Introduction Maharashtra is a secondlargest state in terms of population and third largest state in terms of thearea in India1. That’s why Maharashtra becomes secondlargest constituency with the 48 seats in Lok Sabha out of 545 total seats. That makes Maharashtra’s politics important andsensitive itself in Maharashtra and nationally. Recently in Maharashtra huge silent rallies organized by the Marathacommunity for demanding reservation. The nature of the rallies was tothe silent but anger within the rallies clearly understand by popularity andthe size of the rallies. On one hand constitution stands for the secularism andequal opportunity for all.
Government is responsible for the removing thereservation into the India. But some communities start saying they are notprogressive and come in the underprivileged category. That’s a really developmentproblem in India because caste-based reservationswill do nothing but damage the Indian economy eventually (Varun Parekh).
This will, if not now then later on, definitelynegatively impact the efficiency of the job. On a macro scale, thisinefficiency can drag down India’s growth story2.In Maharashtra start demanding for the reservation first is to the Marathacommunity demanding for the OBC reservation and Dhangar community demanding forthe ST reservation. For the study purpose I am focusing only on reservationdemand of the Maratha community. This is also somehow emerging out of theincomplete statistical information provided by the previous government. Triggering eventTriggeringevent that causes to the rising demandfor Maratha reservation.
It is the 13th July 2016 Maratha girl rape and murder at Kopardi by Dalit men inAhmednagar district. Initially when Maratha protest starts demanding to providedeath penalty to the victim of the case. Within that their certain demand raises amending the Scheduled Castes andScheduled Tribes Prevention of Atrocities Act and implementation of the Swaminathan committee recommendations. Marathacommunity people start claiming about the misuseof the authorities prevention act from the Dalit community. One thing herenoticeable is to the accused from the Dalit community and the victim form theMaratha community. That also makes standto the community in front of each otherdirectly. Then the statement Maratha community is a backward and Marathistudent not able to get admission intothe good educational institute but because of the reservation student from thelow and backwards cast easily able getadmission in the educational institutioneven they got fewer marks. That also samecondition about the government job.
Provide justice to the girl, silent marchstart getting huge popular support from different regions of Maharashtra. Differencebetween statistics by Government commission and Human Development Index onsocio economic condition of Maratha Community. In 2014 when Congress- governmentpassed the 16 % reservation based on the recommendation of the Narayan Ranecommittee. Entire findings of the reportnot available but Keshav Waghmare wrote in the Divya Marathi newspaper about the findings and claim of the report itsurveys twelve and half thousands of the Maratha household lives under thepoverty line. Only 80% of the student form the Maratha community able to geteducation until 10th class. Only 2% female and 6% able to use thecomputer. Percentage of a graduate femalewas to 6% and male 10%3.Amrish Dongrementioned in his paper on the information of the socio economic and educationalcondition based on human developmentsurvey index.
Maratha household havehigher income and lower poverty in comparative to other community. Also theyare over-represented in government and public sector jobs. That’s why demandfor inclusion of Marathas among other backward classes in untenable4. When I readthe above mentioned two different studies first study done by the Maharashtragovernment’s Narayan Rane committee for analyzing and assessing socio-economical and educational condition andsecond research study done by the Amrish Dongre based on the Human DevelopmentIndex survey. Based on the Narayan Ranecommittee report, on 25 Jun 2014, the Congress-NCP state government ledby Prithviraj Chavan passed a law granting 16 per cent reservation to Marathasin education and employment. This did not infringe on the reservation quota ofthe Other Back words classes (OBC)5. But in Maharashtra, 52% seats reserved for the different socialand economic backward communities.
If Maharashtra government provide thereservation that the reservation seats go on 52 to 68 plus 5% for the Muslims 73%. After the 14 November 2014, Bombay High Court’s order stayon to the reservation provide toMaratha community.6 Most ofthe political parties well aware of the50% reservation limit. Only in the exceptionalcases court will allow to cross thelimit. In case of Maharashtra case 52% reservation already available. Backwardcastes defied in India based on those different communities known by the traditionaloccupation.7Then why the Congress-NCP government pass reservation bill, and if they passthe reservation why they are unable to provide the strong evidence ordata.
Based on this questions someleaders from the Congress Government got cheated under the various criminalactivities. People of Maharashtra angry at the government. There was less possibilityto again government come into the power for the next term. To getting support from the Maratha and fromthe Muslim community pass the reservation. Only forbreaking the unity among different socialgroups how come under the reservation category (Back word/lower class) and hownot come under the reservation (High class) thatare making the social insecurity among the large communities among Maharashtra. And there will be the chances of the cast riots Maybe the Bhima Koregoan was the resent example of the socialinsecurity the reason for the attack onthe Dalit community and next day rally organized by the different Dalit partiesin all over India and that rallies someof the places take a violent mode they burn buses, taxies andbrake the glasses vehicles and burn the tires on the road that will be the example of the breaking thesocial insecurity and showing the power of the community. Framers ofthe Indian constitution made the provision of reservation for the bringingsocially and economically back word classes intothe mains streams. They consider the reservation period only for the ten yearsbut after every ten years reservation period expanded only because of thepolitical benefit.
