INTRODUCTION It is true that air is never





air pollution is generally accomplished through pollutants of gases and solid
and liquid particles of both organic and inorganic chemical. It is true that
air is never pure because some gases such as sulphur dioxide,    carbon monoxide, hydrogen sulphide
emissions from volcanoes, swamps, dust, salt spray, pollens from plants, etc..,
are continuously added to the air by these natural processes. Thus air becomes
polluted when its natural composition is distributed either by natural or
manmade sources or activities by both.

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contamination of air with dust,a smoke and harmful gas is called air pollution.

atmosphere is a gaseous envelope which surrounds the earth from all the sides
and the air is a composition of several gases mainly nitrogen, oxygen, argon,
and carbon dioxide .Air is very important for all type of biosphere. Even human
life is not possible without air because man can survive for a few days without
food but   cannot live even for few
minutes without air or oxygen.

is a man made problem, mainly of effluent countries. The developed countries
have been in a race to exploit every bit of natural resources to convert them
into goods for their comfort, and to export them to needy developing world. in
doing so, the industrialized countries dump a lot of materials  in their 
environment which become polluted .in one  way pollution has been a fact ” exported” to
developing countries .


             It is practically not possible to
enumerate all factors that pollute and degrade the physical and social
environment the pollution comes at every step in our life in fact is so
pervasive that you cannot get away from it.











are two major sources of air pollution as follow:-

1.     Natural sources – volcanic eruptions,
deflations of sand and dust, forest, or wild fires of natural vegetation are the
natural calamities that are responsible for air pollution

2.     Man made sources – there are many manmade
sources which is causing air pollution such as industries, factories,
urbanisation , cement factories, automobile , agriculture  power plants and etc. The man made particles
are released in air and can cause air pollution

From the different sources of air pollutions, a variety of
pollutants are released into atmosphere. The principles   air pollutants emitted from these different
sources are as follow:


Carbon compounds – carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide
are the main types of pollutants that are released by the fossil fuels and
burning of petrols, diesels from automobiles

Sulphur compounds – SO2, H2S and sulphuric acid are the
pollutants that are released by fossil fuel and the latter by auto mobile exhaust.

Nitrogen oxides- nitrogen monoxide, nitrogen oxide
are the main compounds that are mostly released by automobiles, power plants
and industries.

Ozone- its level may rise in atmosphere due to human activities.
Ozone in the upper layer of atmosphere is good but is very harmful that when it
is in the lower part of the atmosphere because it can cause many diseases in
human and especially children.

Fluorocarbons-this particles are released from industries,
insecticides, spray, etc. It can cause problems not only in humans but plants as
well and can also pollute the water bodies

Hydrocarbons – these are from industries,
insecticides, spray etc.

Metals- these includes chiefly lead, nickel are present in
atmosphere and air as solid particles or liquid droplets or gases. They are
produced mostly by metallurgical processes, automobiles, sea spray, and etc.







       Air pollution is classified on two bases
as follow:

1.      On the basis of type of pollutants, and

2.      On the basis of types of sources of pollutants.


On the basis of type of pollutants are
further divided into two categories. These are (a) gaseous population and (b)
particulate air pollutants.

On the basis of sources of air pollutions is
sub divided into six categories. The names of the six categories are automobile
pollution, industrial pollution, thermal pollution, urban pollution, rural pollution
and lastly nuclear pollution.


Generally these approaches are used to describe
the air pollution. There is overlapping among various ways used for this








Air pollution
is usually measured taking the sample of air by thermal and by electrostatic,
sonikin,and impactor and collector . The particulate pollution is examined by
the instrument which is called deposit gauge or by Owens dust counters. The thickness of smoke measured by Liegean spheres and fluorides are estimated by colour reactions.






Air pollution causes
several kind of damage to man, animals, plants, and also on weather, climate,
and atmosphere processes.



1.     Air pollution has a very
serious type of pathological effect on man .it can cause several type of
diseases in human.

2.     It also causes obstruction
to vision of pilots and has caused air craft accident.

3.     Air pollution is damaging
both agricultural crops and natural plants and vegetation.

4.     There has also been injury
to agricultural live stock, particularly from air bone fluoride and arsenic

5.     Air pollution also effects
weather and climate on regional, continental and global bases. The global has a
huge loss both environment and health of human as well.

6.      Air pollution also takes it role of building
and other manmade objects such as famous building, monuments and art treasures.

7.     The increased amount of
carbon dioxide in atmosphere cause to increase the temperature of earth. GREEN
HOUSE EFFECT it also tends to prevent the long wave radiation from earth .thus
it has atmospheric effect. The intensity of RADITION will cause skin cancer.

