INTRODUCTIONThe classification of urban areas in India is done as Census Towns andstatutory towns, where the statutory towns contains Nagar Panchayats,Municipalities and Municipal Corporations which are constituted by state act,while the census towns are recognised by the census.
The term subaltern has been coined by a sociologist Gramscias, “low rank” person or group of people in a particular society sufferingunder hegemonic domination of a ruling elite class that denies them the basicrights of participation in the making of local history and culture as active individualsof the same nationThe concept of subaltern urbanisation refers to the growthof settlement agglomerations, whether denoted urban by the Census of India ornot, that are independent of the metropolis and autonomous in their interactionswith other settlements, local and global. (Eric Denis, Subaltern Urbanisation in India, 2012)If we compare the concept of subaltern with the urbanstructure in India, the Census Towns which are usually small and medium towns canbe considered as the subaltern (low rank) in character due to itsadministrative structure which is rural (Village Panchayat) in nature but,satisfying the three fold criteria of urban as denoted by Census of India i.e., Ø A minimum population of 5000Ø At least 75% of the male main working populationengaged in non-agricultural pursuitsØ A density of population of at least 400 personsper Sq.Km. Conceptual FrameworkThe subaltern urbanisation refers to autonomous growth ofsettlement agglomerations (which may or may not be denoted urban by the Censusof India) that are generated by market and historical forces, which are not (1) “Dependent” on large traditionally important settlementsor (b) “planned” cities like Chandigarh and Bhubaneswar or industrial townshipslike Mithapur, in Jamnagar district, Gujarat. The attempt is to investigate growthof settlements beyond that (1) driven by the economics of agglomeration, asadvanced by the new economic geography, summarised by Venables (2005) or (2) Directly orchestrated by the state or privatecorporate enterprise.
(Eric Denis, 2012)For subaltern urbanisation, a necessary characteristic isindependence from the metropolis and a degree of autonomy. This does notpreclude the presence of linkages among settlements. Settlements may also havea mix of autonomous and dependent (on a metropolis) urbanisation processes,varying over time. Based on the observed pattern of urbanisation, we try to characterisesubaltern urbanisation on two axes, viz, spatial proximity and administrativerecognition. On the spatial proximity axis, we consider two types, viz, (1)peripheral, where the settlement is located in the periphery to the metropolis,and (2) non-peripheral, or all other settlements. On the administrativerecognition axis, we posit the following four types of settlements, viz, (1)invisible, or not recognised as urban; (2) denied, or classified as a censustown; (3) recognised, as a statutory town; and finally (4) contested, where thesettlement is contesting its administrative status.
The last can be of two subtypes;first, where the administrative classification is rural but the settlementwants to be recognised as urban and second, where the settlement wants to berural but the administrative classification is urban.Need for the StudyAs quoted by (Kundu) the economic anddemographic growth in these towns must be supported through specificinterventions because, if left to market forces, it would take decades fortheir economic transformation and to get linked with the national market. Thereis an urgent need to make them “a part of India’s future urbanisation”, and ifwe look into the urbanisation rate of India the current rate as of 2011 is 31%out of which the settlements the falls under the spatial buffer around metropolitancities concludes 37.2%, or 926 (of 2,489) of settlements and 33.
6% of thepopulation fall within these buffers, indicating that much of this growth isoutside the peripheries of existing large towns.The thesis aims to study the economic structure of such smalland medium towns which are autonomous in their economic behaviour through anypredominant economic activity, the aim of the study is to know the inter settlementlinkages, socio-economic structure which are usually of linked with theneighbouring metropolis and further determines the lacking in the developmentpolicies for such towns if they show a varied economic structure unlike theother dependent small and medium towns.AimTo assess the spatial economic changes of the settlement Objectives:1. Determining the existing scenario of economicactivity and its impact on spatial transformation.
2. Analysing the economic pattern and its spatiallocation.3. Comparative analysis of economic contributionand its trade pattern.4.
Evolving strategies for economic and spatialdevelopment of the town.