Information Communication Technology Has Changed Information Technology Essay

Information Communication Technology has changed and improved the traditional ways of communicating. The University of Salford UK have identified the possible benefits of these telecommunication engineerings. This led to the development of on-line Notification system and information bringing services, the ‘Blackboard ‘ and ‘Webmail ‘ severally, which enabled the pupils and the members of the university to entree the information and petition for this service at anytime available online.

As SMS is quickly going a campaigner engineering for young persons, who are interchanging messages more than telephonic voice for pass oning. The bulk of pupils want to be notified through SMS. Hence, To better the effectivity of presentment system, this can be achieved by supplying an appropriate apprehension of pupil ‘s feedbacks, behavior and demands to place the effectivity of this system and the factors that affect the usage of SMS in this service, which may take to perchance betterments, hence this research focused on pupils ‘ position on Salford Universities presentment system.


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Information Communication Technology has changed and improved the traditional ways of communicating between the multitudes of society. This ICT revolution has erased all the barriers of communicating ( Qiu, 2007 ) . With the invent and execution of sophisticated nomadic engineerings helped the organisations to supply better services to consumer, promote themselves and to better their concern procedures. The nomadic engineerings like Mobile devices or PDAs ( Personal Digital Assistant ) started deriving more celebrity and popularity. It massively penetrated the markets ( Balsubramanian & A ; Shankar, 2009 ) .

A dependable platform of communicating is achieved by incorporating these powerful handheld devices with sophisticated radio telecommunication services, Mobile calculating and assorted types of webs. Loads of E-mails, SMS ( Short Message Service ) , telephonic Voice and other multimedia applications are successfully exchanged over this platform.This resulted, addition in assorted figure of nomadic calculating applications. Modern presentment systems can be viewed as one such type of application ( Bamba & A ; Barnes, 2007 ) .These presentment systems are been successfully implemented in the different enterprises of society.

The Prestigious Universities across the universe, including University of Salford UK have identified the possible benefits of Notification system and web services. This led the University towards the development of its ain online presentment system and information bringing service, ‘Blackboard ‘ and ‘Webmail ‘ severally, which enable pupils and the members of university to entree the information and petition for the service anytime available online. It is of import that this presentment system delivers a high criterion and quality of service, to the pupils and staff.

Besides, SMS is quickly going a campaigner engineering for young persons, who are interchanging messages more than telephonic voice for pass oning. The bulk of pupils want to be notified through SMS as it is holding high aiming possibility ( Tran, 2003 ) .

This research aims to increase the resource available associating to the effectivity of presentment system. Probe in this country will specifically concentrate on Salford universities presentment system, which identifies the pupils perspectives towards utilizing SMS in current system.

To guarantee the system and the investing is worthwhile, an appropriate apprehension of pupils behaviour, demands and feedbacks towards the system can better the effectivity of this service and perchance pull more pupils.

This leads to the undermentioned research inquiries for the thesis:

“ How SMS can heighten the Notification System of The University Of Salford? ”


“ What are the factors that affect the usage of SMS in University of Salford ‘s presentment service? ”


The purpose of this research is to measure the effectivity of SMS ( short message service ) engineering on University of Salford ‘s Notification system from the pupils ‘s positions and how SMS ( short message service ) engineering can heighten the current presentment system. In order to turn to the purpose of this undertaking, the following aims will necessitate to be achieved:

To carry on a literature reappraisal on the impact of SMS on pupil ‘s, University of Salford Notification system and the factors that affects the usage of this service.

To carry on research utilizing Interview and Questionnaire methods to roll up information on Student ‘s perspective towards Current Notification system.

To analyze the research information collected and place the Student ‘s point of position towards Notification system associating to the literature reappraisal.

To supply recommendations and possible betterments, for the Notification System based on the research information from the Student ‘s positions.


