Background of Study
of athletes use nutritional ergogenic aids in an effort to improve both the
quality and the quantity of training and to enhance their performance toward
the competition. Without a doubt, under specific conditions many ergogenic aids
have been shown to have a good effects on athletic performance, body
composition and strength and it is possible that ingestion of additional
nutrients may be necessary during high intensity exercise to allow for maximal
expression of endurance and strength gains.
Creatine (Cr) is the most popular supplement
in sports nutrition, because it can establish the level of muscle phosphocreatine.
The ergogenic e?ects
of Cr supplements have been declared in particular anaerobic and repeated
sprint exercises with resistance training over increases in power and lean
mass. The benefits of Cr ingestion have been mostly attributed to the consequent
restore in phosphocreatine (PCr) content in muscle. Most studies investigating
the effect of Cr supplementation on exercise performance have used a loading scheme,
by ingesting a dose of 20-25 g/day for 4-5 days. Several studies to date have
revealed beneficial effects of both chronic and acute of Cr supplementation on
power, speed and strength in athletes. Stone et al. (2003), McGuine et al.
(2002) and Zuniga et al. (2012) have show that Cr supplements provide an
ergogenic aid in activities involving repetitive bouts of high intensity
anaerobic performance. To close, the purpose of this study is to observe the
effects of creatine supplements on aerobic and anaerobic performance.
to Fukuda, Kendall, Cramer & Stout (2011), creatine (Cr) supplementation
had no ergolytic influence on lab or field based measures of endurance
performance, including VO2max. On other hand, some other researchers have shown
that Cr supplements increased anaerobic running capacity in men, but not in
women (Fukuda, Smith, Kendall, Dwyer, Kerksick, Beck, Cramer & Stout, 2010).
As studied by Kaczmarek (2016), total work production during supramaximal
intermittent exercise was higher after Cr supplementation by bout one and two
respectively, but in bout three the total work done was about 2% lower. On the
other hand, four day period of Cr supplementation produced a significant
improvement in anaerobic Wingate tests (AWTs) performance while the execution
of Cr with consumption of carbohydrate did not improve AWTs performance
(Theoduru, Paradisis, Smpokos, Chatzinikolaou, Fatouros, King & Cooke,
2017). However, studies on soccer players reported that short term Cr
supplementation does not enhance prolonged soccer-specific exercise performance
(Williams, Abt & Kilding, 2014).
There are contradicting results of the effects
of Cr supplements on sports performance.
To date, there are no clear results on the effects of Cr supplements on
aerobic and anaerobic performance. The question is which types of performance
will improve when consuming of Cr supplements. Therefore, the objective of this
study is to examine the effects of Cr supplements on aerobic and anaerobic
purpose of this study is to investigate and compare the effects of consuming
creatine supplements on aerobic and anaerobic performance.
There is no
significance differences in increasing anaerobic performances with creatine
findings of this study along with the current research in this area will give
the benefit to sport nutritionist and coach in increasing the performance of
athletes in endurance sports with the ergogenic aid which is consuming creatine
supplements. This research outcomes also will help sport nutritionist identify
what the type of exercises that most suitable when athletes taking creatine
supplements to enhance their performances. Beside, this research will also
contributes the benefit to coach to increase performance of their athletes to
the maximum level in sprints or weighlifting events. Last but not least, this
study will also give knowledges to athletes and sport enthusiast in consuming
the suitable supplements that might be increase their performance in sports.
Definition of Terms
Creatine is a compound the body synthesizes and
then makes use to save energy. The storage of energy occurs while phosphate
molecules are attached to creatine to create creatine phosphate.
Aerobic is physical exercise of low to high
intensity that depends primarily on the aerobic energy-generating process. It
is refers to the use of oxygen to adequately meet energy demands during exercise.
To test this performance, 2.4 kilometres run can be use.
Anaerobic is exercise that short and high intensity activity,
where the body is demand for oxygen is more than the oxygen deliver
available. To test this performace, 100 metres sprint can be use.
of Creatine Supplements
become one of the mostly studied and scientifically validated nutritional
ergogenic aids for athletes. As phosphocreatine (PCr) stores in short supply
during intense exercise, energy availability reduce due to the inability to
resynthesize energy at the rate required to continue high intensity exercise. It
will decrease the ability to continue maximal effort exercise. The availability
of PCr in the muscle may significantly influence the amount of energy generated
during brief periods of high intensity exercise. Theoretically, creatine
supplementation during training may lead to better training adaptations due to
an improved quality and volume of work performed.
of Creatine on Aerobic Performance
to Fukuda, Kendall, Cramer, & Stout (2011), the findings of study showed
that Cr loading does not negatively e?ect
running performance. This is because Cr supplementation may boost PCr
availability for the contribution toward ATP turnover during oxidative
metabolism, prolonging the rise in ADP concentrations. More so, both lab and
field based measures demonstrated similar results, allowing for the application
of Cr supplementation to extend to running based athletic settings without
concern for a negative influence on performance. Furthermore, additional
studies have reported no e?ect
of Cr loading on submaximal incremental, moderate or supramaximal exercise.
