Independant Auditors Reports On Financial Statements Accounting Essay

The term ‘independence ‘ is important to the credibleness of the hearer ‘s studies on fiscal statements. The hearer magnifies the value and practicableness of these studies. Creditors and investors would non trust on the studies if the hearers were non independent in both fact and visual aspect. Many International Standards for Accounting and precautions have been adopted by different states but independency has ever been regarded as one of the steering rules of the audit profession. Independence, both historically and philosophically, is the foundation of the public accounting profession and upon its care depends the profession ‘s strength and stature.[ 1 ]John L. Carey described independency as a province of head and a affair of character.[ 2 ]The Generally Accepted Accounting Principles ( GAAP ) province that the sentiment provided by the hearer on the audit should be an nonsubjective 1, where there is no prejudice and must be presented in a just mode.

The external hearer plays a important function in the corporate administration map. They are public accounting house employees brought in under contract to reexamine the accounting and fiscal books of the company ( audit client ) . Jill Solomon respects external audit map as one of the basiss of corporate administration.[ 3 ]It represents one of the most indispensable corporate administration cheques and balances that help to supervise company direction ‘s activities, thereby increasing transparence. The function is to supply an indifferent and independent rating of all the fiscal records.

The external hearer is responsible to the general public sing the truth of the information presented in the fiscal statements. This information provided is relied upon by the populace at big ; therefore it is imperative that the houses are independent, nonsubjective and free from influence.

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Chapter 2: Hearer Independence

The importance of accounting is best seen from the position of the “ profession ” that is given to the occupation of scrutinizing instead than terming it as an employment or service.[ 4 ]Audit is a procedure of guaranting equity of the fiscal statements and their conformance with the legal demands in conformity with the by and large recognized rules. Audit, can therefore be defined as, ‘an independent scrutiny of statements, prepared by another qualified comptroller by agencies and to the extent determined by the hearer of a company ‘s fiscal statements for the intent of his rendering an sentiment on them ‘ .[ 5 ]Therefore, what emerges as the most of import feature, which may besides be termed as the cardinal making of an hearer is his independency.

Harmonizing to Association of Chartered Certified Accountants ( ACCA ) Code of Ethics objectiveness or independency is indispensable for the exercising of professional opinion. The assignment of quality hearers serves as an confidence to the investors that the companies ‘ fiscal revelations would be accurate and true. The confidence is believable because the hearers, with their repute at interest, will closely size up their client ‘s books and truthfully unwrap their findings.[ 6 ]The audit map is one of the most vulnerable countries, urging pressing attending to better the effectivity ( Solomon, 2009 ) . This map helps the stockholders in their monitoring and control of the company direction. The failure would ensue in the ruin of the company.

The Cadbury Report clearly emphasizes that the hearer ‘s function is non to fix the fiscal statements, nor to supply a warrant that the company will go on as a traveling concern, but the hearers have to province in the one-year study that the fiscal statements show ‘a ‘ true and just position instead than ‘the ‘ true and just position.[ 7 ]The chief ground for the hearer independency being compromised is close and cozy relationships between the hearers and the company direction. Such relationships with the clients may impact the fiscal statements they are scrutinizing. A balance has to be attained by them. This is a hard way to step and one that is clearly bedecked with obstructions.

External hearers are independent service suppliers whose impact can act upon the organisation that is being audited. As foreigners, they play an of import function in developing internal control. They comment on the failings in the accounting records, systems and controls that they review. They provide a statistical lucidity and effectivity of the accounting policies. Their chief function is to advice the company direction through recommendations in their audit notes or treatments. Each of these sentiments is critical for an organisation.

There are two chief issues in hearer independency.


