has a BSNL connection. In basic services, BSNL is miles ahead of its rivals, with 35. 1million basic phone subscribers i. e.

85 percent share of subscriber base and 92 percent share in revenue terms. BSNL has more than 2. 5 million WLL subscribers and 2. 5 million internet customers who access internet through various modes viz. dial-up, leased line, DIAS, and account less internet (CLI). BSNL has been adjudged as the number one ISP in the country.BSNL has set up a world class multi-gigabit, multi-protocol convergent IP infrastructure that provides convergent services like voice, data and video through the same back bone and broad band access network at present there are 0.

6 million data one broad band customers. The company has vast experience in planning, installation, network integration and maintenance of switching &transmission networks and also has a world class ISO9000 certified telecom training institute. Pre-activated mobile connections are available at many places across India. BSNL has also unveiled very cost effective broad band internet access plans targeted at homes and small business. BSNL plans to add million subscribers annually for the next coming years, and long term of 120 million lines by 2010.

today, BSNL is the no. telecommunications company and the largest public sector under taking of India with authorized share capital of $3977million and net worth of $14. 32billion. Today, BSNL is most trusted telecom brand of India. BSNL registered office is in New Delhi. VISION: To become the largest telecom service provider in south east Asia. MISSION: To provide world class state-of –art technology telecom services to its customers on demand at competitive prices. To provide world class Telecom infrastructure in its area of operations and to contribute to the growth of the country’s economy.


com BOARD OF DIRECTORS: Corporate structure of BSNL board consists of SHRIR. K.UPADHYAYCMD, YOGESH KUMAR BHASKHAR is CEO,RITA GOYAL (CFO) & five full time directors, Human Resource Development (HRD), Consumer mobility, Marketing, Finance, Enterprise, who manage the entire gamut of BSNL operations. There are five more Directors in the full board of BSNL.

? CHAIRMAN & MANAGING DIRECTOR- SHRI R. K. UPADHYAY [pic] SHRIRAKESH KUMAR UPADHYAY joined BSNL as Chairman & Managing Director on 30th April 2011. SHRIUPADHYAY is a B. Tech in Electronics Engineering from IT, Banaras Hindu University (BHU). He is also a graduate of Defense Services Staff College, Wellington and was awarded M. Sc. (DS) degree by Madras University .

He has done MBA in Marketing Management from Indira Gandhi Open University. His career began in Department of Telecommunications in 1975 after his selection by UPSC for Indian Telecom Service.In Dot, he gained experience in areas of Planning, Installation and Commissioning, Commercial Administration and Operations ? DIRECTOR – FINANCE SHRI.

K . C. G. K. PILLAI [pic] SHRIK. C. G.

K. PILLAI took over the charge of Director (Finance) on 25th April 2012. An MBA in Finance and Post Graduate in Political Science, SHRI PILLI, an Officer of the Indian P & T Accounts and Finance Service-1981 batch, entered Government Service in 1982. Spanning over a career of 30 years in the P & T Accounts and Finance Service, he served in the Uttar Pradesh, Gujarat and Maharashtra Telecom Circles of the Department of Telecommunications.

? DIRECTOR – CONSUMER MOBILITY (CM) AND (ENTERPRISE)-SHRIR. K. AGARWALHe has taken over the charge of Director (Planning & New Services) in BSNL Board i.

e. 11th April, 2008. SHRI RAKESH KUMAR AGARWAL has done his B. E. from Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore in 1973 and then M. TECH in Communications from IIT Delhi in 1975.

Thereafter he joined Department of Telecommunications and worked in various fields of telecommunications. ? DIRECTOR – CONSUMER FIXED ACCESS(CFA)- SHRI RAJESH WADHWA [pic] SHRI RAJESH WADHWA took over as Director (Operations) in BSNL on 1st August 2008. SHRIWADHWA is a B. Tech in Electrical Engineering in first class with distinction from I. I. T.

Delhi. He has also done MBA from Faculty of Management Studies, University of Delhi.He joined the Department of Telecommunications, Government of India through Indian Telecommunications Services Group in December 1975. Since then he has worked in various capacities in different units of Dot/ BSNL/MTNL and has versatile experience covering almost all the fields in telecommunications including operations, development and management of landline and mobile networks, sales and marketing and financial management etc. ? DIRECTOR – (ENTERPRISE) AND HRD -SHRI A. N. RAI [pic] SHRIA.

