INTRODUCTION The definition of ‘sustainable development isthe ability to meet the needs of the present without compromising the abilityof future generations to meet their own needs’ (World Commission on Environmentand Development, 1987 cited by Sayce, Mclntosh, Walker, 2004). The characterfor sustainability design is the intention of the site and region thatresponding to the environmental by Architect Glen Murcutt.
(William, 2007). Industrialdevelopment has improved much better compared to previous processes that wasmade during the past. However, the economics of industrial increased andinfluenced the people that has difficulties achieving the desired livingstandards. Figure 1 – The three rings of sustainabilityillustrate interdependence of the elements As William (2007) said, sustainable energiesis the power for the solutions. The importance of sustainable thinking isproduced from endurance and beauty. A method to solve the economics, social andenvironmental challenges of the project is created by the significant of sustainabilitydesign. Energy efficiency is way past discussion if the “get-to” place issustainability.
The central to sustainable design andplanning are how the projects are designed and predominantly how the designprogram is interpreted. In addition, if energy efficiency does not consist aspart of program requirement on the project, requirements will hardly befulfilled. Therefore, if sustainable design is the foundation of the programrequirement, the design solution is category from energy, form, constructionprocesses, materials, native place, and long life.’ ‘Green design is an element of sustainabledesign and is about the environmentally responsible and resource-efficientthroughout a building’s life-cycle. The ‘work’ is done for free when the purposeof design powered by design solutions that consist sustainable energies. Freework is provided by natural system and it powers all ecology.'”As architects and planners, work on aproject until it is done, then move on to the next one been taught.
But design,like sustainability, is a dynamic and living process. Sustainability is not apoint that when reached, all is fine. Sustainability, in another word,continuum, as a calculus: dp ® S,meaning design and planning approachingsustainability. There are no other ways to look at sustainability. A designis sustainable, or it is not.
Adjustments can be made to make a buildingsustainable when it is not. If it is sustainable, in all certainty that it willbe changing and evolving. Sustainability is not invariable – it is frequentlychanging, based on evolving knowledge that connects science and design.” ‘With a functioning unplugged design from externalnon-renewable energy sources and resources, a building will definitely besustainable. It is not sustainable if the building or community is highlyenergy efficient but cannot function unplugged. Designers will start to takethe steps to creating sustainable buildings once they embrace the unpluggedchallenge. Design creates sustainability.’There are three components that should beconsidered in the design process which is connectivity, indigenous, and longlife.
Firstly, connectivity is about the relationship between the project, thesite, the community, and the ecology. Make fewer changes to the natural systemfunctioning. The place specific with Natural characteristics should bereinforce and steward. Secondly, indigenous is design with and for what hasbeen resident and sustainable on the site for centuries. Lastly, long life isregarding the design for future generations while reflecting past generations.
PRINCIPLES OF SUSTAINABILITY BUILDINGS Environmental Sustainability Environmentalsustainability is concerned with the conversation of natural resources, theavoidance of pollution, the minimising of waste and the protection ofbio-diversity. Not only that, it is also concerned with the reduction inactivities believed to contribute to global warming. One ofthe vital environmental issue is the energy consumption because of fossil fueldepletion and also for its contribution to carbon emissions which in turn areassociated to global warming. Buildings take up to 50% of all energy consumedcompare with 25% each in industry and transport in the UK energy, consumptionis of special importance to it. Approximately up to 90% of building energy isconsumed in use rather than construction, but that energy used in buildings iswasteful with up to 75% and is fixable by altering it with some simpleimprovements. In relation to the environmental sustainability of buildings, thereare many other considerations including minimising waste, location factors andso on. Only 2%of our building stock are represented by new buildings and determining the fateof an existing building brings many other factors into play including theoccupiers’ understanding of and commitment to a sustainable environment on aglobal scale.