A job raised in the Cadbury Report is sing the independency and effectivity of the audit map that involves multiple services offered by hearers to their clients. It is controversial whether the proviso of non-audit services ( NAS ) by hearers impairs hearer independency, or is alternatively economically efficient ( because of benefits from cognition spillovers, decrease of hunt costs, or extenuation of undertaking clashs ) .[ 8 ]The range of non-audit services has been a topic of intense policy arguments. The chief statement is that the proviso of ( NAS ) could endanger auditor independency because it creates economic inducements for the hearer to continue the auditor-client relationship ( Simunic, 1984 ; Beck et al. , 1988 ) . The Smith Report ( 2003 ) stated that: “ aˆ¦we do non believe it would be right to seek to enforce specific instructions on the hearer ‘s supply of non-audit services through the vehicle of Code counsel. We are doubting of a normative attack, since we believe that there are no distinct, cosmopolitan answersaˆ¦there may be echt benefits to efficiency and effectivity from hearers making non-audit work ” .[ 9 ]The Smith recommendations seem to go through the vaulting horse on to the audit commission.

Due to the competitory nature of concern, there is a turning demand for advice provided by specializers in order to assist them, achieve maximal growing and net incomes. Hearers, as specializers fulfil this function to a great extent. They understand the changing kineticss of the concern universe. Their independent position on affairs related is important for the development of the companies they audit. Many professional member organisations like the Institute of Chartered Accountants in England and Wales ( ICAEW ) clearly province that the failure of a company is more or less related to the quality of audit provided. The Institute perceives proviso of non-audit services as a possible menace to the independency of the auditing house. The Institute has come up with a Code of Ethics to guarantee that hearers provide highest criterions of concern and protect public involvement. The commissariats of the ( Combined Code 1998 ) besides take into history the extent to which non-audit services are being provided by houses. It ‘s the responsibility of the audit commission to move as representatives of the stockholders. As representatives, they need to maintain a cheque to guarantee that hearer independency is non impaired. The stockholders should be free to measure the extent of non-audit services provided. The UK Companies Act, 2006 has clip and once more required the entire sum of non-audit fees paid to the hearers to be disclosed. Such revelation pushes the independency of the hearer to the head. Accurate systems of cheques and balances have to be maintained to guarantee that hearer ‘s execute their undertakings without any force per unit area.

The honored U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission ( SEC ) after the Enron dirt has increasingly tightened ordinances related to the non-audit services.[ 10 ]The standardisation and tuning of the SEC would be farther discussed in the following chapter by conveying to illume the Enron episode which changed the universe ‘s position towards the audit profession. One more reform which was the immediate response to Enron was the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, 2002. Section 201 of the Act, clearly states that to be considered independent, a registered public accounting house that audits a public company ‘s fiscal statements would non be permitted to supply, any of the non-audit services listed in the subdivision or any other service the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board ( PCAOB ) determines by ordinance to be impermissible. The PCAOB is a non-profit organisation constituted by the Congress in order to supervise the audits of public companies and protect the involvements of the investors and foster the public involvement at big. Some illustrations of these prohibited services include fiscal information systems design and execution ; actuarial services ; legal services and adept services unrelated to the audit ; direction maps or human resources ; internal audit outsourcing services.

On the other manus presents scrutinizing companies along with audit services besides offer consultancy and IT services. Therefore there has been a rapid alteration in the nature of services offered. It is hard to make up one’s mind whether supplying non-audit services would impair the house ‘s independency but equal precautions need to be implemented by the companies themselves. If they are determined on utilizing the hearers for non-audit services, it should be in conformity with the professional guidelines.

In the writer ‘s sentiment, audit houses should n’t travel beyond supplying audit services. First, scrutinizing, itself is a hard undertaking. Along with makings, hearers need to possess a concern understanding attack. The quality of the audit is more of import to the client. They should give important clip and resources to the audit studies instead than worrying about non-audit services. They should construct up on their proficient accomplishments which would assist better the coverage. They should concentrate on the occupation at manus. They should come up with advanced thoughts and programs to pull audit clients. Within the audit houses, there needs to be an internal review procedure to do certain independency is non impaired in anyhow. High precedence should be given to the companies that they audit. There should be options to improvize the accounting activity in the company. The non audit consulting services lead to a serious diminution in hearer independency. As ‘independence ‘ is the trademark of the accounting profession, it needs to be free from personal involvement. Second, there is ferocious competition in the market for gross among the audit houses. By supplying non-audit services, they attempt to increase their gross. Since these services yield a greater sum of gaining for the auditing house. So the end here is profitableness of the house. Although supplying non-audit services helps the hearers to understand their client better, it is highly tough for them to stay independent as they do non wish to endanger their combined audit confer withing relationship with the client. Examples of Enron and WorldCom bring to illume a clear cut instance of deficiency of independency and objectiveness among the hearers which resulted in the prostration of these elephantine companies. Mechanisms should be in topographic point to protect the independency and professional incredulity of the audit profession.


