Humans as social beings always need others. Despite his inadequate living,sufficient intelligence and sufficient physical strength, he will always needan environment where he can share, support each other and work together. Humansnot only need religion, science, or entertainment or art, but alsotogetherness. Everything is needed. Because with the religion of life morefocused, with life knowledge will be easier, with the art of living morebeautiful and with life together will be more berfaidah.
In a short definition, teamwork is a set of values, attitudes and behaviorsin a team. So it does not always consist of a group of people with the samestyle, attitude, and work. The difference between teams is precisely thepotential that will make a team creative and innovative. To achieve a goodteamwork needs to grow a positive attitude among team members. Among otherhabits to listen to each other so as to create good communication, providesupport to team members in need, and appreciate the contributions andachievements obtained from each team member. A teamwork will be a decisive determinant of organizational travel.
Therefore it is necessary for good cooperation in carrying out responsibilitiesin the organization. This paper will discuss the definition of teamwork, thebenefits and the function of teamwork, teamwork, teamwork and work groupdifferences, work team roles, teamwork development stages, and teamworkdimensions. A. Teamwork DefinitionTeamwork can be interpreted as teamwork or cooperation, team work orteamwork is a form of group work with complementary skills and committed toachieving the agreed targets to achieve common goals effectively andefficiently. It should be realized that teamwork is a fusion of personalitieswho become one person to achieve common goals. The goal is not a personal goal,not a team leader’s goal, nor is the goal of the most popular person on theteam.In a team that is needed is the willingness to hand-handed each otheraccomplish the work. It could be that one person does not finish a job or isnot an expert in work A, but can be done by other team members.
This is whatteam work means, the load is shared for a common purpose. Mutual understanding and support for each other is the key to success fromteamwork. Never ignore this understanding and support. Although there is aninterpersonal dispute, the team must immediately remove it first. If not lifein the team will obviously be disturbed, even in a team may come from differentdivision backgrounds that sometimes also hold disputes. Therefore, it is important to realize that togetherness as a team member isabove all else.Successful team intimacy is usually characterized by intimacy with eachother, loyal friends, and feel the same destiny. Team members like each otherand strive to develop and maintain interpersonal relationships.
Interpersonalrelationships are very important because this will be the basis for creatingopenness and direct communication and support among fellow team members. Teamwork can be defined as a collection of individuals who work together toachieve a goal. The collection of individuals has clear rules and workingmechanisms and are interdependent with one another. Therefore a group of peopleworking in one room, even within a project, is not necessarily a teamwork.Moreover, if the group is authoritarianly managed, there are factions withinit, and minimal interaction among group members. Some issues within the team:1. The existence of tasks (tasks) and problems associated with theimplementation of work. This is often the main topic of concern to the team.
2. The process that occurs within the teamwork itself, such as how theworking mechanism or rules of a team as a work unit of the company, the processof interaction in the team, and others Advantages of team decision making:1. Decisions made together will increase team motivation in theimplementation.2. Shared decisions will be more easily understood by the team than if onlyrely on the decision of one person only B. Teamwork Benefits and Functions Working in the form of teams has the function of, among others, can changeattitudes, behaviors and personal values ??and can participate in discipliningteam members.
In addition, working on teams can be used for decision making,negotiating: 1. Benefits of Working in a Teama) For Team Organizations(1) Increasing work productivity.(2) Improving the quality of work.
(3) Improve work mentality.(4) Improve organizational progress. b) For Team Members(1) Responsibility for work is shared.
(2) As a medium of self-actualization.(3) Stress or workload is reduced. 2. Purpose of Working in a Teama) Unity of PurposeEach team member has the same vision, mission and work program.
b) EfficiencyEach team member completes a task or job quickly, meticulously andappropriately without waste and carelessness.c) EffectiveEach team member has clear goals, has adequate skills, is committed,trusts, has good communication, has the ability to negotiate, and has the rightability. C. Teamwork TypeAccording to Daft (2000) the type of teamwork consists of six types,namely:1. Formal TeamThe formal team is a team formed by the organization as part of a formalorganizational structure.
