I. INTRODUCTIONForecastingtoday’s scenario, a patient has to carry all his medical reports to doctorsunknowing of the doctor’s specialization fields. This may lead to wrongtreatments. This may also be caused due to uncertified doctors. Necessity ofrelationship between patient and health care professionals (doctor or nurse)and Doctors can’t be in the room with each patient all time even in fullystaffed hospital. Modern technologies have enabled the calculating electricalactivity of the heart, respiration rate, blood pressure, body temperature etc.
”E-healthis an emerging field in the intersection of medical informatics, public healthand business, referring to health services and information delivered orenhanced through the Internet and related technologies. In a broader sense, theterm characterizes not only atechnicaldevelopment, but also a state-of-mind, a way of thinking, an attitude, and acommitment for networked, global thinking, to improve health care locally,regionally, and worldwide by using information and communication technology.”7 Fromthe definitions stated on e-health, it includes aspects of telemedicine and notactually involve remoteness. In an article ‘E-health prospects’, Joseph Tanexpresses that because of transition and transformation of traditional ICTapplications to wireless platform resulted in emergence of Mobile Health(m-health) and is considered natural development.6 M-health is the application ofmobile computing, wireless communications and network technologies to deliver orenhance diverse healthcare services and functions in which the patient has afreedom to be mobile, perhaps within a limited area. 8 Typicalm-Health applications are automated patient alerts, e-prescriptions and mobilepatient monitoring and tracking.5 Mobilepatient monitoring is the continuous or periodic measurement and analysis of amobile patient’s biosignals from a distance by employing mobile computing,wireless communications and networking technologies.4 II.
LITERATURE SURVEYAvery large number of Mobile patient monitoring system has been proposed. Fromthose proposals, few systems’ architecture is explained on the basis oftechnologies used such as wireless communication technologies, practicaltrials, incorporating modern wearable technologies. Based on selectedconditions proposed project works are1) PersonalizedHealth Monitoring (PHM) system developed bythe Universityof Technology Sydney22) MobiHealthpatient monitoring system developed as a partof theMobiHealth project (supported by Commission ofthe EuropeanUnion in the frame of the 5th research Frameworkunder projectnumber IST-2001-36006) and subsequent projects3) Cloud-basedMobile Application such as Vivify, Independa caregiver etc 1) PersonalizedHealth Monitoring System (PHM) ThePersonal Health Monitor (PHM) system 2 is designed for patients who have a suspected cardiovasculardisease and need to be monitored around the clock. The PHM system proposes useof off-the-shelf sensor systems which incorporate a built-in sensorfront end.
This approach allows a PHM system user to use their ownmobile phone running Microsoft Windows and to buy or rent the required sensors.The patient downloads the PHM application onto the mobile phone and uses itlike any other mobile application. The architecture of PHMsystem is shown in Fig. 6. Table 4 describes the PHM system according to our comparison framework.
Accordingto the article 21 the PHM trial demonstrated thatthe system is easy to use and, in the majority of cases,biosignals received by the cardiologists were of sufficient quality to make a properassessment. Another feature of the PHM system is that the healthcareprofessional can select one or more sensors to be used for a particular patientfor providing personalized monitoring and treatment. The PHM trials highlightedthe need for personalized feedback. Findings were, for example, that somepatientsdid not like to interact much with the application as they foundit stressful. Some elderly patients living alone reported that they would haveliked to have audio reminders and warnings. Further feasibility study of the use of PHM system for anoninvasive Cardiac Rhythm Management (CRM) System is reported in 26.Accordingly, to date, this system has been applied on 70 low risk heartpatients and the preliminary results show the commercial potential of thissystem for identifying and diagnosing arrhythmia abnormalities. The results ofthis study 26 are used to identify potential applications of the PHM system inthe following areas: cardiac rehabilitation, community healthcare, monitoringof lifestyle changes and athletic performance.
2) MH Mobile Patient Monitoring SystemThe main motivation behind the development of the MobiHealth (MH)system, first developed during the MobiHealth project, was that of providingubiquitous medical care by means of mobile monitoring using Body Area Networksand wireless technology. MobiHealth was the first project to apply Body AreaNetwork Technology for patient monitoring applications, hence was theoriginator of the concept of Health BAN 1,17,18.The system was further developed in various European and Dutch projects 27,28.Instead of focusing on patients with one particular healthcondition, MH focused on developing a generic BAN which can be specialized forany particular type of telemonitoring or teletreatment application byintegrating a specific set of sensors and other devicestogether with the appropriate application functionality. During theMobiHealth project the generic BAN was specialized for different conditionsincluding high-risk pregnancies, trauma, cardio-vascular disease and COPD 29.The original MH BAN was implemented using both wired (front-end supported)sensors from TMSI and wireless (self-supporting) sensors from EISlab 30. Inboth cases Bluetooth was used for intra-BAN communication 18. Thearchitecture of the MH system is shown in Fig.