Similarly, the present study demonstrated no detrimental e?ects of Cr loading on
continuous incremental running to exhaustion. It has been hypothesized that Cr
supplementation may enhance PCr availability for the contribution toward ATP turnover
during oxidative metabolism, prolonging the rise in ADP concentrations.
of Creatine Supplements on Anaerobic Performance
Paradisis, Smpokos, Chatzinikolaou, Fatouros, King & Cooke (2017), stated
that Cr supplementation improved in AWTs performance while the execution of Cr
with consumption of carbohydrate (CHO) did not. It is due to the combined Cr
and CHO was increased in blood lactate production and may lead to decreased
provision of energy via anaerobic glycolysis. So, they concluded that Cr
supplements will improve in anaerobic performance. As studied by Kaczmarek
(2016 ), total work production during supramaximal intermittent exercise was higher
after Cr supplementation. It was probably caused by an increased ability to
resynthesize PCr during the recovery periods. The results support the
consumption of Cr prior to anaerobic performance.
Creatine Combinations with Carbohydrates
to Theoduru, Paradisis, Smpokos, Chatzinikolaou, Fatouros, King & Cooke
(2017), the findings of their study suggest that the ingestion of carbohydrates
while performing an acute creating loading regimen does not result in any
additional benefit for anaerobic performance compared to acute Cr loading alone
in physically active participants. The combined creatine and carbohydrate
loading regimen prescribed in the present study has been shown to result in a
60% greater increase of muscle total creatine content (TCr) compared to the one
produced following Cr loading alone.
Research Conceptual Framework
Independent variable Dependent variables
This study involves quantitative research using
experimental design to compare the effects of creatine supplements on aerobic
and anaerobic performance. Subjects will be consumed two different supplements
which are Cr monohydrate and placebo (control group) on five consecutive days.
Each subject will be given a resealable plastic bag that contained 20 packets
of Cr monohydrate supplements and placebo (5g of each packets). They will be
consumed 20g (4 packets) each day of the supplements. Subjects will be tested
using 2.4 km run test to measure the aerobic performance after consuming Cr
supplements for five consecutive days. Subjects will be tested using 30 m
sprint test to measure the anaerobic performance after consuming Cr supplements
for five consecutive days. The independent variable for this research is
creatine supplements while aerobic and anaerobic performance are dependent
recreationally active men and women who aged between 20 to 35 years old are
volunteer to participate in this research. All subjects, who fit and had no
history of major physical injury or disease, volunteer to participate in this
A consent form will be given to each
subject stated the subjects are attached with this research until it is done. During
this research, the subjects will be asked to avoid from doing
any physical activity and consuming nutritional supplements, for at least 24
hour before testing. A set of
questionnaires on health screening (PAR-Q) will be distributed to each subject. Subjects are
separated into two groups; A, and B. Test for both groups will be held on two
non-consecutive days. Only the type supplements (Cr supplements and Placebo)
used is different while the test used to measure the aerobic and anaerobic
performance still the same within both of groups.
Protocol & Testing Program
1. This study will be conducted in
randomized, double-blind, placebo-
Subjects will be randomly assigned
to a creatine group (Cr – 5 g of Cr monohydrate per packet; n = 15) or placebo
(PL – 5 g of dextrose powder per packet; n = 15).
To ensure that subjects consumed
their assigned supplement, subjects will be required to put the empty packets
back into the plastic bag and return it to researcher at post testing to be
Subjects will be verbally reminded
each day to consume their Cr supplements 4 times per day, within 3 to 4 hours
between doses in 5 consecutive days. During this study, subjects will be asked
to avoid from doing any physical activity and consuming nutritional
supplements, for at least 24 hour before testing.
The subjects will be mixed the Cr
powder in approximately 200 ml of water or fruit juice.
After subjects consuming Cr
supplements and placebo for 5 consecutive days, they will be tested using 2.4
km run test to measure the aerobic performance.
After 24 hours of recovery, the
subjects will made last visit and they will be tested using 30 m sprint test to
measure the anaerobic performance.
The subjects will be performed 3
trials of 30 m sprint test and 1 min rest interval between the trials. The
better time of three trials will be used for analysis.
Different supplement protocols
during five consecutive days
Adapted from Fukuda,
Kendall, Cramer, & Stout (2011)
Statistical analysis of the effects Cr monohydrate supplements on
aerobic and anaerobic performance will be analyzed with one-way repeated
measures ANOVA. Results will be presented as mean ± standard deviation. The
Bonferroni adjustments will be approved out to confirm the significance of
differences. Statistical significance will be accepted at p-value ? 0.05 level
of confidence. All data in this study will be analyzed using Statistical
Package for the IBM SPSS 2017.