Whether there should be a system of rotary motion of hearers in companies is being debated in assorted quarters in position of the recent developments ensuing in corporate failures due to lacks in coverage by some audit houses. The Cadbury Report ( 1992 ) discussed the possibility of holding mandatory rotary motion of hearers, as it could be a agency of avoiding cozy auditor-client relationships. However, the study concluded that the costs of such an enterprise would outweigh the benefits, as it would ensue in a loss of assurance and trust between the hearer and their client company.[ 11 ]

The ultimate inquiry here is that does rotary motion of hearers enhance the quality of audit provided and if it does at what cost. Rotation of hearers can take to two scenarios either it would hold more-independent hearers executing better audits by describing material fiction and disproof of fiscal statements or changeless rotary motion would ensue in inferior audit public presentation. There are three related conditions which affect the quality of audit to a great extent, they are closeness to client direction, deficiency of attending to detail due to staleness and redundancy and avidity to delight the client.[ 12 ]These conditions are farther discussed below.

Closeness to Management

The term ‘closeness to direction ‘ clearly indicates a really cozy and close relationship with the executives of a company. More than 40 old ages ago, in The Philosophy of Auditing, writers Robert K. Mautz and Hussein A. Sharaf warned hearers: [ T ] he greatest menace to his independency is a slow, gradual, about insouciant eroding of this honest disinterestednessA­ — -the hearer in charge must invariably remind his helpers of the importance and operational significance of independency. The nature of scrutinizing requires hearers to interact extensively with their clients. This long-run relationship between the two consequences in an alarming grade of intimacy between the company direction and the auditing house. This creates struggles of involvement. The issue on struggles of involvement is discussed in the following chapter. It showcases how the full auditing procedure is affected by such a struggle of involvement. There is besides a possibility that the company direction would take advantage of this intimacy. It may take to an interpersonal relationship where the company direction entreaty to the hearers for personal addition and support. The in writing illustration here would be Enron and Arthur Andersen. Familiarity seldom breeds disdain between companies and their hearers. More frequently than non, it consequences in a degree of comfort that weakens hearer independency and reduces audit quality. The monetary value of that intimacy is borne by the non-promoter stockholders, investors, employees and other stakeholders in the company. Sometimes, it threatens the endurance of the company.

The hearers must match and interchange information with the company direction during the audit. As they meet on a day-to-day footing to reassign information such relationships are bound to happen. It should be more of a comfy relationship, where the client can discourse his jobs and portion information refering to the audit. While hearers must keep a degree of professionalism, this auditor-client relationship is a map of common apprehension and experience. The chief job here is that by rotary motion, the new house is faced with the “ acquiring to cognize each other ” phase. This intimacy contributes to knowledge sharing and is really critical to the full audit procedure.

Triteness and Redundancy

Triteness has been noted as a common job among non rotary motion of hearers. The bulk position is that it leads to a repeat of anterior projects. The hearers fail to foreground the of import alterations happening. This leads to staleness, whereby the originality and effectivity of the audit map is lost. Many prior used agendas and work documents are relied upon to supply valuable information. Thus trust is a important job. It affects the hearer ‘s response to the company direction on assorted subjective issues. An illustration would be whether the net incomes estimation decided by the company direction are in line with Generally Accepted Accounting Principles ( GAAP ) .