N. RAI assumed the charge of the office of Director (Enterprise) on 19. 9. 2011. SHRIRAI, an officer of Indian Telecommunications Service 1977 batch holds B. TECH Degree in Electronics and Communications Engineering from BHU Varanasi.SHRIRAI was actively associated with Installation, Commissioning and Maintenance of Switching equipment’s at various places in the country. He was also trained in Digital Telephone systems in various countries like UK, Germany and USA. ? SHRI S. R. RAO, GOVT. DIRECTOR [pic] SHRI S. R. RAO, an Indian Administrative Service Officer of the 1978 batch, was appointed as Government Director on the Board of Directors of BSNL with effect from 13th April, 2011. SHRIRAO is a Post-Graduate in Applied Sociology from Andhra University and in Rural Development from University of East Anglia (UK). TOTAL NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES IN BSNL FIGURE NO 3. 2: STAFF DISTRIBUTION OF BSNL [pic] Source: www. bsnlindia. com TURNOVER:The present turnover of BSNL is more than Rs. 351, 820 million (US $ 8 billion) with net profit to the tune of Rs. 99, 390 million (US $ 2. 26 billion) for last financial year. The infrastructure asset on telephone alone is worth about Rs. 630, 000 million (US $ 14. 37 billion CAPITAL INVESTMENTS: The corporation has a net worth of Rs63,000 cores (US $ 14. 32 billion), authorized equity capital of Rs10,000 Cores (US $ 2. 27 billion), paid up capital of Rs5,000 cores (US $ 1. 14 billion) and revenue is Rs33,450 cores (US $ 7. 60 billion) in 2004-0 | |REVENUE IN BSNL | | |FIGURE NO3. :REVENUE EARNED BY BSNL | | |[pic] | | |Source: www. bsnlindia. com | GROWTH PLAN: BSNL has continued its growth story ever since its formation & has reached a customer base of 81. 49 million as on 31st March, 2009 from 28. 11 million as on 31st March, 2001. BSNL further plans to increase its customer base to 160 Million by March, 2014 HEADQUARTERS OF BSNL: New Delhi, India BRANCHES <> <> <> <> <> <> <> <> <> SERVICES INTRODUCED BY BSNL: [pic]3G Services:BSNL has started 3G services in 290 cities and acquired more than 6lakh customers. It has planned to roll out 3G services in 760 cities across the country in 2010-11. [pic]Broadband services: The shift in demand from voice to data has revolutionized the very nature of the network. BSNL is poised to cash on this opportunity and has planned for extensive expansion of the Broadband services. The Broadband customer base of 3. 56 Million customers in March’2009 is planned to be increased to 16. 00 million by March 2014. BSNL is also offering prepaid Broadband services. The customers availing prepaid broadband have many advantages over post paid broadband like control on usage, Mobility etc.In addition to wire line broadband services, BSNL is also in the process of rolling out its Wi-MAX network in rural areas to take an initial lead and provide wireless broadband services in all rural blocks in the country during 2010-11. The Urban WI-MAX is also being deployed in Kerala ; Punjab Circles and shall cover all the major cities in these circles. WI -MAX services are also being provided through a Franchisee agent with M/s SOMA in three states of Gujarat, AP and Maharashtra. VALUE ADDED SERVICES: BSNL is focusing on provision of value added services/features to attract high end customers and to double its revenues from VAS FIBER TO HOME (FTTH) : To meet the demand for high bandwidth services, BSNL is rolling out FTTH services (GPON ; GE-PON) for the first time in the country, which is likely to generate substantial revenue in coming years.Services are likely to start by March 2010. [pic][pic] Cellular Mobile Telephone Services: BSNL is major provider of cellular mobile telephone services using GSM platform under the brand name Cell One and Excel. As of June 30, 2010 BSNL has 13. 50% share of mobile telephone in the country WLL-CDMA Telephone Services: BSNL’S Wireless in Local Loop service is a service giving both fixed line telephone and Mobile telephone. [pic]IPTV: BSNL also offers the ‘Internet Protocol Television’ facility which enables us to watch television through internet COMPETITORS OF BSNL: NAME OF THE COMPANYLOGO ? RELIANCE COMMUNICATIONS LTD[pic] ? TATA COMMUNICATIONS LTD[pic] VODAFONE[pic] ? AIRCEL[pic] ? AIRTEL[pic] ? UNINOR[pic] ? IDEA[pic] ? VIDEOCON[pic] ? VIRGIN MOBILE[pic] Milestones and Achievements of BSNL: the indigenously designed, developed and manufactured Handheld Computer – Palmate for various portable applications like Electronic Ticketing, Spot Billing, Logistic Management, Mobile Payment Collection etc. Bharat Sanchar Nigam Ltd (BSNL), the largest telecom service provider of India, has bagged two prestigious awards, one for the most preferred landline service provider and another for the most preferred broadband connection provider in the Indian telecom sector. along with these other awards areIndia’s National Telecom Backbone Bharat Sanchar Nigam Ltd (BSNL) conferred the “Telecom Circle of the Year Awards” for its key performing territorial circles, based on their revenue performance for the Financial Year 2010-11. RECOGNITION OF BSNL: The Brand Trust Report published by Trust Research Advisory ranked BSNL in the 65th position of the list of Most Trusted brands. RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION Human resource is an important corporate asset and the overall. Performance of company depends on the way it is put to use. In order to realize company objectives, it is essential to recruit people with requisite skills, qualification and experience. While doing so we need to keep present and future requirements of company in mind. Successful recruitment methods include a thorough analysis of the job and the labor market conditions.Recruitment is almost central to any management process and failure in recruitment can create difficulties for any company including an adverse effect on its profitability and inappropriate levels of staffing or skills. Inadequate recruitment can lead to labor shortages, or problems in management decision making. Recruitment is however not just a simple selection process but also requires management decision making and extensive planning to employ the most suitable manpower. Competition among business organizations for recruiting the best potential has increased focus on innovation, and management decision making and the selectors aim to recruit only the best candidates who would suit the corporate culture, ethics and climate specific to the organization.The process of recruitment does not however end with application and selection of the right people but involves maintaining and retaining the employees chosen. Despite a well drawn plan on recruitment and selection and involvement of qualified management team, recruitment processes followed by companies can face significant obstacles in implementation. Theories of HRM may provide insights on the best approaches to recruitment although companies will have to use their house management skills to apply generic theories within specific organizational contexts. RECRUITMENT: Recruitment is defined as the process of finding ; developing the sources of prospective employees ; stimulating them to apply for jobs in an organization.DEFINITION: “Recruitment is the process of searching the candidates for employment and stimulating them to apply for jobs in the organization”. ————– EDWIN B. FLIPPO “Recruitment as a process which involves seeking and attracting a pool of people from which qualified candidates for job vacancies can be chosen” —————- BYARS & RUE IMPORTANCE OF RECRUITMENT&SELECTION Recruitment is the process of searching the candidates for employment and stimulating them to apply for jobs in the organization WHEREAS selection involves the series of steps by which the candidates are screened for choosing the most suitable persons.The basic purpose of recruitment is to create a talent pool of candidates to enable the selection of best candidates for the organization, by attracting more and more employees to apply in the organization WHEREAS the basic purpose of selection process is to choose the right candidate to fill the various positions in the organization Recruitment is a positive process i. e. encouraging more and more employees to apply WHEREAS selection is a negative process as it involves rejection of unsuitable candidates. Recruitment is concerned with tapping the sources of human resources WHEREAS selection is concerned with selecting the most suitable candidate through various interviews andtests.There is no contract of recruitment established in recruitment WHEREAS selection results in a contract of service between the employer and the selected employee. RECRUITMENT PROCESS: The recruitment and selection is the major function of the human resource department and recruitment process is the first step towards creating the competitive strength and the recruitment strategic advantage for the organizations. Recruitment process involves a systematic procedure from sourcing the candidates to arranging and conducting the interviews and requires many resources and time. A general recruitment process is as follows: FIGURE4. 1: RECRUITMENT PROCESS Source: k.ASHWATHAPPA, Human Resource And personnel Management, Himalaya publishers The recruitment process is immediately followed by the selection process i. e. the final interviews and the decision making, conveying the decision and the appointment formalities. FACTORS AFEECTING RECRUITMENT PROCESS: The recruitment function of the organizations is affected and governed by a mix of various internal and external forces. The internal forces or factors are the factors that can be controlled by the organization. And the external factors are those factors which cannot be controlled by the organization. The internal and external forces affecting recruitment function of an organization are: FIGURE 4. : FACTORS AFFECTING RECRUITMENT FACTORS AFFECTING RECRUITMENT [pic] Source: V. S. P. RAO Human Resource Management, Himalaya publishing House ? INTERNAL FACTORS AFFECTING RECRUITMENT The internal factors or forces which affecting recruitment and can be controlled by the organization are 1. RECRUITMENT POLICY: The recruitment policy of an organization specifies the objectives of recruitment and provides a framework for implementation of recruitment programme. It may involve organizational system to be developed for implementing recruitment programmes and procedures by filling up vacancies with best qualified people. 