INTRODUCTION Theair pollution is generally accomplished through pollutants of gases and solidand liquid particles of both organic and inorganic chemical. It is true thatair is never pure because some gases such as sulphur dioxide, carbon monoxide, hydrogen sulphideemissions from volcanoes, swamps, dust, salt spray, pollens from plants, etc..,are continuously added to the air by these natural processes. Thus air becomespolluted when its natural composition is distributed either by natural ormanmade sources or activities by both.Thecontamination of air with dust,a smoke and harmful gas is called air pollution.Theatmosphere is a gaseous envelope which surrounds the earth from all the sidesand the air is a composition of several gases mainly nitrogen, oxygen, argon,and carbon dioxide .
Air is very important for all type of biosphere. Even humanlife is not possible without air because man can survive for a few days withoutfood but cannot live even for fewminutes without air or oxygen. Pollutionis a man made problem, mainly of effluent countries. The developed countrieshave been in a race to exploit every bit of natural resources to convert theminto goods for their comfort, and to export them to needy developing world. indoing so, the industrialized countries dump a lot of materials in their environment which become polluted .in one way pollution has been a fact ” exported” todeveloping countries . It is practically not possible toenumerate all factors that pollute and degrade the physical and socialenvironment the pollution comes at every step in our life in fact is sopervasive that you cannot get away from it. SOURCESOF AIR POLLUTION:- Thereare two major sources of air pollution as follow:-1.
Natural sources – volcanic eruptions,deflations of sand and dust, forest, or wild fires of natural vegetation are thenatural calamities that are responsible for air pollution2. Man made sources – there are many manmadesources which is causing air pollution such as industries, factories,urbanisation , cement factories, automobile , agriculture power plants and etc. The man made particlesare released in air and can cause air pollutionFrom the different sources of air pollutions, a variety ofpollutants are released into atmosphere. The principles air pollutants emitted from these differentsources are as follow: (i) Carbon compounds – carbon dioxide and carbon monoxideare the main types of pollutants that are released by the fossil fuels andburning of petrols, diesels from automobiles(ii) Sulphur compounds – SO2, H2S and sulphuric acid are thepollutants that are released by fossil fuel and the latter by auto mobile exhaust.(iii) Nitrogen oxides- nitrogen monoxide, nitrogen oxideare the main compounds that are mostly released by automobiles, power plantsand industries.(iv) Ozone- its level may rise in atmosphere due to human activities.Ozone in the upper layer of atmosphere is good but is very harmful that when itis in the lower part of the atmosphere because it can cause many diseases inhuman and especially children.
(v) Fluorocarbons-this particles are released from industries,insecticides, spray, etc. It can cause problems not only in humans but plants aswell and can also pollute the water bodies(vi) Hydrocarbons – these are from industries,insecticides, spray etc.(vii) Metals- these includes chiefly lead, nickel are present inatmosphere and air as solid particles or liquid droplets or gases. They areproduced mostly by metallurgical processes, automobiles, sea spray, and etc. TYPES OF AIR POLLUTION:- Air pollution is classified on two basesas follow:1. On the basis of type of pollutants, and2.
On the basis of types of sources of pollutants. 1. On the basis of type of pollutants arefurther divided into two categories. These are (a) gaseous population and (b)particulate air pollutants. 2. On the basis of sources of air pollutions issub divided into six categories.
The names of the six categories are automobilepollution, industrial pollution, thermal pollution, urban pollution, rural pollutionand lastly nuclear pollution. Generally these approaches are used to describethe air pollution. There is overlapping among various ways used for thispurpose. METHOD OF DETECTION OF AIR POLLUTIONAND ITS MEASUREMENT :- Air pollutionis usually measured taking the sample of air by thermal and by electrostatic,sonikin,and impactor and collector . The particulate pollution is examined bythe instrument which is called deposit gauge or by Owens dust counters.
The thickness of smoke measured by Liegean spheres and fluorides are estimated by colour reactions. ADVERSE EFFECTS OF AIR POLLUTION:- Air pollution causesseveral kind of damage to man, animals, plants, and also on weather, climate,and atmosphere processes. 1. Air pollution has a veryserious type of pathological effect on man .it can cause several type ofdiseases in human.2.
It also causes obstructionto vision of pilots and has caused air craft accident.3. Air pollution is damagingboth agricultural crops and natural plants and vegetation.
4. There has also been injuryto agricultural live stock, particularly from air bone fluoride and arsenicpollution.5. Air pollution also effectsweather and climate on regional, continental and global bases. The global has ahuge loss both environment and health of human as well.6. Air pollution also takes it role of buildingand other manmade objects such as famous building, monuments and art treasures.7.
