In by Richi (2015) and it was also

In this report morbidity and mortality will be
discussed in relation to obesity. The principles of the Ottawa charter will
also be used to recommend a solution to obesity when it is caused by poor
nutrition. They include: building a healthy public policy, creating supportive environments,
reorienting health services, developing personal skills and strengthening
community action. (, 2018)

Table of Contents

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introduction. 1
morbidity. 1
mortality. 2
1. building a healthy public policy. 2
2. creating supportive environments. 3
reorienting health services. 3
4. developing personal skills. 3
5. strengthening community action. 4
conclusion. 4
refferences. 4


Morbidity refers the negative health impacts caused, in this case, by
obesity . Therefore the prevalence of obesity leads to morbidity. Baidal(2016)
describes the first 1000 days of life from conception to 2 years of age to be
the time that develops childhood obesity and its results. This finding shows
how early childhood obesity carries on through life and leads to detrimental
impacts. “In 2011-2014 For children and adolescents aged 2-19 years: the prevalence of obesity
has remained fairly stable at about 17% and affects about 12.7 million children
and adolescents.” (Centers for disease control and
prevention ,2017) This figure illustrates the high prevalence of childhood
obesity and according to Obama (2010) it leads to low self-esteem and mental
illnesses such as depression and binge eating which in turn causes adverse
effects. In adults, obesity caused type 2 diabetes, heart disease, arthritis
and some cancers according to that memorandum issued by Obama. Poor nutrition
which included red meat in the diet caused risks like colorectal cancer,
diabetes and cardiovascular disease. This was found through studies by Richi (2015)
and it was also thought that red meat had a higher amount of iron than white
meat. We can deduce that this may be a reason for the morbidity of obesity
contracted through poor nutrition and specifically through high red meat
consumption. Therefore, a balanced vegetarian diet may be recommended.


Mortality refers the likelihood of, in this case
obesity, causing death. The diseases discussed above that were caused by poor
nutrition and in turn obesity may cause death. BMI of above 30 kg/m2 is an
indicator of obesity, and, the Public Health England(2016) found that “moderate obesity (BMI 30-35
kg/m2) was found to reduce life expectancy by an average of three years, while
morbid obesity (BMI 40-50 kg/ kg/m2) reduces life expectancy by 8-10 years.”
This statistic gives an indication that an increase of obesity as the BMI
increases, in turn increases mortality and reduces lifespan. Richi (2015) found
a similar correlation and found that red meat and processed food increased
death risk in obese people. It is evident from these studies that poor
nutrition in the form of over eating that causes obesity and increased intake
of red and processed meat increase mortality so the reverse must happen in
order to reduce the mortality.

1. building a
healthy public policy

The Ottawa
charter (,2018) has devised five principles in order to tackle public
health called the ‘Public Health Policy’. The first of which is building a
healthy public policy. The focus in building a policy is prevention rather than
treatment through “government policies (e.g., food subsidies)
and private-sector practices (e.g., fast-food marketing).” Lamb (2016) Also mentioned
is the goal of the WHO to end childhood obesity especially in the first 1000
days which are essential times for prevention using public policies. While the Irish
government has done little in this area the UK government has placed some
policies which include: “National child measurement programme, £5 million investment for new
obesity policy research, folic acid: updated SACN recommendations and the
eatwell guide,” (2016). The UK government has
implemented policies to prevent obesity and guide people. Also, a partnership between
the policy makers and the food sector for it to be an encompassing influence on
the obese population. Some suggestions could include: tax, less advertising and
a shift of the food industry to more nutritional food rather than fatty, sugary
and high calorie containing foods.

2. creating
supportive environments

Creating supportive environment s is also another
aspect of the Ottawa charter. “Americans now consume more fast-food
and sugar-sweetened beverages, eat outside the home more and spend less time
enjoying family meals In addition, prepared and processed food is easily
accessible and inexpensive.” Obama(2010) This showcases that the environment requires a change and, there
needs to be a shift in the food sectors, what types of advertising they put out
into the environment and to create a different vision of food. To a certain degree
this can be seen today where there is a slight change in the popularity of fast
food and the minor introduction of the more nutritious health conscious
consumer however the latter tends to be more expensive and harder to acquire. The
Department of Health(2012),  has taken
account of the need to change the Irish environment where alcohol with its high
caloric value has been placed on the newly constructed food pyramid. Other ways
to change the environment could be to change supermarket placement of unhealthy addictive sugary foods in
certain areas of the shop, change the types amounts and times we eat food in
order to reduce it and to replace food in celebration or other social contexts.

3.  reorienting health services

In an effort to
reorient health services Harris (2012), looked into dentists and dental staff
advising on patients’ diets based on the fact that high sugary diets cause
dental decay. In their studies where they advised on alcohol and, fruit and vegetables
in their diet. In each study, the advice was taken. This showed in the dental
setting that changing the health services can improve the public health and so
this issue of poor nutrition and obesity can be tackles from a multitude of

4. developing
personal skills

In terms of
developing personal skills there are an array of elements that can improve your
nutrition and obliterate obesity. There are a few skills that are evident when
trying to keep your weight down and have a low-calorie diet. Some suggestions
from the NHS Choices (2014) include not eating smaller portions of food,
cutting down on the amount of fast food and eating out and, restricting foods
like sugary drinks and alcohol. There is also a need to tackle comfort eating
habits which stem from mental illness and low self-esteem. In addition to this,
bad eating habits can be taught in early life that should be changed.  Overall, knowing how to control your diet and
keep it balanced with all required nutrients is key.

5. strengthening
community action

When talking about community action, things like making healthy food
available in schools, making it easier to physically go to a grocery shop,
making prices affordable, for a range of healthy foods available and resources
available for the public for nutritional information according to Obama (2010).
These are all things the community can do in order to support people into nutritious
lifestyles and diets as the community is a great influence.


In conclusion, morbidity and mortality are linked
to obesity and poor nutrition and the principles of the Ottawa charter are a
great tool to combat this


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