9. Table7 shows the features of the MH system according to the comparison framework.The MobiHealth project trials reported positive experience working with thehealthcare organizations and clinicians. However, in the initial version of MHsystem, technical failures (such as system instability), sub-optimal interfacedesign and a difficult (re)start sequence caused irritation and confusion tousers.
Preliminary trials showed the feasibility of using the system, however anumber of problems were encountered. For example, ambulatory patient monitoringwas more successful for some biosignals than others, because in some casesmeasurements were severely disrupted by movement artefacts 17.The limited bandwidth provided by 2.5G wireless wide area network (WWAN)technologies (GPRS) was not sufficient for the applications which requiredmonitoring many simultaneous signals per user. Where 3G (UMTS) was availablethe MobiHealth trials did not suffer from this restriction. A later project,AWARENESS 31, implemented an epilepsy seizure detection application where,when available bandwidth is low, an analysis algorithm runs locally on the BANand only alarms are sent to the health professional.
However, if sufficientbandwidth is available, the biosignals are transmitted to the back-end for processing by a more sophisticated detectionalgorithm 28. Results from the Myotel project 32 indicatedthat continuous local biofeedbackenabled chronic pain patients to adapt their behaviour rapidly and results inlong lasting treatment effects. Adding a teletreatment dimension with feedbackfrom the remote therapist was shown to further improve clinical outcomesrelated to pain and disability 3) Cloud-Based Mobile Application (Vivify)Vivify10 provides cloud-based applications thatpatients can usd from home to access their care plan and keep track of theirvital signs. The data is transmitted to physicians, who can access it on mobiledevices, computers and Internet-connected television. The software includesmedical coaching, customized care plans, video conferencing with physicians andeducational videos.
The platform is interoperable with EMRs, PHRs and HIEs. Thechallenge Vivify and providers will have with many of these patient-data toolsis getting people to use them consistently.9 III. PROPOSED WORKThis project comes up with idea of smart virtual hospitalsystem.
This includes creating unique accounts for individuals and doctors,wherein each individual’s medical reports are uploaded which are accessible bythe individual and doctor. This system connects with a fit bit in individualwrist. Through the accessible data personal doctors can frequently monitorpulse rate and condition of the patient. If patient undergoes any physicalcheckups, the files obtained are uploaded to individual’s account. This allowsnotifying patients on regular checkups. In case of emergencies (such asfainting and reduction in pulse rate before reaching critical level, personaldoctor, nearby general doctor and three other caretakers (or Guardians) of theindividual are made an immediate alert message stating condition and location(latitude and longitude) of the patient.
Any of the people notified (especiallynearby General Doctor) sends ambulance to the location concerned. This projectalso deals with the exception of doctor being an individual (patient). Signuppage request for Aadhar number which allows the account linked with Aadhar cardand Doctor’s Certification which include doctor’s official id (if any).Thismakes people to make trustworthy connection with Certified Doctors. This aidspatients with serious disorders with recommendations of Best Doctors acrossnation.
Future updations may include Hospital authority to create a local groupof doctors of unique specialization fields.IV. REFERENCES1 Images from shutterstock images2 GayV, Leijdekkers P. A health monitoring system using smart phones and wearablesensors. IJARM 2007;8(2):29–36 3Jones V, Gay V, Leijdekkers P. Body sensor networks for mobile health monitoring:experience in Europe and Australia.
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E-Healthcare information systems: an introduction for students andprofessionals. Jossey-Boss; 2005. ISBN 13 978-0-7879-6618-8 6 Tan J. E-health prospects: mobile health,virtual reality and consumer driven ehealth systems. In: E-healthcareinformation systems: an introduction for students and professionals.Jossey-Boss; 2005. p.
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What is e-health? J Med InternetRes 2001;3(2) June 18. 8Istepanian RSH, Pattichis CS, Laxminarayan S. Ubiquitous M-health systems andthe covergence towards 4G mobile technologies. In: M-health: emerging mobilehealth systems. Springer; December 2005. p. 3–14 9https://www.informationweek.com/mobile/remote-patient-monitoring-9-promising-technologies/d/d-id/1110968?page_number=5 10 https://www.vivifyhealth.com/