It can non be denied that, anterior twelvemonth audit frequently produces significant benefits which result in increased audit effectivity. The hearer is familiar with the affair at manus. He is able to separate from the issues at manus. He appreciates the alterations taking topographic point from clip to clip. Due to complexness in many of the companies, it is really hard for an hearer to understand the working of the company direction within a really short period of clip. Under non-rotation, the hearer does non necessitate to get down scrutinizing from abrasion, the direction is familiar with what the hearer would inquire for, and there is a less opportunity of break to the normal concern of the company. As hearers spend a great trade of their clip with the client, they create a smooth, time-saving and valuable audit.

Eagerness to delight the client

There exists an avidity or enthusiasm to delight the client. This stems from a long-run wage or net incomes in the signifier of future audit fees. In order to retain a client, the audit houses do what it takes to delight the client to guarantee that they are in the good books. There is an unconscious impulse of the hearers to fulfill the client. Psychological research has demonstrated that even when people attempt or try to stay nonsubjective and impartial, frequently they are unconsciously and accidentally unable to stay impartial, due to a “ self-seeking prejudice ” that causes them to make determinations that favour their ain involvements.[ 13 ]

There is ever a enticement to be in the good books of the client. If a difference occurs, there is a potency of losing the client prematurely. During the concluding twelvemonth of the audit, the houses pay less attending to detail and may non be motivated to function the client. He may handle the client as a “ lame-duck ” . Rotation of hearers require companies to take a new auditing house, which in itself may take to the hunt for hearers who would give a positive position or sentiment about the accounting patterns of the company ( opinion-shopping ) .

In the writer ‘s sentiment, rotary motion of hearers can be regarded as a key to the ne’er stoping job of intimacy to direction. Rotation can convey about a monolithic betterment in the quality of audit and the attitude of hearers. It would assist to forestall scrutinizing cozenages. The company direction should take a more active function in oversing the system to forestall maltreatment of power by the hearers. Investor assurance hit an all-low clip during assorted scrutinizing cozenages such as Enron in the USA, Satyam in India and many others in different parts of the universe. Due to these victimize the audit profession has come under the public oculus, carrying the authoritiess to come up with statutory limitations. In India, under Clause 123 ( 1A ) of the Companies Bill, no company can re-appoint any person or audit house for a period of more than five back-to-back old ages. Section 203 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, 2002 in USA, provides for audit spouse rotary motion every five old ages. Therefore by compulsory rotary motion the effectivity of the audit procedure would non be impaired. Hearers would be more independent and non hold close ties with the audit clients.

Chapter 3: United states CASE STUDY

The twelvemonth 2002 saw the terminal of an epoch of skyrocketing stock monetary values and dining concerns. Thingss that had seemed to be excessively good to be true were merely that. Companies that were antecedently thought of as unstoppable did n’t hold the net incomes they claimed to hold.[ 14 ]This chapter examines the impact of failings and failures of corporate administration on companies and on society. In this chapter, we examine the Enron saga in order to foreground the effects that arise from the failure of corporate administration mechanisms. We besides examine the ruin of Enron, looking at the chief grounds for prostration and noticing on the corporate administration jobs within the company. The ground for picking Enron is to explicate why this instance encouraged corporate administration reform worldwide, particularly in the auditing procedure.


Enron was formed in July 1985 when Houston Natural Gas merged with Omaha-based Inter-North. The company was founded by enterpriser, Kenneth Lay. As the energy markets, and in peculiar the electrical power markets were deregulated, Enron ‘s concern expanded into brokering and trading electricity and other energy trade goods. In a period of 16 old ages the company transformed from a little entity, to the universe ‘s largest energy trading company ( The Economist, 28 November 2002 ) . Deregulation had a far making impact on all the energy suppliers. In this freshly deregulated and advanced forum, Enron embraced a civilization that rewarded “ inventiveness ” . Deregulation opened up the industry up to experimentation and the civilization at Enron was one that pushed the employees to research this new playing field to the uttermost.[ 15 ]This led to tremendous success for the company.

