IntroductionSocial learning theory In this essayI am going to consider the social learning theory, which stresses theenvironments role in development.
Banduras social learning theory stateschildren learn through observation, imitation and modeling, which showschildren pay attention and try to imitate others (Mcleod 2011). He believed inreciprocal determinism, which states person’s behavior, both influences and isinfluenced by the social environment and personal factors. Albert Bandurasuggested that learning through others provided the basis for behaviors likeaggression and altruism. Children learn better when observing those of the samegender (Furumi and Koyasu, 2013) He combinedaspects of cognitive and behavioral learning; the social learning theoryincorporates the idea of behaviour reinforcement from society’s reward systemand 4 cognitive processes for social learning. It also describes how childrengo through different stages, which can be affected by their intellectualability to perceive different things (Hammond, 2013). Also children areconstantly contrasting and learning other children and their models which showsthat social interaction is vital in child development (Sincero, 2011).
The development of childrenThe theoryconsiders social context and society as great contributors in the learningprocess and development of a child. It tells us children are influenced byreward and punishment in society and they model their behaviours accordingly. Achild doesn’t repeat Behaviour immediately but first observe the consequencesfor the behaviour this is vicarious reinforcement. If an observation isregularly rewarded then the same behaviour is likely to continue whereas if itspunished its less likely to be repeated. This is show in Albert Bandurasexperiment, children were watched when they observed adults attacking dolls.Additionally children imitated the aggressive Behaviour of the adults andattacked the doll.
However, when the aggressively adults were punished then thechildren were less likely to imitate the aggressive Behaviour; thus undesirableBehaviour should be punished so other children do not learn it (Mcleod, 2011).However, negative Behaviour can still appeal to a child if it’s positivelyreinforced. Areas ofchild development Cognitivedevelopment consists of explanations a to why the mind operates the way itdoes. The Cognitive theory describes how children go through different stages,which can be affected by their intellectual ability to perceive differentthings (Hammond, 2013). The theory can also be applied to encouraging studentsto develop their self-efficacy through constructive feedback and confidencebuilding, which shows behaviour and social ability, is determined through dailyactivities and interactions with the models in the environment they are in.
Therefore, interactions of the child in their environment can improve theirsocial skills. For instance a child who has a aggressive parent may make thechild unintentionally aggressive as that show they learn therefore parentsshould be conscientious when dealing with children (Burdick, 2014).Different perspective Behaviourismfocuses on how a person’s environment bring about changes in their behaviour,they view the new-born as a “blank slate and we learn everything from oursurroundings. This argument places responsibility of the bad behavior to thefailure of parenting. Behaviourism focuses on the “relationships betweenobservable events” (Ormrod, 2014, p. 266).
People are more likely to learnbehaviours if they think it will elicit a particular response. Skinner made aSkinner’s Box. It was an operant conditioning chamber.
He would place ratsinside the box. There would be switches inside the box, whenever the animalstouched a specific one, food would dispense. Some of the boxes would giveelectric shocks; this changed the frequency of responses, which showed peoplesBehaviour can be modified by reinforcement. There was not enough biologicalknowledge known about the brain this theory use the Behaviour of an animal asevidence to demonstrate what was happening in the brain.However,Bandura refuted the behaviourist approach as it ignored emotional feeling orconscious thinking in his explanation. Social interaction can also compelchildren to develop concepts that later guide their actions. However byobserving the consequences of actions they can change their concepts and actdifferently.
Therefore, the individual’s ideas about the stimulus, not thestimulus itself, control the Behaviour. Reflect on factorsThe cognitiveprocesses link to the environment of children in school as children are moremotivated to pay attention if there are other around them paying attention. Theenvironment at home can also influence children for instance being raised inpoverty can have a big influence on children some children think beyond thisand become successful whereas some children continue living their lives inpoverty.
They may be materially deprived and be able to afford a nutritionaldiet so lack concentration and be unable to imitate behaviour. Behaviouralinheritance is refers to the “patterns of behaviour that are passed on fromgeneration to generation” (Shweder et al 2006, p. 719). Therefore childrenraised in different environment look at the world with different perspectives Relevance to child developmentChildren awareof the social learning theory may be able to fix behavioral conflicts such asbullying, substance or drug abuse and poor achievement. Behaviour modificationtechniques are used today especially for undesirable Behaviour and it impactseducational practices.
Stress management, can be used to show consolidated canstill be changed through positive or negative reinforcement learned from thesocial learning theory and by getting the root cause of the behavior (Burdick,2014). This helps to prepare the individual for a new problem as they applytheir existing knowledge through the social learning theory. The theory isrelevant to child development as it impacts the adults working with thechildren. Adults provide a role model to children, and they influence theirbehaviour.
For example if a child has an adult smokes then the child may learnhis behaviour. The intrigued child wants know what the positive consequences ofsmoking are. Impact on adults working with childrenIf a child does a negative behaviour then it must berectified by being negatively reinforced immediately, which prevents them fromdoing this in the future. To increase behaviour management in a classroom, abehaviourist would say to increase the amount of feedback that is being given.When a student behaves a certain way, giving them feedback will aid them inlearning and understanding appropriate ways of conducting themselves.