Theinterests of different stakeholder groups can sometimes conflict and thecapital costs of meeting environmental objectives may not be reflected inbenefits or returns for those responsible for the expenditure during the lifecycle of a building. The objectiveis to identify some of the different and potentially conflicting issues whichneed to be considered and to help owners, users and the wider community tounderstand the matter to be addressed. Accordingto Hawken, Lovins and Lovins (1999:3), “Humankind has inherited a 3.8billion-year store of natural capital. At present rates of use and degradation,there will be little left by the end of the next century.” (Cited by Sayce,Walker and Mclnthosh, 2004) There aresome main points from environmental sustainability of a building which is,environmental degradation, ozone depletion, global warming, fossil fuel, acidrain, sick buildings, water or air pollution and the building internalenvironment.
Environmental degradationhas some key physical manifestations of the ‘environmental problem’ which haveparticular relevance to the buildings are shown. Ozone Depleting Substances (ODS)are used in refrigeration, air conditioning, building insulation and firefightingequipment in buildings. The loss of this natural protective layerwhich can lead to increased incidence of skin cancer, eye complaints, anddamage to crops has been more focused on brings attention on the exhaustion ofozone at high levels and the anticipated global warming which will arise from.Global warming is believed by many already to have caused significant climate changes,which are likely to increase unless the underlying factors are addressed withina relatively short time-scale. It is caused by emission of the so-called”greenhouse gases” which are water vapour, Carbon Dioxide (CO2), Methane (CH4),Nitrous Oxide (N2O), and halocarbons CFC11 and CFC12. But the major problemsrelated with global warming are the climate changes, which is occurring at arate sufficient to affect the ecological balance and flooding and violentweather patterns, which again also affect the areas of land suitable fordevelopment and the types of building which would be sustainable for theselocations. Both of these have an impact on the type and nature of developmentspossible and of course have a knock-on effect on insurance of buildings andtheir value.
Next is fossil fuel depletion, the UK is still dependent on fossilfuel with less than 10% of its energy being obtained from renewable sources,such as water, wind and solar power. Fossil fuel depletion causes tworequirement which are the need to reduce fuel consumption where this is basedon fossil fuel and the need to ensure that alternative sources of power areutilised wherever possible. Pollution emissions in heavy industrial areas, andis typical of a ‘trans-boundary’ problem leads to acid rain. Sick buildingsthat mean a variety of factors including harmful chemical emissions fromcarpets and other building materials, combined with occasional pathogensbreeding in the constantly recycled air in the ventilation systems, causedillness amongst the building occupants. Air pollution can be caused by buildinguse and process emission and by traffic emission. Sulphur dioxide, lead, carbondioxide and particulates are the type of pollution. Traffic pollution is a majorproblem that is being capture primarily through planning legislation. Waterpollution, resulted by run-off from agriculture chemicals, sewage andindustrial discharges is also a growing problem.
Above are considered as thebuilding external environment. Moreover, the internal environment ofbuildings are concerned as light, ventilation, noise, and pollution control. Light Topenergy consumer in most buildings are artificial lights. To reduce the use ofartificial lights, bringing in more natural light and the duration of it. Thisalso has benefit of creating a better environment.
For example, by adding largewindows it can distribute light deeper into a building, reducing dependence onartificial lighting. However, natural light may produce its own problem with onVDU screens or associated heat gain. Therefore, apart from the benefits insaving energy and reducing running costs, natural light increases thesense of wellbeing in the building users. Ventilation Without the use of fan or any other source of ventilation/airin a building it could bring in more natural ventilation like the process ofsupplying and removing air through an indoor space by natural means. It usesoutdoor air flow caused by pressure differences between the building and itssurrounding to provide ventilation and space cooling. There are pros and consto this process and some of the cons are the potential to spread disease, poor airquality dust dirt etc. that can have effect on maintenance or cleaning offabric and plant, as well as circulating smells and odours.