From the start of the 1990 ‘s until year-end 1998, Enron ‘s stock rose by 311 per centum, merely modestly higher than the rate of growing in the Standard & A ; Poor ‘s 500. But so the stock soared. It increased by 56 per centum in 1999 and a farther 87 per centum in 2000, compared to a 20 per centum addition and a 10 per centum diminution for the index during the same old ages. By December 31, 2000, Enron ‘s stock was priced at $ 83.13, and its market capitalisation exceeded $ 60 billion, 70 times net incomes and six times book value, an indicant of the stock market ‘s high outlooks about its hereafter chances.[ 16 ]

Enron ‘s success was phenomenal. It was rated as the most advanced big company in America in Fortune magazine ‘s study of the Most Admired Companies. It built up its glittering repute and success before crashing down in such a monumental manner. Ironically the company ‘s commercial ended with the phrase, “ Ask why, why, why? ” Questions such as what happened, why did it prostration, why were there no backup programs, why did the universe ‘s taking energy company fail, conveying us to the jobs originating within the company before the filing for bankruptcy in 2001.

The word “ Enron ” has become synonymous with corruptness on a colossal graduated table – a company where a smattering of executives were able to pocket 1000000s of dollars while heedlessly gnawing the life-savings of 1000s of employees. The single and corporate greed of the executives had built within the company an ambiance for haughtiness. Arrogance and aggressiveness of the company direction had pushed the jurisprudence excessively far and this led to a pile of bad debts and shame.

An article in The Economist ( 26 February 1998 ) raised certain uncertainties over the permanence of Enron ‘s success. There were three causes of concern. First, deregulating was happening in differing velocities in the different provinces of America and hence the ability to accomplish free competition. Second, Enron did non hold adequate resources to cover with little clients that they were taking on. And in conclusion the company ‘s direction squad were chesty and overambitious.


Transparency is an indispensable ingredient for a sound system of corporate administration. The deficiency of transparence and the revelation of the fiscal statements had given rise to assorted liabilities and losingss which were non accounted. This was one of the chief grounds for the prostration of the company. This whole matter took topographic point with the aid of Arthur Andersen LLP, who kept a floor of hearers assigned at Enron year-round.[ 17 ]

Kenneth Lay hired Jeffrey Skilling to help him in developing Enron ‘s concern scheme. Skilling began to alter the corporate civilization at Enron. The company ‘s repute with the outside universe flourished. But the internal civilization, changed drastically. Skilling was responsible for the fundamental law of the Performance Review Committee ( PRC ) which was besides known as the “ 360-degree reappraisal ” . It was the harshest employee ranking system.[ 18 ]This encouraged the employees to work longer and post net incomes for the company. Therefore at that place prevailed ferocious internal competition. Enron ‘s corporate leading was in the custodies of Lay and Skilling who travelled across the state to sell their constructs to other power companies and energy regulators.

By the terminal of 1998 Enron had eight divisions. The gross growing was enormous from $ 2 billion to $ 7 billion within a span of four old ages. Thus the company was winging high with dual digit growing ( at least on paper ) with every venture. The chief ground for these figures was the grade to market accounting regulation. Under these regulations, companies who had outstanding energy related or any other derivative contracts ( either assets or liabilities ) on their balance sheets had to set them to fair market value. Keeping into head the unfulfilled additions or losingss of the fiscal statement of that period.[ 19 ]The gimmick here was that trade goods such as gas had no quoted monetary values to establish ratings on. So the company was free to develop their ain premises with respect to the base ratings. The Financial Accounting Standards Board ‘s ( FASB ) stated that Enron had rating estimations which overstated the net incomes of the company.

Arthur Andersen LLP was widely considered the house of pick for scrutinizing concerns in the oil and gas industry, scrutinizing 70 per centum of Houston ‘s oil and gas companies.[ 20 ]It was logical for Enron, one of the universe ‘s prima energy companies to take Andersen to execute its fiscal statement audits. Therefore Andersen was the professional gatekeeper[ 21 ]. They are reputational mediators who provide confirmation and enfranchisement services. The relationship began in 1985 when Andersen began scrutinizing Enron, but shortly became much closer. It performed the function of an external every bit good as an internal hearer. Enron often hired many of Andersen ‘s hearers to the strategic places of the CFO ( Chief Financial Officer ) and Chief Accountant. Because of these cozy relationships with Enron, Andersen ‘s audit independency was called into inquiry. This raised serious uncertainties about the quality of the audit procedure.