2. Vertical TeamThe vertical team is a formal team consisting of a manager and a few of hissubordinates in the formal organization chain of command.3. Horizontal TeamThe horizontal team is a formal team consisting of several employees fromalmost the same level of hierarchy but from different areas of expertise.4. Team with Special TasksA team with a special task is a team formed outside of formal organizationto handle a project with special interests or creativity.5.
Independent Team Independent Teami is a team of five to twenty workers with varying skillsundergoing job rotation to produce a complete product or service, and itsexecution overseen by an elected member.6. Troubleshooting TeamProblem-solving teams usually consist of five to twelve hourly employeesfrom the same department, where they meet to discuss how to improve thequality, efficiency, and work environment.
C. Team WorkEffectiveness Model The effectivenessof the work team is based on two productive outcomes and personal satisfaction.Satisfaction with respect to the team’s ability to meet the personal needs ofits members and then maintain their membership and commitment. Productiveoutcomes relate to the quality and quantity of work as defined by the goals ofthe team. Factors affecting team effectiveness are organizational context,structure, strategy, cultural environment, and reward system. The importantteam characters are team type, structure, and composition. The characteristicsof this team affect the team’s internal processes, which then affect resultsand satisfaction. Leaders must understand and manage levels of development,cohesiveness, norms, and conflicts in order to build effective teams.
Here arethe characteristics of an effective team: 1. The samepurposeIf allmembers of the team are rowing in the same direction, then the rowing vesselwill be faster to the destination, than if there are members of the team rowingin different directions, opposite, or not growing at all due to confusion inwhich direction to row. So make sure that the team has a goal and all your teammembers know exactly what goals they want to achieve together, so they are surewhich direction to row. 2. High enthusiasm Rowerswill row faster if they have high enthusiasm. High enthusiasm can be generatedif working conditions are also fun: team members are not afraid to expresstheir opinions, they are also given the opportunity to show their skills bybeing themselves, so that their contribution can also be optimal. 3. Clearroles and responsibilities Ifeveryone wants to be a leader, then no one will be rowing.
Conversely, if allwant to be a rower, there will be chaos because no one gives command to thesame time and rowing direction. Essentially, each team member must have clearroles and responsibilities. The goal is to let them know what contribution theycan provide to support the achievement of a predetermined shared goal. 4. Effectivecommunication Inthe process of achieving goals, there must be effective communication betweenteam members. The strategy: Do not assume. That is, if you are not sure allteam members know what should be a top priority to complete, do not assume, askthem directly and provide the information they need.
If you are not sure thateach team member knows how to do or accomplish a task, do not assume they know,but inform or point to them how to do it. Communications also need to be done periodicallyfor monitoring purposes (eg: how far the task has been completed) andcorrecting (eg, if there are errors that need to be fixed in completing theassigned task). 5.
ConflictResolutionIn achievingthe goal there may be conflicts to be faced. But this conflict should not bethe source of team destruction. Conversely, this well-managed conflict can be apowerful weapon to see one problem from different aspects so that new ways, newinnovations, or changes that are necessary to move faster toward the goal. Incase of conflict, do not ignore or avoid. Conflict that is not handled directlywill be like a cancer that undermines the team spirit. So, the existingconflict needs to be controlled. 6.
Sharedpower Ifthere are overly dominant team members, so that everything is done on theirown, or vice versa, if there are too many unemployed team members, then theremust be irregularities in the team that will eventually make the teamineffective. Thus, each member of the team needs to be given the opportunity tobecome a “leader”, showing “his power” in the areas oftheir respective expertise and responsibilities. So they feel responsible forthe success of achieving common goals. 7. ExpertiseImagine achoir with members having just one kind of voice: soprano only, tenor only,alto course, or bass only. Of course the resulting sound will be monotonous.
Compare with the choir that has members with different types of sounds(soprano, alto, tenor and bass). The resulting chorus will surely be moreharmonious. Similarly,the work team. A team of members with a variety of mutually supportive skillswill more easily work together to achieve goals. These different skills cansupport each other so that the work becomes easier and faster to complete. Teammembers with different skills can also expand each other’s perspective andenrich their respective appreciation skills. Each member who has successfullydone what he or she is responsible for, or has made a positive contribution to theteam’s profits, deserves appreciation. Of course the appreciation given withsincerity will feel more impact.