The Impact Of ‘SMS ‘ ( Short Message Service ) Technology:

The development of nomadic telecommunication engineerings and IT have made radical alterations in society. With the liberalisation of telecommunication and rapid growing of cellular industry have interconnected the people around the Earth ( Qiu, 2007 ) . Mobile Technologies like Mobile devices and PDAs ( Personal Digital Assistants ) have become an of import portion of both endeavors and the clients. Further Balsubramanian & A ; Shankar ( 2009 ) said that the demand of nomadic devices and PDAs is quickly increasing. Besides they are massively perforating the markets. Tsang, Ho & A ; Liang ( 2004 ) believed that nomadic devices being really personal in nature and always-on- ever with you, hold really high aiming possibilities.

All the E-Commerce minutess conducted by and large via Personal computers ( Personal Computers ) or Laptops, the same minutess can be conducted by utilizing the handheld nomadic devices or PDAs by linking to any full-blown radio web. Where the minutess include banking, shopping, stock trading and other services. Which resulted in a wholly new Mobile engineering driven commercialism known as M-Commerce ( Mobile Commerce ) . M-Commerce in general is good recognized. Several writers have made an effort to specify M-Commerce. For illustration Barnes, ( 2002 ) defines M-Commerce as “ any dealing with a pecuniary value that is conducted over a wireless telecommunication web ” . In the position of Liang et Al ( 2007 ) M-Commerce is the extension of E-Commerce ( Electronic Commerce ) . Ngai and Gunasekaran ( 2005 ) besides have viewed M-Commerce as a subset of E- Commerce and a result of sophisticated radio engineerings and devices which allows the behavior of e-commerce activities over a wireless web.

The integrating of such nomadic devices with sophisticated Mobile telecommunication services, nomadic calculating and assorted sorts of webs have overcome most of the technological barriers for communicating, therefore doing them a dependable platform for interchanging the information ( Bamba & A ; Barnes, 2007 ) . Harmonizing to Kim & A ; Park ( 2008 ) E-mail, SMS ( short messaging service ) , voice telephone service, and other multimedia applications are some of the different mediums of communicating available on nomadic phones. On the other manus Ilari, Mena and Illarramendi ( 2009 ) suggest that the property of anytime and anywhere handiness of nomadic calculating services has led to the growing of Mobile calculating applications. Presentment Systems can be viewed as one of the illustrations of such applications.

“ Modern presentment system is a combination of package and hardware that provides a agency of presenting a message to put of receivers ” ( Wikipedia, 2010 ) . McCrickard & A ; Chewar ( 2003 ) viewed Notification systems as interfaces which enables the user to entree the needed information. The user demand of presentments is good recognized by information supplier ( Vastenburg, Keyson & A ; Ridder, 2008 ) . Additionally McCrickard et Al ( 2003 ) said that the users want to be notified by the information relevant to them or their task.Where the presentments can be commercial advertizement, critical information qui vives, or Educational information that can be notified through messages or electronic mails. Electronic mails, Text messaging and multimedia messaging on nomadic devices are quickly turning ( Balsubramanian & A ; Shankar, 2009 ) . As compared to the other services, SMS being a low-priced communicating service is sing a rapid growing. Bamba & A ; Barnes ( 2007 ) defines SMS as “ shop and send on communicating system for nomadic phones ” .

Further, 65 % of all nomadic phone users about are pass oning via SMS ( Kim & A ; Park, 2008 ) . Additionally SMS is quickly going a penchant for young persons, who are interchanging messages over the nomadic phones much more every bit compared to voice telephone service in order to remain connected with their friends and household. Where UK ‘s young person spends ?100,000 on messaging mundane ( Tran, 2003 ) . On the other manus Tran ( 2003 ) says SMS channel is of great possible and is non merely limited for pass oning over nomadic phones but besides adopted by organisations for marketing their merchandises to the member of the younger coevals. Leppaniemi & A ; Karjaluoto ( 2008 ) viewed SMS in selling as a trade name vehicle and besides found it to be capable of aiming consumers in a particular context. The sellers are engaged in either permission-based or call-to-action ( pull-based ) mobile advertisement. Where, in permission-based nomadic publicizing the promotional messages are send to the consumers with their permission and in call-to-action Mobile publicizing the user is asked to direct messages for catching reactions on cyberspace, Television or wireless merchandise publicities.