8.     The jet engines of
supersonic aircraft flying at high attitude release nitrogen oxide which
destroys ozone molecules. It has also atmospheric adverse effect it causes
ozone hole.






Air pollution cause a great threat to
environment. Not only humans but animals, birds, plants all are getting
affected. As the aftereffects are slow people are not taking it seriously. It
is becoming irreversible day by day. Air pollution has become a worldwidephenomenon.
Every other individual is are causing air pollution and are also getting
affected by it not only by a local or regional level but by a global level.




At regional level its effects can be
the change in the visibility of air and also the harmful effects caused by it.
Like for example every mornings in winter the visibility decreases due to the Smokey
appearance in the air. The people who call it as a fog is not a fog. It is not
called fog but smog. Burning of petrol’s, diesels from automobiles and smoke
from industries emits lots of harmful particles which are formed due to
incomplete combustion of particles like PM, VOCs, CO and nitrogen oxide (NOx)




are very bad for the health. If they
are present in lower levels then the pollutants are dispersed equally but if in
higher amount the smog gets very concentrated and can

Cause a great deal to human beings.
Generally hot air remains on the top and cool air remains in the bottom so in
summers the hot air rises above so the pollutants also gets cycled but in the
winter season due to the inversion in the air of different stratospheres the
pollutants get concentrated in the bottom and forms smog.




It is very dangerous to breathe in
smog because the particles called “pollutants” enter into the respiratory
system and affect our normal health. Smog contains a particle called ozone. The
elevated amount of ozone can cause a great deal to our health, especially to
our lungs. Also the carbon monoxide present in the atmosphere cause a great
deal to our health. Carbonmonoxide diffuses faster in the haemoglobin than
oxygen due to which the depletion in the transportation of the oxygen in the
cells occurs. The high amount of oxygen can also cause someone’s death. The
effects of the smog in the body include   





Coughing and the infection of throat.
High levels of ozone can irritate the respiratory system which can last for
hours and can also harm our lungs slowly

It can worsen the asthma problems and
can trigger the asthma attacks

Even a normal, healthy and fit human
beings will find it harder to breathe and can detoriate our lungs.

It affects very differently to every
other individual. Like the small children and the senior citizens will get more
affected by this. Therefore the children’s and the senior citizens are advised
to be careful on the smoggy days especially in the morning and wear masks to
prevent the particles enter in our nostrils. Delhi, the place where we are
living right now is facing a huge problems due to this. The air quality index
ranges from 0 to 300 and even the AQI is 150 then it is considered very
unhealthy. The AQI inDelhi is ranging from 200-300 which is very harmful all
the citizens residing in Delhi.

The pollutants present in the air
because of air pollution can cause acute illness and even death of the human
beings and the organisms. Although the process is slow and may take decades to
appear but are very harmful. The first site where it affects in the human body
is the respiratory system.

Bronchitis, emphysema, asthma lung
cancer are some of the diseases that are caused due to air pollution. Some
pollutants in the atmosphere comes in the class of carcinogens (substances which
can cause cancer). The rate is higher in the urban areas.

The effect of pollution made by human
is not only faced by humans but plants animals and the whole atmosphere. The
animals are also facing a bit of similar kind of diseases like human do. The
difference is we have house and the presence of air purifiers these days are
helping us but the animals live in aexplicit environment. So the only option
for them is to live and survive in the explicit environment and face the
consequences of the effects of the harsh environment. Among the metallic
pollutants lead, molybdenum are very harsh. Also fluorosis is caused in animals
due to the fluoride present in the atmosphere.





According to the survey the livestock
in North America is poisoned due to the fluorides, lead etc. the total amount
loos caused by the air pollution in USA is 1 to 2 billion dollars. Sulphur
dioxide is the main cause that is affecting the Poland right now. The cells in
plants gets inactive due to the deposition of plants causing in tissue collapse
and drying of leaves. The most affected plants are cotton, wheat, barley and

We all know these terms “GREEN HOUSE
EFFECT”, “OZONE LAYER”. Air pollution also has a equal hand in these problems.
As the carbon dioxide is increasing the temperature is rising which is causing
greenhouse effect, ozone layer depletion, melting of ice which is causing an
extinction of many animals and also causing skin cancer in humans.

We all know about TAJMAHAL. The
smoke, grit, dust and oxides in the air are causing air to change the colour of
Tajmahal. It was started in 1972 when an oil refinery was opened near Agra
which became a major issue. Sulphur dioxide is one of the main reasons why the
marbles are getting oxidised causing of changing the colour of Tajmahal.