Also adding that provide the reservation for the Other Back word class-OBC.Reservationfor the polarization of the votes. Reservation policy becomes a serious threat to the nation now.Meritorious students and candidates are losing jobs and opportunities due to thispolicy. Political pundits are the main culprits of this policy. They do notwant the welfare of the people but they work only for their vote bank8. TheMaratha social organization Sambhaji Brigade has announced that it willtransform into a political party9.My nextargument is for getting the political benefitin the name of reservation all the majorparties want to do polarization of the vote on the name of the caste.
Because into the table110mentioned post result survey done by the loknition the vote share of the different communities to the major parties. Hare canclearly understand the not a single party got a fullsupport from any particular community.Vote share is divided.
For playing the cast clienteles cast politics startbreaking the unity among different communities of Maharashtra. One claim made by the Maratha protestant that is tothe not any political party actively involved inthe silent rallies. That’s made me think about this statement. Table 1 NCP CON SS BJP Maratha Kunbi 18 11 30 24 OBC 20 13 18 38 SC 17 28 13 19 ST 16 14 9 33 Upper cast 10 16 9 52 Muslims 16 53 1 13 Other 13 18 17 32 The current government in Maharashtra in BJP –Siv Sena both of parties supporting thereservation but not passing the government.
They are in ruling party, theycan’t openly opposing the reservation. They aware of the sensitivity of the issue. Also one strange about the Maratha politics is to the support from theSiv Sena party, Siv Sena supported the collation government inMaharashtra. When any problem raised into the Maharashtra that time Siv Sena party playing a role as opposition party instead provide support the Bhartiya Janta Party (BJP). But after Devendra Fadanvis become a ChiefMinister of the Maharashtra increase reservation demand. When BJP Come topower after that Mumbai high court stopsthe 16% reservation of Maratha community. The NationalParties include Indian National Congress 42 (INC), Bharatiya Janata Party 122(BJP), Nationalist Congress Party 41 (NCP), the regional parties include ShivSena 63 (SHS) and Maharashtra Navnirman Sena 1 (MNS). This all major political parties that have strong political influence into Maharashtra (2014 assembly election result).
ConclusionOne fact istrue about the there is some weakersection among the Maratha community lives intothe socially and educationally backward life. Thispat of this community doing the agricultural and labour work. In a last one decade because of the naturaluncertainty and drought they received less agricultural returns. That’s why thecommunity starts feeling their economiccondition not different from the people who revivethe reservation.
Also because of the low income they are not able to pay thefees of the higher education for their children. That’s the point they start thinking if theyalso come into reservation category their child also able to learn in highereducation institute and also able to get a goodposition in a government job. Withthe unknowing the original reality. 1.Cast based reservation not possible 50% limit. 2. If the government decide to provide the reservation based on theeconomic backwardness there is big question whom to call the backward. 3.
If theygot reservation based on economic backwardness again they will start demandequal parameters for all communities. 4. Other community will never agree tochange the parameter from cast to incomebase. I thinkeducation is key determent of the social and economical backwardness. That’swhy I am recommending reservation should provide only in to the educationalinstitute. After that reservation in job or in services is not an appropriate.Because in any job merit and quality of the candidate is important. References http://www.
org/stable/41855679 1 As per the census 2011, area – 307.713 km2, population of112,374,333 that’s 9.28% of India’s population.2 Writer.Thinker.Doer Caste-BasedReservation Could Pause India’s Growth Story/ 20/04/20163 KEshav Waghmare, MarathaSamajala Dhoka Pan Kunakadun? Divya Marathi 20164 Is Maratha Demand for reservation forreservation tenable? Evidence from India Human Development Survey, AmbrishDongre, April 27 2017, Research 5 The Indian Express Press Trust of India | Mumbai | Published: June 25, 2014 9:44 pm6 http://www.business-standard.
com/article/news-ani/bombay-hc-stays-reservation-order-for-marathas-muslims-114111401165_1.html Bombay HC stays reservation order forMarathas, Muslims ANI | Mumbai Last Updated at November 14, 201416:50 IS Business Standard7hereditary occupation such as washerman, barber, weaver,carpenter, potter, fisherman, blacksmith, goldsmith, oil-crusher and besides afew middle castes primarily engaged in agriculture. Caste reservation in India: Policy and Politics K.C. Suri / Published by Indian Political Science Association 8 Reservation Policy in India – A seriousThreats to The Nation February 27,2016 Jindaldimple9 TheRoots of the Maratha Unrest Lie in Mumbai’s Changing Political Economy BYSUMEET MHASKAR ON 05/12/2016 The Wire10 Survey data also allows us to estimate the supportreceived by each party from different social sections.
HowMaharashtra voted: Behind BJP, upper castes, OBCs and rich. Lokniti-CSDSpost-poll analysis shows consolidation and fragmentation of community votes. Written by Suhas Palshikar | Mumbai | Updated: October 21, 2014.
The Indian express.