Harmonizing to Houser and Thornton ( 2004 ) bulk of Japanese pupils are utilizing nomadic phones. As per the study conducted more than 95 % of the pupils use nomadic phone. Therefore most of the Nipponese universities are now utilizing nomadic phone as a medium for instruction. And when enquired maximal pupils wanted to have the presentments about administrative undertakings such as room alteration, having the assignment deadlines, occupation vacancies, and university events through a really powerful SMS ( short messaging service ) on their nomadic phones.

Rock ( 2004 ) suggests that the acceptance of engineering is quickly turning in the instruction sector. It is of import that the usage of engineering should be positive. The SMS is really popular amongst the pupils. As per the instance research conducted by Stone ( 2004 ) on Kingston University, it evaluated SMS as a campaigner engineering and demonstrated that bulk of the pupils in the university wanted to utilize SMS services as the support system. Like having the presentments about test agenda ( clip, location and day of the month ) , Some wanted to have the clip bounded administrative presentments such as alteration of talk room and clip of talks or tutorials.Students of Kingston university were besides interested in having their classs, deadline of assignment as SMS which are send through chalkboard.

The Prestigious University of Salford has its ain online Notification system and information bringing service, ‘Blackboard ‘ and ‘Webmail ‘ severally. Looking at the popularity and power of SMS, it can be used as a tool for back uping the pupils of University of Salford in order to heighten the acquisition experience. By utilizing it in the presentment systems on a big graduated table it might assist to guarantee effectivity of the system and likely heighten the service.


Research Paradigm:

Paradigm refers to assorted ways of believing about some facet of universe. Research paradigm reflects people premises and contemplations about the nature of cognition ( Oats, 2006 ) . It determines how research is conducted, particularly how informations is collected and analysed ( Collis & A ; Hussey, 2003 ) .

Different paradigms have different positions about a thing and different ways of geting cognition for it. By and large, there are three major research paradigms ; Positivism, Interpretivism and Critical Research ( Oats, 2006 ) . These paradigms with different research schemes help in finding the usage of Information Systems by people.

Positivism: It is the oldest research paradigm, used from the clip of Newton. Many research workers follow this research attack. Positivists believe that the survey of societal world should be done utilizing methods of natural scientific disciplines ( Oats, 2006 ) . Term cognition may be used merely to phenomena that are confirmed by senses ( Bryman & A ; Bell, 2003 ) . The chief purpose is to derive hypotheses that might be tested. This method represents the positivism of researching the conceptual methods of the information architecture, creative activity of the informations plus suited for administration, design construction for informations patterning and informations reproduction and the critical factors in implementing processs. The rationalist paradigm tends to happen the relationships between variables and organizing Torahs that describe antecedently tested linkages ( Oats, 2006 ) .

Interpretivism: This method of research believes cognition to be the creative activity of human experts ( Oats, 2006 ) . Interpretivism is different as compared to positivism where it does non prove/disprove a hypothesis but identify, explain, and research how all the factors in a group, organisation, squad and so on are related and mutualist ( Oats, 2006 ) . Harmonizing to Black ( 2006 ) Its strength is the capableness of happening the complexnesss and significances of cases in a research.

Critical Research: It is neither well-known nor widely accepted research paradigm. The purpose is to knock the interpretivist research workers as they fail to deduce the forms of power and control relevant to our perceptual experience of the universe ( Oats, 2006 ) . The end is to to place the power dealingss, struggles and contradiction in our universe and effort to extinguish them as being ground of domination ( Oats, 2006 ) .

1.1 Selected Research Paradigm ( Includes Justification )

For this research the most appropriate would be the Interpretivist research paradigm. Because all the factors driving the Presentment System in University of Salford are to be identified. Besides, the complexnesss involved in utilizing ‘SMS ( short messaging service ) ‘ engineering on a big graduated table in Notification System needs to be explored.

Research Schemes:

2.1.1 Case Study:

A instance survey is defined as “ an empirical question that investigates a modern-day phenomenon within its existent life context, particularly when the boundaries between the phenomenon and the context are non clearly apparent ” ( Yin, 2003 ) . The ends are to derive clear image, obtain rich penetration and research the complex relationships by look intoing one stage or case of a peculiar instance ( Oats, 2006 ) .

