Introduction have been difficult. One of the important

IntroductionIndia, is known for itsculinary delights.

A country known for its sugary snacks is soon making its wayto a healthy lifestyle. With a young and tech savvy population, consumers areemerging as a health conscious population. Labeling is defining in the FederalFood, Drug and Cosmic Act (FFDCA) in the US as a written, printed or graphicmatter upon any article or any of its containers or wrappers. Labeling is asubset of packaging.

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Vendor/ Retailer needs to label their products.The labelmay be a simple tag attached to the manufactured goods or an richly designedgraphic which is a part of the package.Makingconsumers to eat healthy is no trivial task. As health is valued by everybodyand thus, is one of the essential drivers of human behaviour, attempts tochange eating habbits by informing consumers about the link between diet andhealth have been difficult. One of the important tools in trying to bring aboutmore healthy eating patterns has been nutrition labelling. Nutritional labeling isfound to affect the purchase behavior significantly. Some evidence reveals theprovision of nutrition information may allow consumers to switch consumptionaway from unhealthy food products in those food categories in the direction ofhealthy products in food sector easily.Improvements in nutrients intake of the population depend on the interaction ofdemand and supply forces in the food markets.

On the demand side consumers’interest in the purchase of diets and products with improved nutritionalprofiles has a direct effect on nutrient intake. Nutritional labels cansimplify the whole concept of healthy eating.  It helps to keep track of the amount of fatand sugar, sodium and fiber, protein and carbohydrates. It also allowsconsumers to make an informed judgement of a product’s overall value (APO,2002). Therefore, the nutritional panel is a guide to a better diet and ahealthier life (FDA, 1998). Consumers can use the nutritional label to makefood choices according to the Dietary Guidelines developed by health expertswho emphasize the importanceof a well-balanced diet.      The pack of the food isrequired to be marked with the following information:a. Name of the product andtrademark if anyb.

Name and address of themanufacturerc. Batch or code numberd. Net quantitye. Date of manufacturef. List of ingredientsg. Nutritional Claimh. Permitted Additivesi. MRPj.

Best before datek. Green dot markingvegetarian food  Introductionto Labeling Marketers use labeling totheir products to bring identification. This kind of labeling helps a viewer todifferentiate the product from the rest in the shelves of the market. There areseveral used of the label for the products in the market.Labeling is used forpackaging the product.

In marketing, a marketer can also use a sticker inedible products to impart knowledge of the ingredients of the food items. Thishelps to spread awareness among the customers about the item they are consumingand labeling also helps to mention ingredients. Types of labeling in marketingThere are various types oflabeling in marketing which are as follows: Branded Product LabelsFoodstuffs need to be identifiedto help with identification and play a key role in company brand construction. Branded Product Labels are tobe securely bonded to the product surface I such a way that it is best suitedto that product.

Thereare two types of branded labels:·       Removable: Removable product labels,on the other hand, need to adhere to the product only until they need to beremoved. ·       Non- Removable: With permanent labels, thebonding has to be fixed and the label should be difficult to remove and resistantto a number of factors like enviormental, physical or chemical etc. Eco or Information LabelsInformation Labels orEco-Labels are used on products such as foodstuff and FMCG. They are used toimpart information to the consumer about the product. Often these types aremade out of eco-friendly substances so that they do not interfere with theproducts they are associated with. Other Product Label TypesThere are a number ofdifferent label types that are in common usage around the world that areregular mass produced by specialist printing services.  What is product labeling?Product Labeling is animportant feature in marketing. It helps to market the product allowingcustomers to know about the item and give necessary messages includingingredients, instructions, and uses.

Product labeling can be donein a variety of sizes, materials, and shapes. This plays a key role as a pointof sale display in the market shelves. They can also communicate informationabout how to handle a product or how to dispose of it. One can use the labelingfor security reasons so that the product should not be misused. It is for thesepurposes that labeling has the logo or the trademark of the company.  What does a label include?A label needs to comply withthe Competition and Consumer Act 2010 (CCA). This Act is required to giveinformation to consumers, such as:·       The mandatory consumerproduct information standards under the CCA·       Industry specificregulations, such as the Food Standards Code·       Labels required by customsfor some imported products under the Commerce (Trade Descriptions) Act.     Review ofLiteratureThereview of literature on food label use connected to three types of food labelinformation that are most confined to conveying nutrition and healthinformation: nutrition labels, ingredient lists, and claims.