The increased amount ofcarbon dioxide in atmosphere cause to increase the temperature of earth. GREENHOUSE EFFECT it also tends to prevent the long wave radiation from earth .thusit has atmospheric effect. The intensity of RADITION will cause skin cancer.8. The jet engines ofsupersonic aircraft flying at high attitude release nitrogen oxide whichdestroys ozone molecules. It has also atmospheric adverse effect it causesozone hole. HEALTHEFFECTS DUE TO AIR POLLUTION:-Air pollution cause a great threat toenvironment.
Not only humans but animals, birds, plants all are gettingaffected. As the aftereffects are slow people are not taking it seriously. Itis becoming irreversible day by day. Air pollution has become a worldwidephenomenon.Every other individual is are causing air pollution and are also gettingaffected by it not only by a local or regional level but by a global level. FOG ORSMOG??:- At regional level its effects can bethe change in the visibility of air and also the harmful effects caused by it.
Like for example every mornings in winter the visibility decreases due to the Smokeyappearance in the air. The people who call it as a fog is not a fog. It is notcalled fog but smog. Burning of petrol’s, diesels from automobiles and smokefrom industries emits lots of harmful particles which are formed due toincomplete combustion of particles like PM, VOCs, CO and nitrogen oxide (NOx)which are very bad for the health. If theyare present in lower levels then the pollutants are dispersed equally but if inhigher amount the smog gets very concentrated and canCause a great deal to human beings.Generally hot air remains on the top and cool air remains in the bottom so insummers the hot air rises above so the pollutants also gets cycled but in thewinter season due to the inversion in the air of different stratospheres thepollutants get concentrated in the bottom and forms smog.
HEALTHEFFECTS DUE TO AIR POLLUTANTS:- It is very dangerous to breathe insmog because the particles called “pollutants” enter into the respiratorysystem and affect our normal health. Smog contains a particle called ozone. Theelevated amount of ozone can cause a great deal to our health, especially toour lungs. Also the carbon monoxide present in the atmosphere cause a greatdeal to our health. Carbonmonoxide diffuses faster in the haemoglobin thanoxygen due to which the depletion in the transportation of the oxygen in thecells occurs. The high amount of oxygen can also cause someone’s death. Theeffects of the smog in the body include Coughing and the infection of throat.High levels of ozone can irritate the respiratory system which can last forhours and can also harm our lungs slowlyIt can worsen the asthma problems andcan trigger the asthma attacksEven a normal, healthy and fit humanbeings will find it harder to breathe and can detoriate our lungs.
It affects very differently to everyother individual. Like the small children and the senior citizens will get moreaffected by this. Therefore the children’s and the senior citizens are advisedto be careful on the smoggy days especially in the morning and wear masks toprevent the particles enter in our nostrils. Delhi, the place where we areliving right now is facing a huge problems due to this. The air quality indexranges from 0 to 300 and even the AQI is 150 then it is considered veryunhealthy.
The AQI inDelhi is ranging from 200-300 which is very harmful allthe citizens residing in Delhi.The pollutants present in the airbecause of air pollution can cause acute illness and even death of the humanbeings and the organisms. Although the process is slow and may take decades toappear but are very harmful.
The first site where it affects in the human bodyis the respiratory system.Bronchitis, emphysema, asthma lungcancer are some of the diseases that are caused due to air pollution. Somepollutants in the atmosphere comes in the class of carcinogens (substances whichcan cause cancer). The rate is higher in the urban areas.The effect of pollution made by humanis not only faced by humans but plants animals and the whole atmosphere.
Theanimals are also facing a bit of similar kind of diseases like human do. Thedifference is we have house and the presence of air purifiers these days arehelping us but the animals live in aexplicit environment. So the only optionfor them is to live and survive in the explicit environment and face theconsequences of the effects of the harsh environment. Among the metallicpollutants lead, molybdenum are very harsh. Also fluorosis is caused in animalsdue to the fluoride present in the atmosphere. According to the survey the livestockin North America is poisoned due to the fluorides, lead etc. the total amountloos caused by the air pollution in USA is 1 to 2 billion dollars. Sulphurdioxide is the main cause that is affecting the Poland right now.
The cells inplants gets inactive due to the deposition of plants causing in tissue collapseand drying of leaves. The most affected plants are cotton, wheat, barley andapple.We all know these terms “GREEN HOUSEEFFECT”, “OZONE LAYER”. Air pollution also has a equal hand in these problems.As the carbon dioxide is increasing the temperature is rising which is causinggreenhouse effect, ozone layer depletion, melting of ice which is causing anextinction of many animals and also causing skin cancer in humans.We all know about TAJMAHAL.
Thesmoke, grit, dust and oxides in the air are causing air to change the colour ofTajmahal. It was started in 1972 when an oil refinery was opened near Agrawhich became a major issue. Sulphur dioxide is one of the main reasons why themarbles are getting oxidised causing of changing the colour of Tajmahal.