If we talk about pollutants, the
different pollutants that is causing the threat to health effects in human are

Sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide,
particulate matter, carbon monoxide, ozone, benzene, lead etc.


The oxides of nitrogen is very
harmful which can enter in the respiratory system through breathing. If the
oxides go into the body in higher amount then it may increase the
susceptibility of the pathogen which are related to respiration. It can also
cause the risk of diseases like bronchitis, emphysema, cystic fibrosis, and
bronchopneumonia and also decrease in the lung functions. It was observed that

exposure on NO2 as low as 0.1ppm can
cause this diseases and also respiratory diseases in children







As it has been discussed earlier that
carbon monoxide diffuses faster than oxygen. Therefore instead of oxygen blood
will take up the carbon monoxide to form carboxy haemoglobin. The affinity of carbon
monoxide in haemoglobin is 240 times than oxygen. Therefore cells will be
getting carbon monoxide instead of oxygen and may cause the death of the human
beings. It also affects the lung tissue and may affect the functions of lungs.
The effects may be also seen in the heart and it can increase the risk of a
person of getting heart attack due to insufficient oxygen to all cells.
Diseases also include atherosclerosis, hypertension etc.

The infants and the children are also
affected by it. Decrease in birth weight, delay in the mental development and
poisoning in kindey, bone immune capacity are some of the effects seen in the
infants and the children



Ozone is present bin the upper layer
of the atmosphere and is helping usby protecting us the harmful UV rays of the
sun. if the ozone reaches in the lower atmosphere and in a greater amount then
it may cause various health effects

The first effects that can be seen by
elevated ozone are eye, chest discomfort, headache, cough, throat irritation

Ozone being a respiratory irritant
reacts rapidly with tissues lining of the airway of the lungs. If an individual
is exposed in higher amount of ozone even for 3-4 hours it can cause lung
inflammation and may cause acute chronic health effects had also susceptibility
to pulmonary bacterial infections can cause to pulmonary bacterial
infections. It may also effect immune system







Once Maggi
from the nestlecompany has been banned due to the presence of lead in higher
amount. It has been found that the lead has very bad effects on the human
brain. It is how bad the lead is for the human beings. Lead is that kind of
poison which not om=only effects the brain and the respiratory system but it
can also damage the kidneys, the reproductive system, the nervous system, and
can also cause high blood pressure. Children are more prone to the effects
caused by the lean because lead is diffused in the children’s body faster than
adults.  In children the symptoms include
lack of intelligence, behavioural problems, decrease ability to concentrate and
learning effects of the children because it directly effects the brain. If the
level of the lead is very high then the person can also go to coma and death

Lead is also
harmful for the women because lead is stored in the bones for a very long time
and can release when the body needs calcium. So for the pregnant women in can
be fatal to the infant because it can cause the barrier of the placanta and can
cause harm to the infants growth.



Benzene is
known to increase the carcinogenicity and also the risk in human because of the
ambient air. According to various studies scientists have found the link of
benzene in chromosomal aberration, genetic change etc. benzene is also
classified as carcinogenic according to IARC (International Agency for Research
on Cancer). It is been linked to increase the frequency of cancer in human.

Exposure of
this substance benzene in high level is linked to cause cancer in kidneys,
testis, stomach, pancreas, and respiratory tract bladder and also uterus.
Prolong exposure of benzene even in the high amount is linked to irregular heartbeat,
headache, nausea, dizziness, unconsciousness and difficulty in sleeping which
can cause stress in human being.

The benzene
also acts as leukaemogen in human beings acting as an etiologic agent leading
to acute myelogenous leukaemia







particulate matter can even cause external effects like effects direct on the
skin like the blackening ion the skin surface. However particulate matter
having a very very small size can enter inside the human body and any become a
systemic poison. However the effects are dependent on the size of the
particles, solubility of the particles, the penetration time of the particles,
the deposition etc.

Very very
fine particulate matter can cause irritation of the bronchospasm, pulmonary oedema,
allergies and the particulate matter in higher quantity can cause lung disease.
The acute effect f the particulate matter may cause the running of the nose,
dry cough, wet cough, head cold, hay fever, fever, burning of red eyes



chronically effects of the sulphur dioxide in the human include cough,
headache, shortness of breath, bronchitis, cold and fatigue. Most of the SO2 in
the atmosphere is converted to sulphate salts, which are removed by
sedimentation or by washout along with precipitation thereby making rain water
acidic due to sulphuric acid formation and causing the effect to human health








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