Some of the pros tothis is that the raising concerns regarding the cost and environmental impactof energy use can be solved. Not only does natural ventilation provideventilation (outdoor air) to ensure safe healthy and comfortable conditions forbuilding occupants without the use of fans, it also provides free coolingwithout the use of mechanical systems. As natural ventilation becomesincreasingly important in terms of occupier satisfaction as well as energyusage, buildings that do not offer the possibility of good utilisation ofnatural light may well be compromised increasingly in terms of their life span. NoiseNoise canbe a problem to some individuals for example, internal noise and disturbancebetween users, physical damage, disturbance to neighbours, noise through walls,and noise from plant are all important considerations.
Not only does the externalnoise is constrained by legislation in residential areas it also occurs inworking areas where noise from construction and demolition disrupts the workingenvironment and reduces productivity. Where environmental impact assessmentsare required as part of a planning application the effect of the building worksis a consideration to be taken into account in determining the application. Indue course it is likely that similar considerations will be applied to smallerbuildings. Pollution control There are many forms of environmentalpollution arising from building use, including noise, smells, light andvibration.
Light pollution and the risks of pollution arising from the disposalof waste have already been considered. A significant proportion of pollutionhowever is airborne and is the result of direct discharge of fumes, combustionmaterials, chemicals used in industrial processes or polluted air fromventilation systems and air conditioning plant. Historically one of the mostpervasive causes of pollution was the effect of coal smoke on the environmentin towns which not only gave rise to day-long smogs, health risks, loss ofproduction, and hazards for transport but also caused extensive damage tobuildings. In addition to the sources of pollution mentioned above, somebuilding materials have toxic or pollution effects.Socialsustainability There is no single definition of socialsustainability; it depends on the context. Principal concern of socialsustainability include issues of health and safety, well-being and respect forpeople. Social sustainability is increasingly related to matters of corporategovernance and business ethics; collectively labelled as Corporate SocialResponsibility (CSR). Economic success is now seen as linked to adherence toCorporate Social Responsibility (CSR) principles.
For building, socialsustainability relates to matters of location, planning and buildingregulations. In the workplace social sustainability relatesprimarily to issues of health and well-being, including health and safety andthe relevant regulations; employment including utilisation of skills andknowledge; eradication of poverty and child labour; inclusivity, equity andco-operation; relationships, working and personal and including respect forpeople and stakeholder dialogues; information management and security; values,norms and ethics; and fair governance. These issues are about dealing withpeople fairly in the cause of promoting what UK government has espoused as abetter quality of life (DETR, 1999) which through the application of Agenda 21to the policies at local level aims to create equitable and sustainablecommunities. The Natural Step organisation (www.naturalstep.org) in defining its principles ofsustainability describes the aim thu: ‘ contribute as much as we can to thegoal of meeting human needs in our society and world-wide, going over and aboveall the substitution and dematerialization measures taken in meeting the firstthree objectives of sustainability.’ The message they promote is of theefficient use of resources within a framework of fairness and properresponsibility so that the needs of all people can be best assured now and onan intergenerational basis. There is a matter of process and regulation insocial sustainability part.
The difficulties inherent in defining andimplementing social sustainability are debated in the research papers of theSigma Project (Henriques and Raynard, 2001). The authors define socialsustainability in terms of both process and substantive achievement elements.Noting the difficulties experienced at the macro and governmental level theyadvocate a process definition where social sustainability needs to be seen interms of adherence to standards, the development of which will set theframeworks and mechanism within which goals can be set and measured. It followsfrom this that an essential ingredient of social sustainability is governanceand both self and governmental regulation. There are several strands to human well-beingranging from issues such as the quality of the environment within which peopleoperate to matters of physical protection and security. On a global scale itembraces that right to self-determination and political freedom; on a microscale it encompasses the right to live without fear of attack in safe citystreets.