Feedbackalso involves punishment, such as scolding and time outs (Ormrod, 2014). Socialcognitive theory also incorporates many ideas from like reinforcement andpunishment. Cognitive development In this paperI am going to discuss the cognitive perspective which primarily concentrates,on how children perceive and solve problems. The cognitiveperspective says the structure of the memory results in how children process,store, perceive and retrieve information learned from the environment. Thus forchildren to learn there must be motivation (Tucker & Harden, 2014).Cognitive development can be explained by acquisition construction and gradualchange in thought processes such as decision making that occurs from childhoodto adulthood (in Smith, P.K.
, Cowie, H & Blades, M. 2003).Environmentaldifferences can explain the increasing difference in cognitive outcomes aschildren age (Carlson and Wiedl, 2013). Cognitive development explains theconstruction of thought processes, including problem solving, remembering anddecision-making. It also refers to how a person perceives and gainsunderstanding of their world through genetic and learned factors. It wasthought that infants lacked the ability to form complex ideas and didn’t havecognition until they learned language.
Now it’s a known that babies are awareof their surroundings and interested in exploration. From birth, babies beginlearning. They gather and process information that’s around. The development of childrenThe theorystates child development may be influenced by social interactions withdifferent parenting behavior for maximum cognitive abilities. This suggeststhat in order for a child to develop high cognitive abilities the environmentto which matters a lot (Ojose, 2008. Piaget came up with four stages ofdevelopment that reflect the child’s change in understanding and learning aboutthe world and describes the nature of knowledge and how children construct,acquire and use the knowledge. Although He envisioned a child’s knowledge ascomposed of schemas, basic units of knowledge used to organize past experiencesand serve as a basis for understanding new ones.
A schema is a set of linkedmental processes, which we use both to understand and respond to situations.Accommodation and assimilation refers to the process of retaining newinformation by incorporating it to an existing schema. Accommodation is whenthe schema changes according to new knowledge. Piaget says cognitivedevelopment is the ongoing process of trying to achieve a balance betweenassimilation and accommodation that is equilibration.
Child development relevancePiaget theoryis relevant to the cognitive theory, which shows how children go throughdifferent stages that can be affected by their intellectual ability torecognise different things (Hammond, 2013). He concluded that if the child gavethe wrong answer then that indicated their thinking process was different butit doesn’t mean their intellectual abilities were lower. Different perspective Lev Vygotskydescribes the zone of proximal development, which is the ideal level of adultassistance that a child requires to learn a new skill.
Like Piaget, Vygotskystressed the importance of play in learning new cognitive skills and believedthat play improves social development. Play becomes the vehicle in whichchildren learn and internalise social rules, that develops their relationshipswith others (Vygotsky, 1978). Piaget’stheory states a child requires information as he develops however Vygotsky’stheory indicates that children need social cues from the adults in order todevelop. . Vygotsky’s theory suggests three ways in which learning is passedalong to an individual. Firstly Imitative learning is where the child copiesanother person. Secondly instructed learning is where a child recallsdirections from a teacher and then reproduces it.
Thirdly collaborativelearning occurs when a peer group cooperates to achieve a specific goal whileworking to understand and learn from one another. However acriticism is Vygotsky’s socio-cultural theory doesn’t apply to all cultural andsocial groups. Some social groups may be unable to grasp the same meaning fromteaching thus they are not on a equal level with other learner. Alsoparticipation may vary from one learner to another hence the inequality foreach learner. Also there are differences in the difficulty of work set whichmakes learning constraints.
Learners with learning disabilities or difficultiesmight not gain the same meaning from group interactions compared to thoselearners without learning disabilities or learning difficulties (Lui &Matthews, 2005, p. 392). Reflect on factorsVygotsky’sbelieves social interaction not only leads to increased levels of knowledge butalso actually changes a child’s behaviors and thoughts. Social exposure tovarious cultures expands a child’s knowledge. The more experiences the childhas, the richer their cultural capital becomes.
Developmental advancements aredependent upon the people and the cultural tools provided for children thathelp them to form their perceptions of the world. Also adults act as skilledtutors and representatives for the culture, they may assist the child insolving problems. Therefore participation in cultural and social activitiesfacilitates the development of cognitive and social abilities (Rogoff, 2003).Whereas children who less readily participate in potentially challenginginteractions may have low levels of social initiative (Asendorf, 1990) relevance to child development?This theoryis relevant to child development as schools transmit information to students.
In contrast, Vygotsky’s theory promotes active learning. Thus teachers shouldcollaborate with the students to help facilitate meaning construction instudents. Learning becomes a reciprocal experience for the students andteacher.
Parents canaffect development by integrating stimulating learning materials in theenvironment at an early age for exploration (Yilmaz, 2011). Parents can supportor challenge the development of the child although a supportive environment,which may be an advantage to the child primarily at an early, and not a lateage so parents have a greater role in child development (Woodward, 1982). Impact onadults working with childrenParents playa great role in the learning development, for example a nationwide study by thecentre for longitudinal studies (2007) found that by the age of three, childrenfrom disadvantaged backgrounds are already up to one year behind. Parents witha higher cultural capital are able to help their child to grasp and expressabstract ideas. Piagetsuggests children learn most effectively when given opportunities to explorethrough ‘discovery learning’ (Hansen, 2012 p.59).
This theory is based on theidea that by applying past experience and existing knowledge allows children tolearn through exploration of their surroundings. He believed the role of adultssuch as teachers working with children is to provide a stimulating environmentfor learning with various challenging activities as opposed to an adult ledlearning environment.