Generally,food label use studies focused on nutrition labels; although, the ingredients’lists and health/nutrient claims also play equally important roles in conveyingthe products’ health information to customers , therefore, are regulated in theUS by the FDA. InEU, the regulations on food labels are limited to claims. Although foodproducers willingly provide nutrition labels and ingredients lists on mostpackaged foods. There have been past researches by Campos et al; Mhurchu &Gorton, 2007, which adopts two broad categories to systematize the prose onfood label use: ·       The frequency: how often food labels are used ·       The understading: the ability to understand labelsThesemeasures can be supplementary divided into: Subjective Measures: self-reported evaluationof frequency, self ability to apply information ObjectiveMeasures: observation of food label consultation or evaluation of comprehensionusing questions.   Nutrition Labels Over 98% of FDA-regulatedprocessed, packaged foods have Nutrition Facts panels (NFPs) in the US androughly 84% of products in Europe have nutrition labels. Nutrition labelstypically contain information on serving size,calories, and amounts and/ordaily values of several vitamins, minerals, macronutrients, fats, carbohydrate,etc. In the US, the content ofNFPs is government regulated and includes calories, serving size, nutrients,and percentage of daily intake of each nutrient.

On the basis of primary aswell as secondary research almost to two-thirds of people are able tounderstand the basic nutrition information given on food labels. On the otherhand, understanding what the label says, decreases for more complex information.For example, Levy and Fein (Levy & Fein, 1998)found that most consumers 78% accurately identified nutrient differencesbetween two products; however, only 20% are able to calculate the contributionof a single food to their overall daily intake. Ingredient lists Additionally, the non-nutritioninformation e.

g. additives, ingredient lists contain significant nutritioninformation that contributes to the consumer’s assessment of a food’shealthfulness of the food that they are consuming. The US Dietary Guidelines2010 states that: “The ingredients list can be used to find out whether a foodor beverage contains synthetic trans-fats, solid fats, added sugars, wholegrains, and refined grains.” Ingredient lists provide an account of ingredientsof a product in descending order of proportion by weight (i.

e., ingredients atthe end of the list are present in smaller quantities). The FDA recommends thatthe lists contain all the specifications of all the ingredients to ensure thatthe consumer is informed. For example, basic constituentsof foods must be listed and products containing ingredients consisting ofseveral components must be listed in parentheses ({}). The Font size and presentation should be in compliance tofederal regulations to maximize legibility, but even when they do, the fontsize is a common problem for consumers’ use of ingredient listsConsumers frequentlyconsult the ingredient list portion of food labels. For example, self-reportedfrequency of ingredient list use as well as use of nutrition labels and claims is52% in a study by Ollberding et al., 2010 and higher 78%in another by Norazmir, Norazlanshah, Naqieyah, & Anuar, 2012.

 Healthand Nutrient Claims Healthclaims are proposed to inform scientifically established health benefits relatedto a particular food, for example, “diets high in calcium may reduce the riskof osteoporosis in people 50 years and above.” Another goal of nutrient contentclaim is to commune the value or relative amount of a specific nutrient withina food product (e.g., fat free, good source of fiber, low calorie, baked, sugarfree etc). Claimshave shown to impact how food label information is processed and influenceother dietary behaviors. For example, consumers sometimes use claims in placeof NFPs. Also, claims sometimes have little impact on product accessment and canalso be confusing and misleading.

Nevertheless, the claim understanding ishigher among those with greater experience and education (Dean, Lähteenmäki,& Shepherd, 2011; Verbeke, Scholderer, & Lähteenmäki, 2009).    NutritionKnowledge ConstructionNutritionknowledge refers to the information of concepts and processes related tonutrition and health including information of diet and disease, diet andhealth, foods consisting major sources of nutrients, dietary recommendations(Axelson & Brinberg, 1992; McKinnon, Giskes, & Turrell, 2014; Moorman,1996; Parmenter & Wardle, 1999). Althoughthere could be a different or narrow definition of nutrition knowledge which suggeststhat a broad definition of nutrition knowledge is needed to capture the complexand wide-ranging nature of the information used to update dietary choice. Thereis a similar argument which has the ability to use food labels draws on a widerange of situations and behaviors that could potentially draw on many areas ofnutrition knowledge. (Axelson & Brinberg, 1992; Li, Miniard, & Barone,2000), Parmenter and Wardle (1999) For example, acquaintance of the relationshipbetween cancer and diet may cause consumers to focus on the information givenon the nutrition label and the anti-carcinogenic ingredient in the list.

Knowledge of intake recommendations may join these pieces of nutritioninformation to decide whether the food product represents a healthful choicewithin the context of other foods the person consumes in a day. In accordancewith the information provided, the various aspects of nutrition knowledge/facts get relatable in such a way that they support each other       ConsumerPerceptionAttractive product layout is alsohelpful in differentiating the competitive brands and help to make finaldecisions based on product design. A study indicates that 60% to 70% decisionof final purchase is made on the basis of product labeling and product design. Frequentlyconsumers packaging plays that role. That is, the packaging plays the role ofnutrtional communication.