2. HUMANRESOURCE PLANNINGEffective human resource planning helps in determining the gaps present in the existing manpower of the organization. It also helps in determining the number of employees to be recruited and what qualification they must possess. 3. SIZE OF THE FIRM The size of the firm is an important factor in recruitment process. If the organization is planning to increase its operations and expand its business, it will think of hiring more personnel, which will handle its operations. 4. COST Recruitment incur cost to the employer, therefore, organizations try to employ that source of recruitment which will bear a lower cost of recruitment to the organization for each candidate. 5. GROWTHAND EXPANSIONOrganization will employ or think of employing more personnel if it is expanding its operations. ? EXTERNAL FACTORS AFFECTING RECRUITMENT:- The external factors which affecting recruitment is the forces which cannot be controlled by the organization . The major external forces are: 1. SUPPLYAND DEMAND The availability of manpower both within and outside the organization is an important determinant in the recruitment process. If the company has a demand for more professionals and there is limited supply in the market for the professionals demanded by the company, then the company will have to depend upon internal sources by providing them special training and development programs. 2. LABOURMARKETEmployment conditions in the community where the organization is located will influence the recruiting efforts of the organization. 3. IMAGE/ GOODWILL Image of the employer can work as a potential constraint for recruitment. An organization with positive image and goodwill as an employer finds it easier to attract and retain employees than an organization with negative image. 4. POLITICAL-SOCIAL-LEGAL-ENVIRONMENT various government regulations prohibiting discrimination in hiring and employment have direct impact on recruitment practices. Also, trade unions play important role in recruitment. This restricts management freedom to select those individuals who it believes would be the best performers. 5. UNEMPLOYMENT RATEOne of the factors that influence the availability of applicants is the growth of the economy (whether economy is growing or not and its rate). When the company is not creating new jobs, there is often oversupply of qualified labor which in turn leads to unemployment. 6. COMPETITORS The recruitment policies of the competitors also affect the recruitment function of the organizations. To face the competition, many a times the organizations have to change their recruitment policies according to the policies being followed by the competitors. FIGURE 4. 3: SOURCES OF RECRUITMENT Sources of recruitment Source: k . ASHWATHAPPA, Human Resource And personnel Management, Himalaya publishers INTERNAL SOURCES: 1. TRANSFERSThe employees are transferred from one department to another according to their efficiency andexperience. 2. PROMOTIONS The employees are promoted from one department to another with more benefits and greater responsibility based on efficiency and experience. 3. UPGRADING AND DEMOTION Others are Upgrading and Demotion of present employees according to their performance. 4. RETIRED AND RETRENCHED EMPLOYEES These may also be recruited once again in case of shortage of qualified personnel or increase in load of work. Recruitment such people save time and costs of the organizations as the people are already aware of the organizational culture and the policies. . 5. DECEASED EMPLOYEES AND DISABLED EMPLOYEESThe dependents and relatives of Deceased employees and Disabled employees are also done by many companies so that the members of the family do not become dependent on the mercy of others. ADAVANTGE OF INTERNAL SOURCES:- EXTERNAL SOURCES OF RECRUITMENT: 1. PRESS ADVERTISEMENTS Advertisements of the vacancy in newspapers and journals are a widely used source of recruitment. The main advantage of this method is that it has a wide reach. 2. EDUCATIONALINSTITUTES Various management institutes, engineering colleges, medical Colleges etc. are a good source of recruiting well qualified executives, engineers, medical staff etc. They provide facilities for campus interviews and placements. This source is known as Campus Recruitment. 