Another important aspect of human well-being is that of health andeducation. Indeed these dominate the human development indicators published bythe United Nations Development Programme (www.hdr.undp.
org) which lists theindicators of human well-being as follows:- Lifeexpectancy, including both at birth and overall. This is a surrogate forhealth;- Education,including participation rates at both secondary and tertiary levels and adultliteracy;- GrossDomestic Product (GDP) per head.While the composition of the index is notwithout its critics it does demonstrate the emphasis placed on health andeducation as measures of well-being. Work issues are closely linked to humanwell-being.
They concern fair remuneration as well as health and safety in theworkplace, working hours etc. With global trade, the issue of worker protectionfrom exploitation is not a domestic matter only.If the goal is towards more sustainablebuildings, then the social sustainability characteristics of buildings shouldbe considered as part of the evaluation as being worthy of retention. At thelevel of the building, social sustainability may be a goal but it is not yetone that has been reached in any quantifiable way. This section and the BSAT(Building Sustainability Assessment Tool) aim to address this deficiency, atleast in part. In order to investigate the issue of social sustainability ofbuildings it must be seen from the perspective of both an internal and externalstakeholder.
EconomicSustainability of Buildings Economic sustainability has no specificdefinition as it all depends on the prevailing economic system. Nowadays,economic concepts are recognised but no profits are made and full allowance forexternal costs and benefits are also usually not made especially to thoserelating to external stakeholders. Sustainable buildings typically have lessannual costs for energy, water, maintenance and other operating expenses. Atits simplest it can be defined as that the economic activity which continues inthe short and long term to the extent that the revenue or over all returngenerated exceeds the cost of its creation. The basic assumption is that,within Measuring economic sustainability from globalto organisational measurement starting with the global perspective it is clearthat definitions of economic sustainability mean different things to differentgroups of people – depending on their relationship with the organisation underconsideration. Economic sustainability is usually considered in terms of grossdomestic product (GDP), real incomes and a range of other indicators, includingemployment.
The World Bank tracks a range of indicators to measure successincluding economic prosperity measured in GDP terms, economic growth rates,debt and its ability to be managed and savings and investment(www.worldbank.org).
Economic sustainability at the organisationlevelThe measurement of economic success of anindividual organisation will normally be viewed in relation to standardaccounting precepts. It is normally a matter of liquidity, profitability andbalance sheet reserves. However, success, as measured in the short-term, doesnot constitute sustainability, which is essentially a long-term concept. Accommodating external stakeholders within aframework for economic sustainability The analysis above points to a view ofeconomic sustainability that is still inward focused, although the views of theexternal stakeholders are becoming of increasing importance. It is wellrecognised within economic theory that all ‘private’ economic decisions haveexternal consequences or ‘externalities’.
In other words, every action has asocial consequence, which goes beyond the immediate economic considerations ofthe private decision maker and affects external stakeholders.For example, the private use of a buildingcreates CO2 emissions and may cause air pollution, while the travel to it canlead to traffic congestion.Economic sustainability for buildings –wealth creating versus wealth consuming buildingsAny discussion of buildings and economicsustainability needs to be preceded with a brief understanding of how buildingsrelate to the creation and consumption of wealth. Very broadly, buildings canbe categorised into wealth creating buildings and wealth spending buildings.
Economic viability of buildingsAs discussed above a building’s form andconstruction has long-term implications even with regard to its demolition andthe possible reuse of its elements. Most buildings, with adequate maintenance,are capable of survival over considerable periods even when designed like thepost war prefab for a finite life-span. The design life of building isincreasingly governed by life-cycle costing considerations but despite theexistence of a specific life expectation in practice economic sustainabilitywill normally outweigh other considerations in determining its life span. Internal stakeholder economic viability When undertaking any conventional propertyappraisal for private investment purposes, whether in connection with proposeddevelopment or redevelopment or for other purposes, the effects of the buildingon other parties, economic or otherwise, are ignored.
The concerns of differentinternal stakeholder sub-group differ and it is useful to consider these asfollows.