Appreciation can increase the spirit of theteam members concerned to continue to excel. Appreciation should not be givenin the form of money. “I really appreciate your sincerity helpingcustomers choose our most appropriate product for him,” is a simple formof appreciation of sincere words. Many other forms of appreciation can begiven, for example: promotions, bonuses in various forms (family tours usingtransportation facilities and corporate villas, scholarships for children).Positive attitudes and thoughts.
By using sunglasses, the world you see will bemore dim. By using green glasses, the world also looks green. Similarly with”glasses” attitude and positive thoughts, the world around you willlook positive. The difficulty will seem easier to overcome, because difficultyis not a problem to be avoided, but a challenge that must be addressed.Positive attitudes and thoughts are the primary capital of a team. 8.EvaluationHow can ateam know how close they are to a goal, if they do not take a moment to do anevaluation? Evaluations made periodically during the process of achieving thegoal is still ongoing can help detect early deviations that occur, so that itcan be repaired immediately. Evaluation can also be done not just forcorrection, but to find a better way.
Evaluations can be done in various ways:observation, customer research, employee research, interviews, self-evaluation,evaluation of incoming customer complaints, or simply opinion polls atmeetings. D. The Roleof the Working Team The role ofthe team in general is to use their unique abilities and skills that are freefrom academic learning (eg, coordination, creativity, communicative ability).The nine teams that must be fulfilled are:1.Creator-innovator (creator-innovator)People whohave a high imagination both in initiating ideas or concepts, with independentcharacteristics, self-employed, way and work style apart, timing according totheir own taste.2. Explorers(Explorer-promoter)People inthis group love to take new ideas and fight for cases, find resources topromote their ideas.
The weaknesses of people in this group: not always patientin controlling skills to ensure ideas are acted upon in detail.3.Appraiser-developer (assessor-developer)Individualsin this group have strong analytical skills, best if they are given theopportunity to evaluate and analyze before a decision is made.4.
Thrust-organizer (Thruster-organizer)Individualsin this group like to devise operating procedures to turn ideas into realityand resolve affairs, they set goals, enforce plans, organize people, andenforce systems to ensure compliance with deadlines.5.Concluder-producerIndividualsin this group are concerned about outcomes, their role focuses on timelines andensures that all commitments are acted upon. They are proud of the output on aregular basis and according to standards.6.Inspectors (controller-inspector)Individualsin this group take great care of enforcement and care for enforcement andstrengthen rules and procedures. They test the details and make sure to avoidthe inaccuracy, they check all the facts and numbers, they want everythingcomplete and perfect.7.
Theupholder-maintainersReinforcement-keepersare important, because they give the team the ability. they will defend andfight for the sake of the team against outsiders.8.Reporter-adviser (reporter-adviser)Individualsin this group listen well, and tend not to emphasize their point of view toothers.
They tend to get information before making a decision.9. LinkerThis roleoverlaps with others, this role can be played by previous roles.
Scouts try tounderstand all views, they as coordinators and integrators, they do not likeextremists, they try to foster cooperation among all team members, they combineteam members’ contributions and activities even though there may bedifferences. E. StageTeamwork DevelopmentThere arefour stages of team development:1.UndevelopmentThisundevelopment stage is the stage most often found in an organization.
Onefeature of this stage is:a) Seen agroup of people do a task but they do not agree on how they should work.Examples include meetings or more frequent queues of ideas rather thandiscussions. Real ideas are constructive, they do not say. They are afraid thatthe ‘idea’ will upset the balance of the organization.b) Does notinvolve individual feelings because it is considered inappropriate to talkabout other people’s feelings openly. An example is that everyone is busy withtheir respective duties and bosses who make almost any decision. So the wheelof the organization rolls according to the rules and procedures of hissuperiors. Keep in mind here that many ineffective teams show the abovecharacteristics, and usually occur if the boss has the wisdom, energy and timeto make all decisions.
