Indian to write on different themes. The empowerment

Indian writing in English can be
traced back to eighteenth century. It began during the British rule. Earlier English
was adopted by Indians as a language of understanding and as a means of
communication. Later Indian writers started writing in English.       Its early history began with the work of
Michael Madhusudan Dutt followed by R. K. Narayan, Mulk Raj Anand and Raja Rao
who contributed to Indian fiction in the 1930s.            The contribution of women writers for Indian fiction in
English is abundant. Women writers portray the
society and human in different perspectives in their view point.  These writers create their own world and
characters are molded accordingly to fit into their world. There are different
reasons for women writers to write on different themes. The empowerment of
women can be seen in the works of women writers.

Self-identity and culture is an
integral part of Indian women who refused to twist themselves under the
pressure and succeeded in converting their own lives and lives of those who are
dependent on them. In literature, it was being portrayed by majority of
writers, among them, Bharati Mukherjee, became the live example of a free woman
who through her novels, portrayed the struggles of immigrant women for
achieving their identity. Mukherjee provides confidence for the readers to
challenge boldly against the traditional frame work of the society and to turn
her way towards a new consciousness of her own worth and place in the society.

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Bharati Mukherjee is a well known
immigrant writers of America, who started her writing career at the age of
three. She has achieved many prestigious awards. Mukherjee was born in Calcutta
on July 27, 1940 in a wealthy Brahmin family. In 1947, she moved to London
along with her family. After three years they returned to India. Mukherjee
continued her studies in India. After pursuing her graduation Mukherjee’s
father selected a groom for her to marry.

Bharati Mukherjee, in
attempting to chart a woman’s social and spiritual quest, has taken up

each of above concerns
and gives them elaboration and solid multi-dimensional shape through the portrayal
of the experiences of her protagonist. Mukherjee’s novels address issues of relevance for many
immigrant women today—particularly for women who immigrate in search of a
better standard of living and quality of life in terms of gender recognition,
equality, and integration. The aim of this paper is to examine Bharati
Mukherjee’s Jasmine for engagement with the multiplicity of problems that
confront migrant women today; focusing specifically on issues of diaspora, the
paper will explore the ways in which the novel addresses the pain of exile,
alienation and isolation, and conversely, how this text approaches matters
relating to the liberation of women from the oppressive social order of
patriarchy and the transformative experience of immigration with the
possibility for such transformation being an integral part of the migrant
woman?s experience. Many critics have commented on these issues in Mukherjee?s
novels. I propose to explore, in particular, the psychological effects on Mukherjee?s
women character through an analysis of the symbolic values attached to name
changes, how such changes can function as symbolic violence or personal agency
depending on who imposes them, and the role of violence in the transformative
experiences of the female character. The analysis focuses on the rites of
passage of migration and integration into the many facets of new societies and
draws on the symbolic material of changing names and places as depicted in this
novel. Postcolonial, feminist and diasporic theories underpin my reading of
this text: postcolonial theory, because it deals with the experience of
colonization; feminist theory, because it deals with injustice against women;
and diasporic theory, because it deals with the experience of migration. These
theories all articulate positions concerning the ways in which a migrant woman
is constructed as a subject

 However, she met an Canadian writer Clark
Blaise at the writers workshop and married him in 1963 without her parents
concern. She informed her parents of the marriage. By choosing a husband
herself, she broke the Hindu tradition of arranged marriage. Her parents did
not accept her marriage. She settled in Canada after marriage. In 1978
Mukherjee worked as a full time professor at McGill University, she was not
happy in Canada. She felt that racial discrimination was worse there than in
United States, and her family returned to America in 1980.

Mukherjee delineated in her writing
the cultural changes and alienation in immigrant experience. She wrote eight
novels, four short stories, three nonfiction and a memoir (co-written with her
husband). Some of her novels are The Tiger’s Daughter (1971), Wife (1975),
Jasmine (1989), The Holder of the World (1993), Leave it to Me (1997),
Desirable Daughters (2002), The Tree Bride (2004), Miss New India (2011). Her
Short story collections include Darkness (1985), The Middleman and Other
Stories (1988), A father, The Management of Grief. Days and Nights in Calcutta
(1977) is a memoir written with her husband Clark Blaise. Her non-fiction works
are The Sorrow and the Terror: the Haunting Legacy of the Air India Tragedy
(1987) written with Clark Blaise, Political Culture and Leadership in India
(1991) and Religionalism in Indian Perspective (1992). In 1988 she won National
Book Critics Circle Awards for The Middleman and Other Stories. She also have
won a grant from the National Endowment for the Arts in 1986.

Although Mukherjee was born in India
and inherited Indian culture she regards herself as an American writer rather
than an Indian writer. One can discover feministic touch in most of her novels.
Indian women struggle in many ways in society for their rights and they have to
deal confidently with the bitter truths of life. The protagonist of Mukherjee’s
novel are bold, courageous and they have a strong potential to conform the
accomplishment of society and they try to tackle the issues like loss of
culture and endeavor to assume a new identity. They also face problems like
identity crisis, isolation, disillusion, cultural conflict, and other
situation. Some of her female characters are a reflection of herself. The novel
of Mukherjee depicts personal difficulties caught between two world, home and
culture. Her novels are critically analyzed based on the subject of migration,
expatriation, exile, alienation and assimilation.

The cultural clash between the east
and the west are depicted in her novels. When a person leaves his culture and enters
into another culture, his original culture comes into conflict with the new one
he finds in the alien land. This cultural transplant ends in a crisis of
identity. The issue of identity is one of the significant problems of mankind
in every society. Quest for search of identity are important feature of women
of patriarchal society who were caught between tradition and modernity.

Desirable Daughter is a tale of
three beautiful sisters – Padma, Parvati and Tara. Mukherjee uses
autobiographical and fictional elements to demonstrate the complexity of
identity inherent in diasporic witing. It is 
a novel with complex  The
protagonist Tara Banerjee explains the expectations of caste and family of
Hindu tradition which determines whom they should marry. The novel begins with
the child bride Tara Lata, who is five year old and is about to marry a
thirteen year old boy from neighboring village. But he dies of snake bite in
the wedding night. According to their custom she is considered as a widow and
is cursed by everyone in her society. Her father saves her from this curse by
making her marry a tree. The wedding to the tree is necessary to preserve her
status. Tara Lata lives rest of her life serving others and is a role model of
Hindu Virtue. Tara Lata is the tree bride.

The tree daughters Padma, Parvati
and Tara grew up in Calcutta. As Tara grows up her mother tells her the story
of the tree bride. Tara Lata lived in her father’s house for seventy years and
she did not go anywhere before her death. Tara and her sister both fulfill and
defy the expectations placed on them by hindu society and their families. Tara
obeys her parents and follows through with her arranged marriage to Bish. She
lives as a dutiful wife and mother for ten years. But she breaks with tradition
and turns back on Hindu culture when she divorces Bish and sees other men.
After the divorce, she becomes more westernized in her dress and behavior.

The tree Bride is the story of Tara
Lata Aunt of Tara banerjee. Who is the tree bride in the story narrated by
Tara’s mother.



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