In a instance survey an effort is made to derive the wide position which is achieved by depicting, understanding and commanding the procedure that has to be implemented ( Oats, 2006 ) .


Through instance surveies one can acquire advanced thoughts about the procedure, survey rare phenomena, challenge theoretical premises for theory testing and edifice, and can manage complex state of affairs really easy.


As merely individual individual gathers and analyses the information it has a hapless dependability and no set of protocols of making a research which is clip devouring.

2.1.2 Action Research:

. “ Action research is the question with the people instead than the research on people ” ( Herbert Altrichter et Al, 2002 ) .It is peculiarly used by professionals in order to look into and better their working patterns ( Oats, 2006 ) . As it can be either a rationalist or interpretivist or critical research, it is indispensable to choose the paradigm before get downing with the research in order to find the quality of it.


It is utile in contextualising the betterments related to the people of existent universe.

It is capable of make fulling the spread between academic and existent universe of people.

It is best suited for building and polishing the procedures involved in system development and job resolution.


Many of the research workers are incognizant of this research scheme.

It is incapable of generalizing the results and set uping the causes and effects in a research.

In action research its non possible to run into the outlooks of everyone involved in it.

2.1.3 Survey:

Survey research means a systematic aggregation of informations from a sample of respondents in order to understand and to foretell future behaviors, attitudes, determinations and life styles of a population ( Oats, 2006 ) . Survey are widely established and used in the field of Information Systems. Pinsonneault and Kraemer ( 1993 ) defined study as a method of “ gathering information about the features, actions or sentiments of a big group of people, referred to as a population. ” There are three chief features of utilizing this method, these includes inquiring people to roll up information in a structured format, a quantitative method that can be used to place information refering with relationship between variables and it can besides be used to roll up a fraction of the survey population, which can bring forth the consequences for the full population ( Pinsonneault and Kraemer, 1993 ; Malhotra and Grover, 1998 ) . It is largely associated with positive paradigm for research.


Surveies are really economical. It can cover more people and garner a batch of informations in short period of clip at low cost. This research scheme can assist the people with weaker communicating accomplishments as it can be done online or by station.


Survey does non supply item information on research subject.

90 studies out of 122 has a response rate below 51 % , which shows there are really low response rates, when carry oning studies ( Pinsonneault and Kraemer, 1993 ) .

There might be irrelevant or dishonest replies towards some of the inquiries, due to the nature of carry oning questionnaires.

2.1.4 Experiment:

Experiment is a research scheme which aims to prove/disprove a theory ( Oats, 2006 ) . This scheme is widely used in the field of Information systems and calculating particularly for measuring the Human-Computer interaction. In experiments the research worker takes many safeguards during item observation and measuring of results that occur when any factor is added or removed. It involves placing the factors impacting experiment ( Oats, 2006 ) .


It is widely accepted and implemented research scheme.

It is the lone scheme which can turn out insouciant relationships.

As it is conducted in Laboratory the research workers are non obligated for sing any field.


Experiment is unreal as it is conducted in research lab hence the existent universe state of affairss are non compatible.

The variables are impossible to command.

2.1.5 Grounded theory:

Grounded theory is obtained through the societal research by anchoring theory in informations to analyze the behavior ( Goulding, 1998 ) . It allows the research workers to suggest a new theory on bing information with a purpose to heighten or add more information to it, as really small is known ( Oats, 2006 ) . By and large, it falls under interpretative paradigm of research.


It helps researcher in bring forthing good thoughts, obtaining dependable information, and derive findings.

By utilizing this research scheme a elaborate information about a peculiar phenomenon can be obtained which is influenced by the context in which the survey is undertaken


As the information analysis is required in the grounded theory it becomes more clip consuming, may take to defeat and take research in different way.

2.1.6 Ethnography:

Harmonizing to Maanen ( 2006 ) Ethnography is the survey and representation of civilization. Ethnography helps us to cognize the representation and significance of the behavior and explores how it is integrated with broad societal and cultural experience in the life-world of the consumer ( Oats, 2006 ) . The ethnographer actively participates with an purpose to build a holistic image of civilization sing the societal and economical facets of the civilization.