If we talk about pollutants, thedifferent pollutants that is causing the threat to health effects in human areSulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide,particulate matter, carbon monoxide, ozone, benzene, lead etc.HEALTH EFFECTS DUE TO NITROGENDIOXIDEThe oxides of nitrogen is veryharmful which can enter in the respiratory system through breathing. If theoxides go into the body in higher amount then it may increase thesusceptibility of the pathogen which are related to respiration. It can alsocause the risk of diseases like bronchitis, emphysema, cystic fibrosis, andbronchopneumonia and also decrease in the lung functions. It was observed that exposure on NO2 as low as 0.1ppm cancause this diseases and also respiratory diseases in children HEALTHEFFECTS DUE TO CARBONMONOXIDEAs it has been discussed earlier thatcarbon monoxide diffuses faster than oxygen. Therefore instead of oxygen bloodwill take up the carbon monoxide to form carboxy haemoglobin.
The affinity of carbonmonoxide in haemoglobin is 240 times than oxygen. Therefore cells will begetting carbon monoxide instead of oxygen and may cause the death of the humanbeings. It also affects the lung tissue and may affect the functions of lungs.The effects may be also seen in the heart and it can increase the risk of aperson of getting heart attack due to insufficient oxygen to all cells.Diseases also include atherosclerosis, hypertension etc.The infants and the children are alsoaffected by it.
Decrease in birth weight, delay in the mental development andpoisoning in kindey, bone immune capacity are some of the effects seen in theinfants and the children HEALTHEFFECTS OF OZONEOzone is present bin the upper layerof the atmosphere and is helping usby protecting us the harmful UV rays of thesun. if the ozone reaches in the lower atmosphere and in a greater amount thenit may cause various health effectsThe first effects that can be seen byelevated ozone are eye, chest discomfort, headache, cough, throat irritationetc.Ozone being a respiratory irritantreacts rapidly with tissues lining of the airway of the lungs. If an individualis exposed in higher amount of ozone even for 3-4 hours it can cause lunginflammation and may cause acute chronic health effects had also susceptibilityto pulmonary bacterial infections can cause to pulmonary bacterialinfections.
It may also effect immune system HEALTH EFFECTS DUE TO LEADOnce Maggifrom the nestlecompany has been banned due to the presence of lead in higheramount. It has been found that the lead has very bad effects on the humanbrain. It is how bad the lead is for the human beings. Lead is that kind ofpoison which not om=only effects the brain and the respiratory system but itcan also damage the kidneys, the reproductive system, the nervous system, andcan also cause high blood pressure. Children are more prone to the effectscaused by the lean because lead is diffused in the children’s body faster thanadults. In children the symptoms includelack of intelligence, behavioural problems, decrease ability to concentrate andlearning effects of the children because it directly effects the brain.
If thelevel of the lead is very high then the person can also go to coma and deathtoo.Lead is alsoharmful for the women because lead is stored in the bones for a very long timeand can release when the body needs calcium. So for the pregnant women in canbe fatal to the infant because it can cause the barrier of the placanta and cancause harm to the infants growth. HEALTH EFFECTS DUE TO BENZENEBenzene isknown to increase the carcinogenicity and also the risk in human because of theambient air. According to various studies scientists have found the link ofbenzene in chromosomal aberration, genetic change etc. benzene is alsoclassified as carcinogenic according to IARC (International Agency for Researchon Cancer).
It is been linked to increase the frequency of cancer in human.Exposure ofthis substance benzene in high level is linked to cause cancer in kidneys,testis, stomach, pancreas, and respiratory tract bladder and also uterus.Prolong exposure of benzene even in the high amount is linked to irregular heartbeat,headache, nausea, dizziness, unconsciousness and difficulty in sleeping whichcan cause stress in human being.The benzenealso acts as leukaemogen in human beings acting as an etiologic agent leadingto acute myelogenous leukaemia HEALTH EFFECTS DUE TO PARTICULATE MATTERTheparticulate matter can even cause external effects like effects direct on theskin like the blackening ion the skin surface. However particulate matterhaving a very very small size can enter inside the human body and any become asystemic poison. However the effects are dependent on the size of theparticles, solubility of the particles, the penetration time of the particles,the deposition etc.
Very veryfine particulate matter can cause irritation of the bronchospasm, pulmonary oedema,allergies and the particulate matter in higher quantity can cause lung disease.The acute effect f the particulate matter may cause the running of the nose,dry cough, wet cough, head cold, hay fever, fever, burning of red eyes HEALTH EFFECTS DUE TO SULPHURDIOXIDEThechronically effects of the sulphur dioxide in the human include cough,headache, shortness of breath, bronchitis, cold and fatigue. Most of the SO2 inthe atmosphere is converted to sulphate salts, which are removed bysedimentation or by washout along with precipitation thereby making rain wateracidic due to sulphuric acid formation and causing the effect to human health