3. PLACEMENTAGENCIESSeveral private consultancy firms perform recruitment functions on behalf of client companies by charging a fee. These agencies are particularly suitable for recruitment of executives and specialists. It is also known as RPO (Recruitment Process Outsourcing) 4. EMPLOYMENT EXCHANGES: Government establishes public employment exchanges throughout the country. These exchanges provide job information to job seekers and help employers in identifying suitable candidates. 5. LABOR CONTRACTORS: Manual workers can be recruited through contractors who maintain close contacts with the sources of such workers. This source is used to recruit labor for construction jobs. 6. UNSOLICITED APPLICANTS:Many job seekers visit the office of well-known companies on their own. Such callers are considered nuisance to the daily work routine of the enterprise. But can help in creating the talent pool or the database of the probable candidates for the organization. 7. EMPLOYEE REFERRALS / RECOMMENDATIONS: Many organizations have structured system where the current employees of the organization can refer their friends and relatives for some position in their organization. Also, the office bearers of trade unions are often aware of the suitability of candidates. 8. RECRUITMENT AT FACTORY GATE: Unskilled workers may be recruited at the factory gate these may be employed whenever a permanent worker is absent.More efficient among these may be recruited to fill permanent vacancies. ADVANTAGES OF EXTERNAL SOURCES: RECRUITMENT POLICY: In today’s rapidly changing business environment, a well-defined recruitment policy is necessary for organizations to respond to its human resource requirements in time. Therefore, it is important to have a clear and concise recruitment policy in place, which can be executed effectively to recruit the best talent pool for the selection of the right candidate at the right place quickly. Creating a suitable recruitment policy is the first step in the efficient hiring process. A clear and concise recruitment policy helps ensure a sound recruitment process. DEFINITION:According to Yoder “The Recruitment Policy is concerned with quantity and qualifications of manpower and it also establishes board guidelines for the staffing process. RECENT TRENDS IN RECRUITMENT: The following trends are being seen in recruitment: ;; In India, the HR processes are being outsourced from more than a decade now. A company may draw required personnel from outsourcing firms. The outsourcing firms help the organization by the initial screening of the candidates according to the needs of the organization and creating a suitable pool of talent for the final selection by the organization ;; “Buying talent” (rather than developing it) is the latest mantra being followed by the organizations today.Poaching means employing a competent and experienced person already working with another reputed company in the same or different industry; the organization might be a competitor in the industry. ;; Many big organizations use Internet as a source of recruitment. E-recruitment the use of technology to assist the recruitment process. They advertise job vacancies through worldwide web. The job seekers send their applications through e mail using the Internet SELECTION Selection is the process of finding out the most suitable candidate to the job out of the candidate recruited. The guiding policy in selection is the intention to choose the best qualified ; suitable candidate for each vacancy.Selection procedure involves a system of functions ; devices which match the candidate’s specifications with job specifications. DEFINITION: “Selection is the process of differentiating between applicants in order to identify and hire those with a greater likelihood of success on the jobs” ————– THOMAS STONE FACTORS AFFECTING SELECTION: The various Factors affecting Selection decision of candidate include: SELECTION PROCESS The selection process employs several methods of collecting information about candidates’ qualifications, experience, physical & mental ability, nature & behavior, knowledge, aptitude, in order to judge whether a given applicant is or is not suitable for the job.Thus, selection procedure is not a single act ; involves a series of methods or steps namely FIGURE 4. 4: SELECTION PROCESS Source: V. S. P. RAO Human Resource Management, Himalaya publishing House JOB ANALYSIS: Job analysis is the basis for selecting right candidate. Therefore, every organization should finalize the job analysis, job description, job specification ; employee specification. ADVERTISEMENT: It is the second step which refers to the process of searching for prospective employees ; stimulating them to apply for the jobs. APPLICATION FORM: ? It is also termed as ”Application Blank” ? They are collected so as to secure information from the prospective candidates. ? Many companies formulate their own style of application