In issuance of import and export permits or

In addition, it isrequired by CITES member to have at least one Management Authority (MA) that regulatestrade permits and a Scientific Authority (SA) to aid or recommend on the effectof trade on species survival.

1 INTESA certainly providesfor the designation of national Management and Scientific Authority which stipulatestheir competency and capability. As the Lead MA, the Ministry of NaturalResources and Environment coordinate the operation and enforcement of INTESA, providescommunication or connects with CITES Secretariat or other countries on related subjectmatters as to ensure that Malaysia complies with it. There are many authoritieswith portfolios that are in connection to wildlife that have been design. The ManagementAuthority are carrying the load for the issuance of import and export permitsor certificates and also the handling of various registrations under INTESA.The other functions on maintaining records of international trade in scheduledspecies and submitting reports on such trade are held to the Lead ManagementAuthority in establishing the Rescue Centres and informing the status ofwildlife trade offences. In executing their functions, the Management Authoritymay consult and seek the advice of the Scientific Authority. Further, membersof CITES are not only required to forbidden trade that are in contradictionwith the convention but also to enforce the national implementing law.

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In Malaysia,the enforcement is specified to the Management Authority. The selection of theauthority as enforcement authorities has its own advantages. This is saidbecause they are under the obligation to be responsible for wildlife managementin general and hence, are aware of their key priority. Their officers have higherlevel of knowledge and awareness on wildlife and conservation, as a result oftheir specific responsibilities.2 Singapore has agreed toCITES and started enforcing it.

Singapore was assessed by CITES and thisimplies that it has legislation that basically meets the necessary particulars foreffective implementation of CITES. The CITES management, scientific andenforcement authority of Singapore is the same government agency, Agri-Food andVeterinary Authority of Singapore (AVA). AVA maintains contact with the Marineand Land Products Association, which is a shark traders’ association based inSingapore. It relates on the subject of CITES and distributes hand-outs toseafood traders and declaring authorities to make them aware of the currentagenda or list of new CITES of sharks and rays and therefore to adhere with therequirements. In Singapore, adherence to CITES is regulated under theEndangered Species (Import and Export) Act, whereby it requires a permit fromthe AVA for the import, export, re-export or introduction from the sea of allCITES listed species.3 1Willem Wijnstekers (2011, 9thEd). The Evolution of CITES.

Retrieved January 30, 2018, fromhttps://cites.org/sites/default/files/common/resources/Evolution_of_CITES_9.pdf2Jayasilan Mohd-Azlan (January 2014)Wildlife Conservation Legislations in Malaysia: Sustainable Livelihood, PrudentUtilization, Management of Natural. Retrieved January 30, 2018, fromfile:///C:/Users/User/Downloads/MohdAzlan2014WildlifeconservationlegislationsinMalaysia.pdf3Boon Pei Ya (May 2017).

The Shark andRay Trade in Singapore. Retrieved January 30, 2018, fromhttp://www.trafficj.org/publication/17_The_Shark_and_Ray_Trade_in_Singapore.pdf