This is not a true group collaboration, because in thisway the strength that is in the team is not utilized so that it is more focusedon the leader. 2.ExperimentingThis stagebegins when the team is seriously starting to review the operational methodsthat have been in effect so far. In the Experimenting phase, the team iswilling to experiment and test. They dare to face various possibilities byentering the unknown. At thisstage of development, issues are addressed and discussed more openly andconsider the broader possibilities before making a decision. For example, apersonal matter is openly discussed, the feelings of the individual beingconsidered and resolved thoroughly.At thisstage even though the team has become more open and has the potential to bemore effective, it is still lacking to be called an effective team thatgenerates profit.
3.ConsolidatingAftersuccessfully solving interpersonal problems in stage 2, the team begins to haveconfidence, openness and trust to try how it works. Usually the team will choosehow to work more systematic or bermetode. Rigid rules and work are changed withnewly agreed rules, where each member has a role to achieve. Whileinterpersonal relationships have become more intimate, they are aware of theimportance of the basic rules and workings that the team will use.
The concreteevidence of this stage is the way to reach a decision, that is, the clarity ofthe objectives of the activity or task, the goal setting, the collection ofrequired information, the willingness to think about the possibilities of theteam, the detailed planning of what to do, return the work and use it as abasis for improving the workings in the future. Better interpersonalrelationships at stage 2 are maintained, but they establish the ground rulesand workings that the team will use. 4.
MatureAfterknowing the explanation from stage 3, then compiled the basis for the formationof a mature team. Openness, caring and enhancing personal relationships atstage 2 and the systematic approach of stage 3 are the basic capital for atruly mature team.Flexibilitybecomes the main thing, because every need has a different working procedure.
Someone is no longer worried about maintaining their position. The teamrecognizes the type of leadership needed to trust each other, be honest, openand leaders recognize the need to involve members.Mutualtrust, openness, honesty, cooperation and confrontation as well as periodicreview of the work, become a team lifestyle.
The team will always be willing tohelp other teams who have difficulty or who have not reached their stage. Butmore than that, this team is a fun and rewarding place. DimensionsIn Working TeamMichael Westexplains, there are two dimensions of the function of the team, the task thatmust be carried by the team and social factors that affect how its members feelthe team as a social unit. The task that must be carried by the team is to runall service programs in accordance with good organizational rules, where inevery work task there is always a goal, strategy, implementation, monitoringand evaluation. All will be effective if done in a work team. But the work teamis a social unit that affects teamwork. In other words, within the team thereis a unique and compact social interaction.
The teamconsists of a collection of individuals who have different emotional, social,and various human needs, which makes the team as a whole can be helpful or evenfrustrating. This is because the team not only gather and run the task of theorganization, but there is an important and need to get attention, namely thesocial relationships in their togetherness as a work team. An intimate and openinterpersonal relationship to work with one heart, one mind and one will, willhelp the team work effectively.
Four effective team dimensions: 1. PersonalDimensionsa. Effectiveteams have a deep commitment with each other.
b. All teamsshare the anthusiasm.c. Everyonelongs to contribute to achieve a common goal. 2.
Relational Dimensiona. Effectiveteams communicate openly and honestly.b. Theycollaborate with the willingness to complement each other in order to achievecommon goals.
c. Theymanage the conflict wisely. 3. StrategicDimensiona. Effectiveteams focus on the vision that is the driving force to move forward together.b. Theyagree and follow clear goals.
4. ProcessDimensionsa. Effectiveteams are open to change.b. They havea strong awareness of the interconnectedness of all team members. A.ConclusionThe functionof the team is to change attitudes, behaviors, and personal values ??and canparticipate in disciplining team members.
While the benefits of working in ateam that is to decision-making, negotiate, and negotiate. The purpose ofworking in teams so that members have the same vision and mission in completingtasks or jobs efficiently and effectively. The difference between the group andthe work team is that the group does not produce positive synergy that createsa whole level of performance that is higher than the input amount while thework team generates positive synergy through coordinated efforts in producing ahigher level of performance than the number of individual inputs. Effectiveteams have a wide range of general characteristics. When organizationalperformance improves by team, management must ensure that its teams havecharacteristics. In the Working Team must have Nine roles that is1.
Reporter-Advisor9. Linker MichaelWest explains, there are two dimensions of the function of the team, the taskthat must be carried by the team and social factors that affect how its membersfeel the team as a social unit.