This scheme provides a elaborate and a clear image of a certain state of affairs with all facets.

It can be used to dispute the findings from research schemes like experiments which are unreal in nature.

It is utile in analyzing assorted when a execution of new system arises in the Fieldss of Information engineering.

It is good for analyzing any research subjects of information systems which are equivocal and complex.


In descriptive anthropology, it is hard to pull off clip, handle information, maintain societal dealingss, covering ethical issues and so on efficaciously as the ethnographer is at high demands.

It is non good established.

Detailed survey of all the state of affairs and procedure is necessary doing it hard for research workers to give in acknowledging construct.

2.2 Selected Research Strategy ( Includes Justification ) :

The presentment system in university of salford has to be evaluated and explored. The Case survey has been chosen as a research scheme because, the ends are to derive clear image, obtain rich penetration and research the complexnesss involved in the current presentment system and look into how the usage of SMS engineering can heighten it.

Data Collection Methods:

3.1.1 Interview:

Interview is a planned conversation between two people holding an docket, intent and premises in it. Myers and Newman ( 2007 ) said that interview is an of import informations assemblage tool for item information. There are different types of qualitative interviews, including Structured Interview, Unstructured or Semi-Structured interview and Group Interview ( Oats, 2006 ) .

Structured interview are good prepared before carry oning an interview with a set of inquiries, whereas, semi-structured or unstructured interview are prepared with an uncomplete book, which varies from the interviewer. On the other manus Group interviews are carried out with two or more participants ( Myers and Newman, 2007 ) . Harmonizing to Myers and Newman ( 2007 ) the disadvantage of interview are, it is frequently under clip bound and it is possible for interviews to be affected. Larsen ( 2003 ) suggested that by utilizing unfastened ended inquiries, the participants would derive more chances to react and show their point of position. Further Larsen ( 2003 ) besides stated that, after the unfastened ended inquiries inquiring some critical inquiries would assist to place and take to the of import information. Therefore, there are benefits of utilizing both oppugning methods.

3.1.2 Questionnaire:

Questionnaires are the the set of inquiries which are already defined and placed in determined order ( Oats, 2006 ) . It is conducted in the absence of research worker, inquiring people to roll up information in a structured format ( Oats, 2006 ) . The Advantage of utilizing this information coevals method is that it is really economical and easy for research worker. The disadvantage of utilizing questionnaire found by Pinsonneault and Kraemer ( 1993 ) shows, there are really low response rates, when carry oning studies utilizing questionnaires. Besides, there might be irrelevant replies towards some of the inquiries, due to the nature of carry oning questionnaires.There are different techniques that can be used to better the effectivity of this questionnaire. Flower ( 1995 ) stated it is of import to plan questionnaire that is easy as possible for the participants. Lucia et EL, . ( 2007 ) suggested that Questionnaire should be user friendly.

3.1.3 Documents:

Documents are the instant beginning of informations as they are readily available. It has less ethical jobs attached to it. The chief job is its handiness. Accessing to it can be either expensive or non possible ( Oats, 2006 ) .

3.2 Selected Data Collection Method ( Includes Justification ) :

Datas that is collected can be either quantitative or qualitative data.The research can be quantitative or qualitative depending on the information collected. Quantitative information will be Numberss, statistics and fiscal information which will be presented as tabular arraies or graphs and qualitative informations will be normally the text or words which will be the informations that already exists ( Oats, 2006 ) . A combination of both quantitative and qualitative methods has been selected.Using the questionnaire and interview methods can supply a set of more accurate informations for this research.

Data Analysis Methods:

Data analysis is a method for set uping and look intoing the collected informations utilizing narrations, graphs, charts or tabular arraies. The chief thought of informations analysis is to pull decision based on the information forms ( Oats, 2006 ) . It can be either a qualitative information analysis or quantitative informations analysis or can be both.

Quantitative information would be collected from the questionnaires, which can be shown in chart and graphical format. Qualitative information would be collected from the semi-structured interviews for placing the relevant information associating to the research inquiries, which leads to the factors impacting the usage of Notification system and the purpose of this proposal. A combination of both quantitative and qualitative methods has been selected for the research.