Both the audit map and the accounting map in Enron were deceitful and opaque. Enron ‘s accounting was anything but transparent. The company recorded net incomes, for illustration, from a joint venture with Blockbuster Video that ne’er materialized ( The Economist, 7 February 2002 ) . Enron manipulated the accounting Numberss to blow up the net incomes figure. They removed significant sums of debt from their histories by puting up a figure of off-balance sheet entities. Off-balance sheet entities are used to unnaturally blow up net incomes and do houses look more financially procure than they really are. Enron would construct an plus such as a power works and instantly claim the jutting net income on its books even though it had n’t made one dime from it. This was done with the aid of Andersen, in order to conceal the company ‘s liability from the balance sheet. In order to pacify the recognition evaluation bureaus such as Moody ‘s and Standard & A ; Poor ‘s, Enron made certain that the purchase ratios were within acceptable scopes. Andrew Stuart Fastow, the former CFO of Enron continuously lobbied around these bureaus with the purpose of act uponing their determinations and raising Enron ‘s recognition evaluation. This full procedure resulted in a cumulative net income decrease of $ 591 million and a rise in debt of $ 628 million for the fiscal statements from 1997 to 2000.[ 22 ]This triggered an probe by the Securities and Exchange Commission ( SEC ) into the scrutinizing work of Andersen.

As mentioned earlier, Andersen had a really cozy relationship with Enron which resulted in struggles of involvement. Conflicts of involvement are a frequent job in the audit profession. Independent assignment of the company ‘s hearers by the company ‘s stockholders is often replaced by subjective assignment by company foremans, where the hearer is all excessively frequently beholden to the company ‘s senior direction. Further, there are struggles of involvement originating from interlacing maps of audit and consultancy.[ 23 ]These particular cozies relationships between the company direction and the hearers compromise independent opinion and overcast the scrutinizing map. Enron ‘s bankruptcy called into inquiry with revelation mechanisms practised USA. It raised serious uncertainties over the unity of the independent audit procedure.


There was a serious rise in debt of $ 628 million for the fiscal statements from 1997 to 2000. This figure triggered the SEC into carry oning an probe into the scrutinizing procedure of the company. The consequence was a immense difference in the net income figures. Such rising prices had allowed the company to increase its Net incomes Per Share ( EPS ) . EPS is equal to net income subtraction dividend on preferable stock, divided by mean outstanding portions. The company had exaggerated its net incomes by pull stringsing Andersen. The end here was short-termism, which refers to concentration on immediate net incomes at the disbursal of long-run consequences. The enticement is to rip off in order to acquire good consequences.

The prostration of the company led to a deficiency of assurance in the activities of the company direction. Investors and creditors were shocked at the dislocation of such a mammoth company. The premise, as in the recent economic recession, was that companies can be “ Too Big to Fail ” . The immediate response to this state of affairs was the passage of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, 2002. It was produced and signed by the former President George Bush on 30th July, 2002. Entitle two of this act contains nine subdivisions ( Section 201 to 209 ) devoted wholly to auditor independency. These subdivisions have focused chiefly on the examination of the non-audit services being provided by the audit houses every bit good as the rotary motion of the audit spouse for every five back-to-back old ages. Audited account commissions, within the company should take on the undertaking of oversing the full audit procedure to guarantee the efficiency of the studies being produced. As discussed earlier the act constituted the PCAOB, to supply inadvertence for the system. The Act has come up with independent audit criterions and quality control cheques. The Act improved the dependability of the audit studies to a great extent.

In June, 2002 the New York Stock Exchange ( NYSE ) issues a study on corporate answerability, which stated the function and authorization of independent managers should be increased. Audit commissions should dwell of these independent managers who would hold the exclusive authorization to engage and fire hearers.[ 24 ]Therefore the company direction should non interfere with the activities of the audit commissions.


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