Introduction: The Javaprogramming language was introduced in the year 1995 with the launch of this particularpaper which is being used as a reference to get a better understanding aboutthe widely used and wildly popular programming language. Ryan Gosling,the creator of Java started working on this project after he was dissatisfied withthe improvements made in C++ language as it had many shortcomings same as itspredecessor C. He along with two other programmers started working on projectOak in 1991 which was subsequently named to Green and later got its currentname Java. Javabecame widely popular after its launch because of its nature of “Write Once, Run Anywhere” as its code executesin its own virtual environment. The bytecode once created after compilation inone particular system can be used to execute the program in any systemhaving the virtual environment provided by Java. The need for Java: Developers in the late 90’s started to understandthe importance of the Internet and how it is going to change applicationdevelopment process forever.
They knew they had the means to share the codebetween different systems present across a network but the code they developedwas platform and architecture dependent. Java provided them a means to shareand execute the code across all the platforms and architectures. Uploading thecompiled bytecode onto a server allowed the code to be executed securely ontoall the connected virtual machine environments. This made sure that the codesharing was secure, and that the resources utilized for compiling the programare minimum. Why shift toJava from your current language? With the introduction of C++,programmers got to know about object-oriented programming and all of itsadvantages. Java being able to offer all the advantages of C++ and then some moremade it a tough choice to not to give it a try. C being made decades ago beforethe introduction of Java did not have the security features to run on adistributed environment. The librariesand the syntax were made to make the programmers task so easy that there wouldbe a very minimal learning curve for anyone starting to code in Java.
Advantages: With Java being very similar to C++, programmers who arealready familiaror have a working knowledge of widely popular C and C++ were able to weigh thepros and cons of the new language and create more portable applications withmuch less debugging required before the deployment of the application. Theapplications were more consumer friendly with Java being more secure from outsidecode changes i.e. third-party users or applications cannot change the already compiledbyte code of the Java Development Environment. The applicationsonce hosted can be downloaded from across the web.
The web-browser HotJava wasthe first to implement Java environment. It allowed dynamic downloads andexecution of Java fragments or applets from across the Internet. Making itplatform independent was a huge break-through compared to C and C++ asdevelopers had to develop individual programs for every platform and everyarchitecture. Applications running on a 32-bit system were not compatible with64-bit system unless they have their code through JVM (Java Virtual Machine). The codeis portable and adaptable to multiple environments allowing developers tosimultaneously work on a project from different systems and even differentOperating Systems. This foundational idea of running apps on a VirtualEnvironment is being currently used in Android allowing it to be used in billionsof devices across the world. Theability to link classes only when needed and multi-threading make it fasterthan all other alternatives allowing it to run multiple instances of a programsimultaneously.
A application can update itself in the background while theuser is using the application. This is a important feature for the creators asend-users rather skip the update than waiting for the application update to becompleted. Multi-threading allows multiple concurrent threads to be executedsimultaneously making their execution much faster and robust. Having multi-threadingalso implies taking care of multiple libraries being accessed at the same time.Java’s libraries have been written to take care of this issue. Distributed Computing concept has been made a reality with Java. Theability to share one’s code to be executed on any environment meant that a hugeworkload can be across multiple devices and be executed faster.
This made itsway into the concepts of Grid Computing and eventually into Cloud Computing. Performanceof the systems was vastly increased because of the decrease in compilation resources. Is Java Really Simple and Familiar? Java, filling in the voids from C++initially started to be made as an Operating System. It has its roots from manyfamiliar languages during the 90’s like SmallTalk and Objective C. Itimplemented the concept of multi-threading and object-oriented programming tomake it a better alternative to C++ but retained its syntax to make it easy tolearn.
Programmers who were already writingcode in C++ quickly became familiar with the syntax of java and starteddeploying applications to test their new dynamic code. With removal of all thefeatures that made applications made in C++ crash, Java applications quicklyskyrocketed into development and then into deployment. C and C++ had a huge issue withproviding access to Operating System through pointers and Garbage values whichwas completely prevented in java through Garbage collectors and referencevariables. Java has nooperator overloading, no structures, no pointers, no pre-processors.
All thethings that made it difficult for one programmer understand the functionalityof a program have been removed to make it simple. A single ‘goto’ statement cancompletely disrupt the flow in C++ which was completely eliminated in Java. Makinga complicated program doesn’t necessarily mean that it has to be complicatedfor another user to understand. These features of C++ complicated things pavingway for a better and faster programming language. Conclusion: Javawas not a solution to all the problems that programmers face but it sure didsolve many that C++ had. It’s implementation of Distributed Computing has madeit a better solution than many alternatives and the ability to run across anydevice still keeps it relevant.
It came prepared with multiple features likemulti-threading and garbage collectors to keep it at the top of the game duringits initia