In unrest. Charters, Conventions and Declarations have been

In Africa, one of the major conflicts that
causes unrest is election. Theoretically and in a general sense, a change of
government ought to be conducted through the ballot boxes by means of free and
fair election and not through violence and political unrest.  Charters,
Conventions and Declarations have been adopted to ensure the conduct of free and
fair elections in Africa. For instance, The Declaration on the Principles
Governing Democratic Election in Africa, which was adopted in July 2002, is
evident that African leaders have sought to support the change of government in
Africa through constitutional means.1
However, African leaders are still persistent when it comes to relinquishing power,
which has resulted to series of unrest causing destruction and loss of lives in
many African countries.  African leaders
have as a result of their persistence to not leave power resorted to manipulate
independent electoral bodies to rig election results or risk losing their jobs
or in the worse case scenario, their lives.

 

Recent elections have exposed the weakness of
African institutions to uphold the democracy of our countries and sovereign
will of the people. Elections in countries like Kenya, Nigeria and Zimbabwe have
showed that electoral institutions are vested with immense power and failure to
exercise those powers constitutionally could lead to civil and political unrest
of the masses.2  

1 Declaration on the Principles Governing Democratic
Election in Africa, 2002. Available at : https://www.eisa.org.za/pdf/au2002declaration.pdf. accessed 21
December 2017. 

2 The Washington
Post, ‘Why Do Some Elections In Africa Turn Violent’ (2017)  Available at: https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/monkey-cage/wp/2017/11/22/why-do-some-elections-in-africa-turn-violent/?utm_term=.4d24120ad374  accessed 27 December 2017.