This research focuses on Current Students of University of Salford and bing Notification system, which identifies information about the current Presentment system and optimising the usage of this service. To supply an effectual research, a Case survey has been chosen as a research scheme as the ends are to derive clear image, obtain rich penetration and research the complexnesss involved in the current presentment system and look into how the usage of ‘SMS ‘ engineering can heighten the current Presentment system. To roll up the relevant information, utilizing a mixture of both quantitative and qualitative methods is more appropriate for this research.

A combination of both informations aggregation methods could supply a set of utile informations to better the effectivity and flexibleness to detect of import informations and information for this research. Quantitative method is helpful in placing information refering with relationship between variables, whereas qualitative method is helpful in garnering item information. Interviews and questionnaires will be used. In interviews, utilizing unfastened ended inquiries would give the participants more chances to react and show their points of position, therefore both unfastened and close-ended inquiries will be used for the participants. The Questionnaires on the other manus will assist the research worker for obtaining feedback from pupils, on having presentments from the university through ‘SMS ‘ alternatively of ‘e-mails ‘ .

The Research can be done otherwise provided clip and resources available by carry oning the interviews at the administrative degree of University of Salford. Implementing ‘SMS ‘ on a big graduated table for presentment intent is a critical issue, as the university already has its good established webmail presentment system and hence it is clip devouring to measure the critical success factors in utilizing ‘SMS ‘ alternatively of ‘E-mails ‘ . With the clip available the cardinal characteristics of ‘SMS ‘ , the impact of it on immature pupils and how the execution of it would heighten the experience of presentment of pupils would be explored.


Interview is a planned conversation between two people holding an docket, intent and premises in it. In Interview the research worker gets an instant feedback on a peculiar topic.Face to Face interview makes it more comfy in cognizing the subject deeply. Good at deriving the in deepness and elaborate cognition sing research subject.

Questionnaires are the the set of inquiries which are already defined and placed in determined order. It is conducted in the absence of research worker, inquiring people to roll up information in a structured format. They are the cheapest manner of informations collection.They can be send via station, telephones or through electronic mails.


It is really hard for holding a interview with administrative degree. They are by and large clip devouring. There is a possibility that they might be misdirecting.

In questionnaire the truthfulness of replies to the inquiries can non be checked. Researcher can non assist in replying the inquiries. It might do defeat for participant in reacting it.


As the research is processed in one of the extremely reputed educational institutes of UK ( United Kingdom ) the moralss to obtain information about a system within a establishment is considered as the right to confidentiality. The ethical issues sing the Presentment system depends on the certain issues associating to the teleological and ethical relativism. The right of information is accessed by the questionnaires and interviews. The moralss of right to namelessness is maintained when the inside informations of certain administrative individual is non revealed.

The right to confidentiality is considered outmost in transporting the research. The confidential affairs of one sector and another is non accessed by another sector. Individual unity should be maintained.

Therefore, the ethical criterions of making the research in heightening presentment system of university of salford is maintained.


The practicians don non hold to worry about the information they have submitted, it will non be known to anyone as the research information collected through the interviews, instance survey and questionnaire is extremely confidential.The literatures related to this research have found that the lone restrictions to this research is the cost factor.

This research proposal identifies the pupils perspective on SMS Technology and the cardinal factors that affect the hereafter usage of it in Notification System of University of Salford.

Research Plan:

The research on the survey of Enhancing the presentment system in University of Salford can be done in three months of clip.

Following is the research program for following three months:

In first two hebdomad after the research proposal the basic cognition about impact of SMS engineering and all chances of utilizing it in the presentment system will be studied through books, diaries and cyberspace. Geting relevant cognition would take to success in the research.

In the 3rd and 4th hebdomad research schemes have to be implemented like instance survey including interviews and all the necessary informations will be gathered. During the following month I will discourse my research with the concerned administrative people in the University of Salford, have some interviews with the proficient analysts who are working on the presentment system and place the factors involved in heightening the presentment system.

At the month terminal informations aggregation, informations execution, information analysis, direction and security issues will be done. The last month is needed for the certification procedure, proof and confirmation has to be done in the terminal of the research where the research will be eventually approved.


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